Научная статья на тему 'Intercultural learning and methodical — didactical aspect'

Intercultural learning and methodical — didactical aspect Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Ключевые слова
intercultural / learning / didactics / foreign language

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Janku Marisa

the article will address the didactical and methodical part of the intercultural process of teaching and learning foreign languages. Some of the criteria to be considered for an intercultural learning of a foreign language, based mainly on the German language will be briefly presented.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Intercultural learning and methodical — didactical aspect»

Intercultural learning and methodical — didactical aspect

Section 15. Philology and linguistics

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20534/ESR-17-1.2-257-259

Janku Marisa, University of Tirana, Lecturer, PhD student, the Faculty of Foreign Languages E-mail: jankumarisa@outlook.com

Intercultural learning and methodical — didactical aspect

Abstract: the article will address the didactical and methodical part of the intercultural process of teaching and learning foreign languages. Some of the criteria to be considered for an intercultural learning of a foreign language, based mainly on the German language will be briefly presented.

Keywords: intercultural, learning, didactics, foreign language.

The "intercultural learning" concept, as well as other concepts related to it, had their development in the early 80s. Since then, intercultural learning, would be no more a new concept in the literature ofpedagogic field. However, it should be noted that so far, it doesn't exist a clear definition of this concept and accepted by all. As a result, they have developed different theoretical approaches regarding intercultural learning [1, 23]. To approach as close as to learning principled orientation, but also to the needs of students, the lore of the country began to take more and more important in foreign language learning, in the center of which is the culture that students intend to take, as well as what they possess, and that serves as a starting point. In this regard, it was important to strengthen not only communication skills of the students, but also their intercultural one [2, 141]. Therefore, it can be said that "intercultural learning" is understood as a process that aims to achieve intercultural competence.

In discussions about the didactics of foreign languages, intercultural learning is closely related to the learning of foreign languages. It is taken as a necessary part of learning a foreign language, because learning a foreign language in itself is intercultural, and this in all its dimensions [3, 91]. In this way, intercultural learning should be included in the foreign language learning. However, on the other hand, foreign language teaching includes elements that are not related to intercultural learning. Another discussion point that intercultural learning, cannot be seen as an integral part of foreign language learning, since learning a foreign language is understood by itself as a process of intercultural learning. During the learning of a foreign language, anyone simultaneously is learning a foreign culture. From this viewpoint, intercultural learning of a foreign language needs to develop skills and strategies related to foreign cultures. It is therefore necessary that the learning of a foreign language has an intercultural orientation in preparing the lesson [4, 34].

Intercultural learning is a learning process between two individuals of different cultures within the intercultural communication. In didactic terms, this means, mainly that, the students of the respective culture to be more aware and to gain more knowledge about foreign culture.

Intercultural learning is successful only when a mutual intercultural relation is established. On one hand, this includes knowledge of foreign cultural standards and on the other hand, it includes the ability to perceive value and behaviors, to think and judge as the bearer of another culture. But it includes also our emotions and feelings that appear in foreign cultural situations. There are many definitions

of the „intercultural learning"concept, but also enough attempt to better explain it. „Intercultural learning" is closely related to many other concepts such as „intercultural competence", „cross-cultural misunderstandings" and „intercultural communication".

To emphasize the importance of intercultural learning in foreign language teaching is an important aspect of education policy. This comes in the context of rapidly changing of social structures toward multicultural societies, bringing new tasks and objectives to solve the current inadequate educational system. Crossing the boundary and contacting with members of another culture makes the language to play a decisive role. However, it should not be understood as an instrument of transmission of information — unfortunately continues to be treated so even nowadays — but as one of the policy instruments, most relevant to the present, which paves the way for access to an intercultural understanding and cross-cultural harmony. Given that such intercultural meetings do not always result in positive, sometimes there are undesirable cases that occur by non properly recognizing the norms, values, actions or behavior and communication styles of foreign culture [5, 54].

A prerequisite for intercultural learning is to meet with other cultures, so foreign cultures. In the past, such typical meetings were realized by going in the foreign country, in the form of cultural exchanges, for study or partnership meetings. The real challenge is nowadays, since the meeting between cultures is displaced more and more in our society, almost in daily life. Therefore, intercultural learning relates to the challenges within the society, as well as with the country's national challenges.

The civilization and intercultural learning are actually two concepts closely related among them [6, 45]. In recent years, there has been a growing involvement of intercultural learning in the concept of civilization. "The discussion about the "Intercultural" concept, is newer in time, and discussion of knowledge about the civilization in learning German as a foreign language, is as early as even the learning of modern foreign languages" [2, 141]. But according to Rottger [7, 18], it is not yet clear whether the concept of the civilization should be equated to intercultural learning, as many authors emphasize the differences between these concepts. According to them, civilization means acquisitions of the knowledge based on facts, and obtaining information on foreign cultures. The importance of intercultural learning begins precisely with discussions on the role of the civilization in foreign language learning.

Section 15. Philology and linguistics

However, we think that the recognition of the civilization is not completely the same with intercultural learning. This is because „the knowledge about civilization involvement in intercultural learning has to do with the fact that the emotional aspects of communication between members of different cultures have always been at the center of didactics research" [7, 18]. Unlike the civilization, in intercultural learning it is a mutual connection between two or more persons. Another reason why intercultural learning/teaching exceeds the concept of civilization is that intercultural learning includes also the acquisition of intercultural communicative competence. It can be said that these skills in contact with foreign culture help to develop the perception and sensitivity to these cultures [6, 45].

Learning a foreign language is seen as an intercultural process. However, it must be said that an approach of intercultural concepts to the foreign language didactics has raised attention later. Intercultural approach, which had its developments from the 80s communicative approach, aims to recognize the culture and „foreign" concept [8, 13]. With the introduction of intercultural approach, the "unrealistic" notion of "native speaker" was replaced by another notion "intercultural speaker" [9]. In this regard, we should consider the rules, values, perceptions of foreign culture, attitudes towards it, in order to say the right notion in certain situations, so not to break any taboo and understand others appropriately [3, 91]. Intercultural approach to foreign language didactics is understood since the second half of the 80s as the further development of pragmatic and functional concepts in the design of didactic and methodical drafts of learning German as a foreign language. The foregoing, any foreign language learning is in itself an intercultural learning process [4, 34].

The discussion on intercultural learning and intercultural communication in particular, as well as the concept of intercultural didactic of learning a foreign language, began to receive proper attention only in the early 90s [10, 157]. Interculturalism can be conveyed in the teaching of foreign languages by listening, reading texts, music, etc. If we refer to discussions that have been made about interculturalism in didactics of foreign languages, it can be said that intercultural aspect provides a little bit, awareness to understand other people. De Florio Hansen share the opinion that „learning a foreign language has for duty to enable the students' knowledge of the foreign culture and to create conditions for mutual understanding between members of different cultures" [11, 403-410]. However, it should be noted that the intercultural concept in teaching a foreign language is based on student perspective. This has to do with personal and cultural life experiences or even with general knowledge, learning traditions, the relationship between the first and second culture [12, 105].

From the above, it is clear that the culture that belongs to a language, should be passed through intercultural approaches in the teaching of foreign languages. For this reason, intercultural approach plays an important role to be closer to this new „world". The learning of the German language as a foreign language, based on intercultural

concept should include the didactic concept of avoiding potential risks that may arise during the confrontation of both worlds. By continually comparing these „worlds" and discussing about the intercultural concept, some aspects that students can look quite attractive and interesting come out, but also other, that can be completely unknowable to them. According to the Institute of the Curricula Development, often arises the need that the didactics of foreign languages should contain a special combination of techniques, as well as a variety of teaching methods and materials to be selected in the process of teaching and learning [13].

It is very necessary that, for the mediation and intercultural knowledge transmission, which enables the acquisition of intercultural competences by students, to use comparative methods, that highlight the changes, but also include personal experiences. The same opinion is also shared by Kastrati-Hyso [14, 101], that speaks for the approach of a comparative pedagogy between the native language A and foreign language B. This enables the students establish relationships of similarity and differences between the two cultures. Intercultural competence cannot be shown and described to the students, and moreover to be given as "homework". But if it becomes part of classes, each teacher can create a friendly atmosphere in the classroom, which would help the students to be open, encouraging collaborative learning. „As long as intercultural learning is understood as such, unless it can be taken over for inclusion in a catalog of learning objectives, namely to draw from intercultural learning a subject or to collect a range of knowledge and specific skills, the notion of intercultural learning can serve in multiple learning and mediating contexts" [3, 91]. The most important in this regard is the variety of didactic methods and instruments that need to be carefully selected and used by teachers in the organization of the lesson and to create intercultural learning environments.


Intercultural learning is a very important process in foreign language didactics. When we talk about the didactic aspect, undoubtedly we mean also the methodical side, so the methods used for the transmission of intercultural concepts. In the above, it was presented and analyzed a general view of the term "intercultural learning", why it is needed and for what it serves. Even in the field of intercultural learning there are different definitions, which differ very little from each other. Through various arguments, it was showed, that intercultural learning can be understood as a process aimed at achieving intercultural competence. An important part of the paper, was the analysis of the methodical and didactic aspects of intercultural learning. What further is aimed, is the presentation of the necessary methods for mediation and transmission of intercultural elements, for the way of organizing the lesson and promoting intercultural learning. It was emphasized the selection of materials that represent as closely the reality, those that are much more varied and friendly to students.


1. Xuemei Y. Intercultural orientation in language teaching methods of the German language as a foreign language in China. An analysis regarding the content, - Berlin, - 2003. - P. 23 (in German).

2. Burkhard A., Fandler D. Interculturalism and learning independently - new trends in foreign language didactics, Aachen, - 2008. - P. 141 (in German).

3. Bredella L., Delanoy W. Intercultural learning of foreign languages. Tübingen, - 1999. - P. 91 (in German).

4. Bausch K. R., Christ H., & Krumm H. J. Intercultural learning in foreign language teaching. Publications of the 14th conference on research in the teaching of foreign languages. Giessen, - 1994. - P. 34 (in German).

5. Neckel S. Theoretical models of sociological thought, Volume on the sociology, Frankfurt, - 2010. - P. 54 (in German).

6. Biechele M., Padrós A. Didactics of foreign languages. The volume of distance learning no. - 31. München, - 2003. - P. 45 (in German).

Quranic influence on Baytajean poetic language

7. Rottger E. Intercultural learning of foreign languages. The case of the German language as a foreign language in Greece, Hamburg -2004. - P 18 (in German).

8. Maijala M. Between the Worlds - Reflections on intercultural aspects in teaching German as a foreign language and in teaching methods. In: Journal of intercultural learning of foreign - languages 13, - 2014) retrieved from URL: http://zif.spz.tu-darmstadt.de/jg-13-1/docs/Feist1.pdf.

9. Byram M. Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, - Print. - 1997.

10. Neuner G., Biechele M., & Padros A. Didactics of civilization, The volume of distance learning no. - 31, München, - 1994. - P. 157 (in German).

11. De Florio H. I. The ability of intercultural communication through literature, Teaching practice in foreign - languages 4, - 1995. - P. 403-410 9 (in German).

12. Casper H. H. Teaching concepts and cultural studies in the field of intercultural German/german as a foreign language, Annual volume -German as a foreign - language. 32, - 2006. - P. 105 ( in German).

13. Institute of Educational Development; Curriculum guide, April - 2016, - Tirana, retreived from URL: http://www.izha.edu.al (in Albanian)

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20534/ESR-17-1.2-259-260

Mustafi Muhamed, PhD in Philology As. Prof. of Arabic Language Faculty of Islamic Sciences, Skopje, Macedonia Email: meti@t.mk

Quranic influence on Baytajean poetic language

Abstract: We should not be surprised if we see that the Holy Book Quran is inspiring even for literary and poets as it is for people of Sharia, Philosophy, Apologetics and other fields that existed in the history of Muslims, no matter which nation they belong.

Baytajean poets' period of time experienced a remarkable influence of the Middle East, either directly from the Quran or from known literary and poets.

This group of poets have confirmed that the Holy Book of Quran cannot be only a Book of religious teachings but also of poetic inspiration, and for this reason, we clearly see in their poems words and stories taken from the verses of Qur'an, which have enriched their poetic language and literary expressions, and this influence assures their specific poetic nature. Keywords: Quran, Baytaje, influence, language, poetry.

Poets have no limits in their inspirations and they usually take impressions from anything that can be a part of their poetic creativity. They are under the influence of everything that is around them, especially when they are under the influence of reciting the God's word. "The Quran has always been admired for its restrained and grace of style, its eloquence and refinement. Its sapid prose and lapidary style are instantly recognized as ingredients of its sublime charm" [1, P. 122]. The poets of all periods during the Islamic History, "looked upon the Quran as a source of poetic inspiration, derived and borrowed from it many of their ideas, images and phrases, and based on it their political and religious arguments." [2, P. 327].

Viewed from side, the Holy Qur'an, by itself gives the impression of a rhyming prose, while its last quarter, more resembles poetry thought it is not a poetry. The rhyming vibrant, except that figured sounds, targets any content and defines the dimensions of emotional, symbolic and aesthetic meanings [3, P. 111].

Among the stylistic figures in the Qur'an, except personification, allegory and comparison, there are quite tropes such as metaphor, irony, repetition... And also, the antithesis, epithet, allusion and symbols occupy the prominent place, too [3, P. 112].

There is no doubt that the outlined and mentioned topics have impacted on Albanian Baytajes. Same religious themes of knowledge, enlightenment, ethics, moralizing, social and historical narrations will be treated by the baytajean Albanian poet Muham-

mad Ky^yku — Qami, as in "Risala-i Bergjevi", "Erveheja", "Gur-betlite", "Bekriu" "Yusufi e Zulejhaja" etc.

Furthermore, Muhammad Ky^yku — Qami, as I have mentioned here in this article, does not hesitate at all to accept by himself that he has found the meaning of his poetic topics and words in the Holy Qur'an:

All these highlighted words, I saw them written in the Book [4, 136].

Indeed, we find it difficult to access and mention all Baytajes that, either directly or indirectly, were affected by the Holy Book Quran, because they are many.

But, according to the old Arabian saying: "What is not reached all, cannot entirely be left", I will try, in the following, to present some Baytajes that Quran was their source of inspiration.

Zenel Bastari was strongly affected by the Qur'an, and after accusations that were made by men of Tirana and led by clerics, that he has deviated from the path of faith, he was calm to answer on these unfounded charges by saying these words: I trust in the perfect man My direction is to Qibla and Quran, I am lookingforward to,

My brother, I need to find a (honest) man [5, P. 76].

Sheikh Ahmad, in his poem "Mire se erdhe shpirti revam" — (Welcome to the honest soul), says:

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