Научная статья на тему 'Institutionalization of innovative political leaders as modern elite'

Institutionalization of innovative political leaders as modern elite Текст научной статьи по специальности «Психология»

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ЛИДЕР / ИННОВАЦИОННОЕ ЛИДЕРСТВО / ЭЛИТА / ИМИДЖ / ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ УПРАВЛЕНИЕ / ЛіДЕР / іННОВАЦіЙНЕ ЛіДЕРСТВО / ЕЛіТА / іМіДЖ / ДЕРЖАВНЕ УПРАВЛіННЯ / LEADER / INNOVATIVE LEADERSHIP / ELITE / IMAGE / PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

Аннотация научной статьи по психологии, автор научной работы — Shyhnenko Dmytro Viktorovych

In this article is considered the conceptual basis of innovative institutionalization of political leadership and the leaders themselves submitted as modern elite. It emphasizes the innovative leader by nature, on the one hand, is part of the social system, on the other hand, is actually above it. The leader of this type, changes the social landscape and the world around him to achieve the public interest.Studies of the innovative role of political leaders in social development are closely related to comparing them with the new political elite formation. In this context, theoretical approaches are analyzed and synthesized to understand the essential characteristics and social significance of the elite.The mechanism of identification of innovative political leader is being disclosed. Regarding the diversity of approaches of domestic political leaders to form their own image, in the study, there are three main areas: traditional, hyper modernistic, and the method of optimal cooperation. For innovative leader as a representative of the political elite, the public attitude to his image is one of themain targets, because it is sufficiently important having no gray areas and “white spots” in shaping his politic image, which can subsequently be a subject to manipulation by political opponents.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Institutionalization of innovative political leaders as modern elite»

UDC: 323.3

Dmytro Viktorovych Shyhnenko,

graduate student of the Department of public policy and social development, National Academy of Public Administration under the President of Ukraine, 03057, Kyiv, Str. Ezhen Potie, 20, tel. (097) 954 13 02, e-mail: Shihnenkodv@gmail.com

ORCID: 0000-0001-7575-6193

Шихненко Дмитро Вжторович,

асшрант кафедри державног полтики та сусшльного розвитку, Нащональна академия державного управлтня при Президен-товi Украгни, 03057, м. Кигв, вул. Ежена Потье, 20, тел. (097) 954 13 02, e-mail: Shihnenkodv@gmail.com

ORCID: 0000-0001-7575-6193

Шихненко Дмитрий Викторович,

аспирант кафедры государственной политики и общественного развития, Национальная академия государственного управления при Президенте Украины, 03057, г. Киев, ул. Эжена Потье, 20, тел. (097) 954 13 02, e-mail: Shihnenkodv@gmail.com

ORCID: 0000-0001-7575-6193

iNSTiTUTiONALiZATiON OF iNNOVATiVE POLiTiCAL LEADERS AS MODERN ELiTE

Abstract. In this article is considered the conceptual basis of innovative institutionalization of political leadership and the leaders themselves submitted as modern elite. It emphasizes the innovative leader by nature, on the one hand, is part of the social system, on the other hand, is actually above it. The leader of this type, changes the social landscape and the world around him to achieve the public interest.

Studies of the innovative role of political leaders in social development are closely related to comparing them with the new political elite formation. In this context, theoretical approaches are analyzed and synthesized to understand the essential characteristics and social significance of the elite.

The mechanism of identification of innovative political leader is being disclosed. Regarding the diversity of approaches of domestic political leaders to form their own image, in the study, there are three main areas: traditional, hyper modernistic, and the method of optimal cooperation. For innovative leader as a representative of the political elite, the public attitude to his image is one of the

main targets, because it is sufficiently important having no gray areas and "white spots" in shaping his politic image, which can subsequently be a subject to manipulation by political opponents.

Keywords: leader, innovative leadership, elite, image, public administration.

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ШСТИТУЩОНАЛ1ЗАЩЯ 1ННОВАЦ1ЙНИХ ПОЛ1ТИЧНИХ Л1ДЕР1В ЯК СУЧАСНО1 ЕЛ1ТИ

Анотащя. У статт розглядаються концептуальш основи шститущона-лiзaщ! iнновацiйного поличного лiдерства, а caMi лiдери представлеш як сучасна елiтa. Акцентуеться на тому, що iнновaцiйний лiдер за своею природою, з одного боку, е складовою сустльно! системи, а з шшого, знаходить-ся фактично над нею. Лвдер такого типу змшюе cоцiaльний ландшафт i cвiт навколо себе для досягнення штереав усього cуcпiльcтвa.

Доcлiдження ролi iнновaцiйних полiтичних лiдерiв у сусшльному посту-пi тicно пов'язане зi cпiвcтaвленням !х з полiтичною ел^ою ново! формаци. У цьому контекст aнaлiзуютьcя та синтезуються теоретичнi шдходи до ро-зумiння cутнicних характеристик та сусшльного значення елiти.

Розкриваеться мехашзм щентифшаци iнновaцiйного полiтичного лщера. Вiдноcно розма!ття пiдходiв вiтчизняних пол^ичних лiдерiв до формуван-ня власного iмiджу, у рамках доcлiдження видшяються три оcновнi напря-ми: традицшний, гiпермодернicтcький та метод оптимально! сшвпращ. Для iнновaцiйного лiдерa як представника пол^ично! елiти ставлення громад-ськост до його образу е одним iз визначальних орiентирiв, тому достатньо важливою е вiдcутнicть ciрих зон i "бших плям" при формуванш iмiджу по-лiтикa, якi можуть у подальшому стати предметом для маншуляцш з боку полiтичних опоненпв.

Ключовi слова: лiдер, iнновaцiйне лвдерство, елiтa, iмiдж, державне упрaвлiння.

ИНСТИТУЦИОНАЛИЗАЦИЯ ИННОВАЦИОННЫХ ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИХ ЛИДЕРОВ В КАЧЕСТВЕ СОВРЕМЕННОЙ ЭЛИТЫ

Аннотация. В статье рассматриваются концептуальные основы инсти-туционализации инновационного политического лидерства, а сами лидеры представлены в качестве современной элиты. Акцентируется на том, что инновационный лидер по своей природе, с одной стороны, есть составляющей частью общественной системы, а с другой — находится фактически над ней. Лидер такого типа меняет социальный ландшафт и мир вокруг себя для достижения интересов всего общества.

Исследование роли инновационных политических лидеров общественного развития тесно связано с сопоставлением их с политической элитой новой формации. В данном контексте, анализируются и синтезируются теоретические подходы к пониманию сущностных характеристик и общественного значения элиты.

Раскрывается механизм идентификации инновационного политического лидера. Относительно разнообразия подходов отечественных политических лидеров к формированию собственного имиджа, в рамках исследования выделяются три основных направления: традиционное, гипермодернистское и метод оптимального сотрудничества. Для инновационного лидера как представителя политической элиты отношение общественности к его образу есть одним из основных ориентиров, поэтому достаточно важно отсутствие серых зон и "белых пятен" при формировании имиджа политика, которые могут в дальнейшем стать предметом для манипуляций со стороны политических оппонентов.

Ключевые слова: лидер, инновационное лидерство, элита, имидж, государственное управление.

Target setting. Global unfavorable trends of the period of the beginning of XXI century, the inability of the modern system of international law to respond quickly to challenges of our time, an urgent need to protect the population of all without exception countries against new threats, starkly put before the international community the problem of need for collective action to maintain peace and demand political leaders be responsible for the implementation and realization of national interests of their countries. In our study, we plan to introduce innovative political leaders as the true elite that meets the social needs of present and is able to implement will, the real needs and interests of the civil society.

Analysis of the recent research and publications. In the study, when considering the role and importance of the political elite in the period of social transformations were used system, structural and functional conception of the power, back to the works of Plato [9], which represented the power as a

property of the social system, associated with maintaining its integrity and ensuring the functional interdependence of all social institutions.

In a historical context, understanding the political leadership evolved from antiquity, where phenomenon of leadership was discovered and outlined — starting condition for the constitution of which was that in a community appeared strong personality, capable of managing the masses — up to the theoretical interpretation in the works of M. Weber [1; 2], T. Car-lyle [3], N. Machiavelli [7] and other researchers, who began to interprete leadership as a socio-historically conditioned human need in organization of his activities.

An important role in the study of the nature of leadership as an integrated personality characteristics were theoretical ideas of S. Freud [10] and K. Horney [11], and in the presentation of image of the innovation political leader as a representative of the social elite — domestic scientist V. M. Kozakov [4].

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The purpose of the article is a theoretical comprehension of institutionalization of the innovative leaders as modern elite. To achieve this goal, the following problems are consistently solving: investigationg the major historical phases of theoretical concepts appeal to elite; revealing the key features of the innovative political leader as a representative of the civil society in the political elite; the image of the political leader is grounded in a comprehensive integrity and presented his main characteristics.

The statement of basic materials. The difficult socio-political situation, which is in Ukrainian society since the late XX century, requires professional, responsible and effective innovation leaders to enter the political arena. Must be eliminated the barriers that prevent the rationalization of relations between the government and society and the optimal functioning of state institutions, constructing a functioning public administration system, open and controlled by the civil society. In this regard, there are urgent problems of efficiency and democratization of the public administration department, separation in government bodies the strategic and monitoring functions from executive, the development of effective public service management technologies, challenges that — above all — should be facilitated by the innovative political leaders.

The innovation leader by nature, on the one hand, is part of the social system, on the other hand, is actually above it, allowing quite adequately assess the social problems and solve them effectively. The leader of this type is changing the social landscape and the

world around him to achieve the public interests.

Of course, not always the social crisis, breaking historically established stereotypes and standards, can cause the emergence of the innovative political leader. However, it should also be taken into account, that not always the leaders who came to power on a wave of fighting for reforms are modernizers in practice. In this case we are talking about fake innovative leadership and its visibility, — imitation, — by which hidden objectives are achieved, and the power is transformed from an instrument (tool) as an end in itself (objective).

Research on the innovative role of political leaders in the social development is closely related to comparing them with the political elite of the new formation at the current stage of statebuilding. Modern scholars give to the concept of "elite" a variety of interpretation and explanation. In scientific papers is noteworthy a variety of terms that are used as synonyms: ruling class, political elite, nomenclature, etc.

Any society is stratified on various grounds — by castes, classes, fortunes, etc. It follows the uneven participation of citizens in public life and thus raises the question of objectively different degrees of exposure of individuals and social groups to certain areas of the society.

Not being the supporters of using the term "elite" only in negative tone, we emphasize that its very appearance is connected with social differentiation. Significant social gap between the aristocracy and the masses found its expression in the language area : knowledge of Latin language was a required

(however, not sufficient) condition for entry to higher levels of social hierarchy. Millennial practices of power relations engendered the emergence of a variety of terms: priests, patricians, slave owners, aristocracy, nobility, bourgeoisie, and so on, but they were actually synonyms to refer to one concept: elite.

Even in times of the decomposition of tribal system appeared views on the public division into the higher and lower members, noble and black, aristocracy and common people. The leadership in trying to construct a theoretical model of the ideal ruler belongs to the ancient Chinese thinkers. According to Lao Tzu, integrity and prosperity of empires and vice versa — their decline and decay — depends primarily on quality of the rulers: "A leader is best when people barely know he exists. The next best is a leader who is loved and praised. Next comes the one who is feared. The worst one is the leader that is despised" [5, p. 17].

Plato was one of the first who suggested to consider three types of leaders: philosopher (statesman), warlord and businessman. During his life, there was a flourishing of the "heroic" direction in research of leadership, that con-fered leaders by specific qualities. He tried to develop a theory of society, in which — thanks to his education and inherent wisdom — "philosophers-leaders" would have established for the public the right value system [9, p. 341]. Being an ideologue of the Athenian aristocracy, Plato considered up-brining and education of the leaders a class honor and even prerogative. Thus, even in antiquity education and proper upbrining became criteria of elitism.

Machiavelli's research made a significant contribution to better understanding of the nature of leadership and a Machiavelli's phenomenon gave rise to further scientific research in this field. The features that were typical for him: ignoring the interests of others, tendency to hypocrisy, etc., shown a close relationship with the then political leaders, linking together theory and practice.

The question of the definition and typology of elite groups was one of the key in the creative heritage of N. Ma-chiavelli, who concentrated attention on the political person who plays an active, creative role in the historical process. The researcher classified not only the psychological, but also social and political characteristics. Machiavelli's attention attracted hunam nature at all levels of the social ladder: as an active and passive participant in the political process, as a subject and object of the influence.

The scientist stressed that any person at all times is vested by the same passions, desires, needs, and he paid much attention to the personal qualities of leaders. In the first place he put a kind of personal energy that is manifested as strength, courage, enterprise, initiative (mostly it is a natural property, the original data, the potential of strength and intelligence, leading to a particular result) [7, p. 233]. No less highly Machiavelli valued honor, — presence of which for him seemed possible only in humans, only in society, — which occurs mainly in public affairs.

For the English historian T. Carlyle one of the main worldview prerequisites was a philosophical statement about the primary, — natural — in-

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equality of people. According to the researcher, "if there's anything the nature can teach us, that is, in same way one person is better than another, one designed to be a leader, and another — to be controlled, that in all the positive eras in history the heroic personalities has always occupied a leading position and again will take it in future heroic era" [3, p. 114]. The researcher aimed to create an ideal image of the leader, based on the fact that the world history — is "essentially the history of great people that worked here, on earth. They, these great men, were the leaders of humanity, samples and, in a broad sense, the creators of all that the whole mass of people in general wanted to make what she wanted to achieve; all created in this world is, in fact, outer material result, practical implementation and realization of thoughts that belonged to great people" [ibid, p. 61].

Nietzsche did not recognize the rights of every person to be a person. On the contrary, the vast majority of humanity in his interpretation was a "herd" and in the masses he saw a main threat to the development of creative personality. A key feature of volitional and creative nature the researcher considered the ability to shift values, stressing that the moral position of the elite is a position "beyond good and evil", that is, in its narrow circle morality is not needed.

The most important quality of a leader the researcher considered honesty, not truth or the desire for it. F. Nietzsche attributed to significantly important leadership qualities also justice, which he calls "the only goddess we recognize on ourselves. Since people are inherently unequal, and then

there can be no universal justice, what is true for the one, may not be true for the others" [8, p. 329]. The very same justice — according to F. Nietzsche, -is the exchange, providing the approximate equality of forces.

In modern terms, the classic situation "when the "lower class" doen not want live in an old way and the "upper class" can not live in a new way" [6, p. 86] requires from the innovative political leaders to take decisive actions that will allow living in the new way, not declarative, but for real. So in the coming years will be practiced a variety of political strategies, however, is still difficult to predict in which direction the process will be developing. The main reason for this lies in the fact that the political consciousness of the civil society is characterized by contradictions, and in such circumstances there is coexistence of divergent attitudes, because of which the political orientations of specific leaders and the entire elite generally does not exclude the probability of movement in different — sometimes, even opposite — directions.

Obviously, those outstanding, brilliant, and charismatic personalities, — that is: the leaders — always influenced the development of society, but so far science has not revealed all aspects of the impact. Including: not completely elucidated the mechanism of identification of the innovative political leader. The term "identification" was introduced into scientific circulation by the founder of psychoanalysis S. Freud. The researcher stresses that "identification known to psychoanalysis as the earliest manifestation of emotional connection with another person" [10, p. 801]. Within the above theory

it is assumed, that the more complexes a man has in the childhood, the more in the future he will seek to overcome them through the mechanism of sublimation.

According to the American scientist K. Horney, the primary motivation for activion-related activity of any person is a desire for self-realization. In this case, the researcher points out that every person can develop the necessary and desirable for him skills. K. Horney sees the possibility of complete self-realization only in the process of "idealization" [11, p. 42]. The idealization serves as a desire to be like a certain conceivable perfect subject, while the identification is the process of finding by the individual his own places in the environment and the world. We believe that a person, who did not go through the process of individual development all the necessary stages of identification, has a real chance in the future to fail in forming the complete own identity. Thus, the innovative leader has a chance to become the only person who harmoniously and fully embodied himself as a person, so — he has developed his own position on all the social processes to which he is related.

The image of any leader is created including the means of political technologies and image-making. Often the image plays a crucial role in the perception of others of a particular person. In the most general form, the innovative political leader's image is a combination of qualities and traits associated with that particular figure.

The main characteristics, which form a complete image of the political leader of innovation, as a rule, include the following components: reputation,

credibility, competence, professionalism, management skills and so on. Leadership may occur as a basic principle of recruitment to the ruling elite and the way of organizing public governance only in the civil society with a developed political consciousness of all or the majority of social groups. Of course, such general social principles of interaction are possible only in the true humanistic orientation policy of the state. That's why a source of concern is the fact that "the erosion of human values in our time sometimes reaches dangerous volumes. Enough to pay attention on how often the rules and concepts of humanity become a kind of "game cards" in creating a positive image of a particular politician" [4, p. 102] — on which stresses a domestic scientist V. M. Kozakov.

Regarding the diversity of approaches of domestic political leaders to form their own image can be separated three main directions. The first one is "traditional", a politician resort to image-makers after the resistance (A. Sadovy). Second — hypermodernistic: a politician has a staff of image-makers and he himself is a successful spin doctor, rather than the politician (O. Lyashko, A. Yat-senyuk). The third direction is the optimal cooperation: politician is consciously involved in the imagemaking process (P. Poroshenko, Y. Tymoshenko) and in this case, the positive effect is achieved through joint activities of the leader and his team of advisers.

Image is a comprehensive description of consciousness, including the social knowledge and social memory. In the case of incomplete, — fragmentary, — information about the leader, the structure of personal constructs

against him is formed by the addition to objectively existing data the missing pieces of the image. Given that each innovative political leader, as a representative of the modern elite, the public opinion about his image is one of the key targets, it is important not to leave any gray areas and "white spots" in the structure of their own image, which can subsequently be subject to manipulation by competitors and political opponents.

The key characteristics of the innovative political leaders as the representatives of the elite are: firstly, their open pluralistic nature; secondly, the high intellectual and professional potential; thirdly, rising type of social mobility, because in the process of updating public administration executives are used new sources of recruiting the leaders, as a result the domestic political elite can be replenished not only traditionally, — people from the party nomenclature and bureaucratic elite, — but "from below": by the representatives of the civil society.

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Conclusions. The political elite is firmly integrated into the socio-political system of Ukrainian society, which is characterized by instability, uncertainty and requires volitional control, based on high professional and moral qualities of the leaders. However, in order to make the innovative leadership not declarative, but a real strategy, it is necessary to modify the national political system, bringing it into line with the needs of the times, which issued the necessary changes in the society. Innovative political leaders are the subjects of power and control, so when changing the model of power relations and their role, above all, is to

implement the distribution of powers between the administrative staff and civil society.

The conducted study allows drawing an important conclusion that the innovative political leaders, as well as other members of the elite, are in the relative minority of the social whole, but have a significant impact on the society, shape public opinion according to their own vision, and are able to offer effective options for solving social contradictions. Ability of the innovative leaders to play a decisive role in the public policy is related to the fact that they express, and give effect to the will and interests of almost or the whole society, but not of the individual social groups, forming political agenda. Prospects for further studies of this problem lies in discovering features of the institutionalization of innovative leadership, place of leaders of this type in domestic political elite and their role in the modernization of public administration in Ukraine.

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