Научная статья на тему 'Information security in social media as part of media education'

Information security in social media as part of media education Текст научной статьи по специальности «СМИ (медиа) и массовые коммуникации»

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Ключевые слова
MEDIA EDUCATION / ADOLESCENTS / YOUTH EXTREMISM / SOCIAL NETWORKS / NEW MEDIA / INFORMATION SECURITY

Аннотация научной статьи по СМИ (медиа) и массовым коммуникациям, автор научной работы — Teplyashina A.N., Golubev V.Y., Pavlushkina N.A.

This paper discusses information protection of adolescents from the negative impact of social networks. The participation of adolescents in the protest movement highlights the role of media education as an actor in designing the system of preparing students for the threats and challenges of the Internet. Students absorb the information that they receive through the media, without assessing it for accuracy, correctness, reliability, etc. Therefore, media education at school should teach students to extract meanings from the symbolic representation of the surrounding world and the processes taking place in it. This will be possible if they understand what laws govern information and how and for what purpose information is distributed. Media education in Russia today is influenced by a variety of economic, social, technological, cultural processes. To assess their nature and scale of influence is not an easy task. It is even a harder task to try and develop a modern vision of media education strategy in the context of information security, which implies reflection on the nature of journalism in society and its place in actively developing new media. To understand online information security is impossible without taking into account changes in social practices.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Information security in social media as part of media education»

Copyright © 2018 by Academic Publishing House Researcher s.r.o.

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Published in the Slovak Republic

Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie)

Has been issued since 2005

ISSN 1994-4160

E-ISSN 1994-4195

2018, 58(4): 138-147

DOI: 10.13187/me.2018.4.138 www.ejournal53.com

Information Security in Social Media as Part of Media Education

A.N. Teplyashina a , *, V.Y. Golubev a, N.A. Pavlushkina a a Saint Petersburg State University, Russian Federation

Abstract

This paper discusses information protection of adolescents from the negative impact of social networks. The participation of adolescents in the protest movement highlights the role of media education as an actor in designing the system of preparing students for the threats and challenges of the Internet. Students absorb the information that they receive through the media, without assessing it for accuracy, correctness, reliability, etc. Therefore, media education at school should teach students to extract meanings from the symbolic representation of the surrounding world and the processes taking place in it. This will be possible if they understand what laws govern information and how and for what purpose information is distributed.

Media education in Russia today is influenced by a variety of economic, social, technological, cultural processes. To assess their nature and scale of influence is not an easy task. It is even a harder task to try and develop a modern vision of media education strategy in the context of information security, which implies reflection on the nature of journalism in society and its place in actively developing new media. To understand online information security is impossible without taking into account changes in social practices.

Keywords: Media education, adolescents, youth extremism, social networks, new media, information security.

1. Introduction

The Seventh International Conference of the World Association of Newspapers discussed strategies of increasing the share of young people in the newspaper readership. B. Jones, Jr, the former publisher and CEO of The Washington Post, voiced a common concern over the fact that while newspapers want to attract young readers they are unwilling to introduce drastic changes to their format for fear of alienating loyal readers. Meanwhile, young readers keep losing writing skills and get increasingly unaccustomed to printed media, which they condescendingly call offline information sources.

Social media have become the main source of information and communication channel for the teenager. Journalism teachers must understand what school students' interests are. They must understand how they can reach their young audience. The average age of social media users is 22 years. More than 80 % of Russian bloggers fall within 15 and 35 years old.

Media education is an important part of contemporary society. Media literacy is one of the key elements of the work of the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media

* Corresponding author

E-mail addresses: a-nik@list.ru (A.N. Teplyashina), vadimgol@gmail.com (V.Y. Golubev), pavlushkina.n@yandex.ru (N.A. Pavlushkina)

of the Russian Federation. The ministry's statistics as of 28 January 2016, the level of media literacy was 74 %, which exceeded threefold the 2015 target figure of 25 %.

The following factors have had a great influence on the development of media literacy: an increase in the number of information channels and the degree of penetration of the Internet into Russian regions; the improvement of information, mobile technologies and computer equipment; and the availability of information as such to the general public. Teachers should work in that field of interest and operate with those concepts and tools that are close to the audience in order to provide reliable contact and guarantee feedback. Today, efficient teaching means a competently organized information flow, which cannot exist without constant feedback.

The relevance of this study is reflected in the fact that high school students and young people respond much faster to the above-mentioned processes, adapting to new digital conditions, than other socio-demographic groups. The diversity of sources of information contributes to their values and interests, attitudes to events around them and critical thinking skills. They transform young users morally and aesthetically.

A survey was conducted over a period of 5 years among schoolchildren, high school students, first-year students of the School of Journalism and Mass Communications, St Petersburg State University (more than 150 survey participants, questions included media preferences, knowledge of quality, yellow media, Internet sources, well-known journalists, contemporary writers, as well as the latest genres of literature and topics that the survey participant would like to cover, etc.). Research data shows changes in respondents' interests from "fashion and travel" to "events in the country and the world, politics and the social sphere" and in the intensity of information consumption: the 2016 survey respondents show a greater "immersion" in the medium than the participants in the study in 2012 (Pavlushkina, 2017: 124-132).

2. Materials and methods

The experimental ground of the study was the non-degree program Journalism for High School Students offered by the Center for Non-degree Programs and Pre-university Training at the School of Journalism and Mass Communications, St. Petersburg State University. The program is offered to high school students. The authors of this article are members of the teaching staff. The curriculum included guiding students through a web of new media and developing blogging skills in them. Thus, the authors of the paper were able to personally evaluate the effectiveness of teaching methods using in-class observation. The curriculum of the program Journalism for High School Students developed by A. Teplyashina served as the main material of this study. The effectiveness of teaching techniques was measured based on the results of the final exam and anonymous questionnaire via Google.docs.

The study was implemented using focus groups as the main method of obtaining information. Texts were used to encourage focus group members to express their opinions more actively. Group dynamics helped students to openly express their opinions, freely discuss problems, and share their worldviews.

Each group was offered the theme of social networks as a competitor of mass media. The following question was also asked: "How do you understand the word "extremism?" Forty-one per cent of respondents said they did not know it. Eight per cent, who failed to define the concept, simply expressed their negative attitude towards extremism ("This is bad, it is forbidden", "A bad word", "Extremists are the instigators of bad things"). This indicates that this concept was not part of the linguistic consciousness of high school students. Origins and problems of the functioning of social networks as channels of citizen journalism and forms political activity were discussed. Social networks were examined as mainly oppositional and critical communication channels. A. Navalny and D. Bykov came out as the most popular opinion leaders for the high school students.

The focus group method was effective in finding out group members' interests, preferences, and attitudes. Students of the program Journalism for High School Students were divided into 8 focus groups with 8 persons in each group.

The study was conducted in accordance with a guide-script for focus group discussions. Topics were selected with questions to be discussed. Authentic texts selected from blogs generated a lively conversation.

The following materials were used for a project: blogs; Wikis (web encyclopedias with entries written by focus group participants); user ratings (product, article, message, user, etc.); user

reviews; reciprocal exchange files; exchanges of selected content; user comments; trackbacks (links to references of a given text); blog rolls (a list of selected user blogs), user profiles; popularity lists (blogs sorted by frequency of references, attendance, and number of comments; tagging (the use of tags makes it easier to search for information of interest); webcasting; podcasting; video blogs; forums; and paging and messaging.

In order to understand how it works in practice, http://www.habrahabr.ru, a collective blog with an option of automatic moderation could be used as a case study in class. The project artificially nurtures its association the word "habrahabr", which is constantly played. This is intended to make habrahabr a common noun as was the case with the verb "to google", which entered the English language after the introduction of the Google search engine. This contributes to the self-identification of the group's participants, both within and without the project.

3. Discussion

To achieve the goal of making the younger generation part of the information society media education should develop in them the ability to creatively use the media and accurately interpret its content; critically analyze media products; understand the nature of the media industry; and independently create their own media content. In 2002, UNESCO and IFLA initiated work on the development of media literacy and information literacy. They conducted a study that focused on media literacy in Russia and abroad. For correlation between the concepts of media education and media literacy, the main goals, models and ways of their implementation see (Fedorov, 2004; Fedorov, 2005: 134-138; Fedorov, 2009; 2012).

T.V. Molchanova focuses on media education in Russia (Molchanova, 2011: 77-80). N.I. Gendina's research links information preparation and media education in Russia and the former Soviet Union countries (Gendina, 2012; Gendina, 2013: 77-83). I.A. Sternin and Y.E. Stolbova investigate structural components of media literacy (Sternin, 2013: 209-211; Stolbova, 2013: 99-102). Features of media literacy in schools and universities are presented in the studies (Goncharova, 2011: 43-50; Korochensky, 2004: 40-46; Kravchuk, 2012: 28-32; Naftalieva, 2011: 182-192; Nemirich, 2011: 47-55; Talalaeva, 2009: 82-86; Zhizhina, 2008: 81-85). Some media research published online are written in journalistic style. The works on virtual communities by the journalist G. Rheingold (Rheingold, 1993) are almost considered classic. Philosophers and social critics have long been engaged in finding a theoretical understanding of modern communication and information technologies (Voiskunsky, 2000: 3-10), while literature theorists are studying hypertext structures. B. Walman studied online communications (Wellman, Hampton, 1999; Wellman, Gulia, 1999). A great deal of work was done by P. Kollock, who studied the conflict of private interests in the cyberspace and the possibility of creating "public goods" (Smith et al., 1999). Postmes, Spears and Lee conducted social and psychological research into "online behavior" (Postmes et al, 1998). Hamman founded the academic electronic journal in the sociology of virtual communications "Cybersociology Magazine" (http://www.cybersociology.com).

Fundamentals of information security in social networks are an important part of many current studies on the negative effects of social networks, cyber aggression, Internet addiction and the phenomenon of "loneliness in a crowd" arising in the digital environment. It is worth noting that the issues related to the risks in the online space have been the subject of serious discussions at the global conferences on Internet Science. At one of these conferences, the V. Leiva and A. Freire delivered a paper on the algorithm for identifying the early symptoms of depression among users, who, as a rule, reveal their mental state in social networks and use them as a way to ease the condition (Leiva, Freire, 2017).

Scientists analyzed the messages that various users periodically publish in social networks. This made it possible to quickly detect people with signs of depression and suicidal behavior. The results of this study are of particular importance in connection with the case of the "Blue Whale", and they must be taken into account in the design of the courses on information protection of adolescents in online communities.

I. Ramos-Soler, C. Lopez-Sanchez and T. Torrecillas-Lacave developed a classification of minors (7 groups) based on their media consumption habits, family and education factors, risk perceptions in the online environment. The authors refute the hypothesis that children have little understanding of "online dangers". The spread and improvement of smartphones leads teenagers to consume information more and more autonomously. This limits the ability of parents who

cannot control how much their children are surfing the Internet, how it is used, what type of content they receive (Ramos-Soler et al., 2018).

Let us mention a few more projects that have helped us identify the best educational technologies that contribute to the development of safe behaviors in the Internet. Q. Han, H. Wen and F. Miao study the mechanism of interaction and interdependence of social networks and media, e-commerce, online gaming systems, and so on (Han et al., 2018). The integration of these systems, along with the positive effects, leads to certain security threats: the spread of rumors and fakes, fraud, and panic. The scholars developed the distribution model of rumors SIDR, with which you can identify, control and prevent the appearance of malicious information.

In terms of the use of social networks in media education, the main discussion is focused on how theory and practice should relate to each other (Greenberg, 2007). Another actively discussed fact is that journalism schools are very slow in responding to changes in media practices. Teachers have relatively recently begun to use digital technologies in working with students and for the time being they rarely explain that in the Internet era, you can invent your own media rather than trying to adjust to the format of traditional ones. D. Gillmor writes about this in his paper "Towards a New Model for Journalism Education" (Gillmor, 2016).

N.C. Burbules also notes that it is practically vital for teachers of creative professions to work with various social networks to involve young people in education. However, they need to be aware of the multitude of problems, shortcomings and dangers that networks entail (Burbules, 2016).

Discussing the place of social media in the educational landscape, R. Stoker promotes blogs as the right, promising environment for the training of future media professionals (Stoker, 2015). In his work, which we also used in our experiments, Stoker claims that blogging develops journalistic skills including skills of reaching out to the right audience. On the other hand, he notes blogging is for the most part a solitary occupation and in terms of experiential learning within the context of journalism, it cannot simulate the environment of a busy newsroom where teams of journalists work under the guidance of an editor. We agree that blogging is an opportunity that adds another dimension to integrated learning. However, we must not consider it as a complete alternative to traditional learning.

A survey of media education theory made it possible to come to the conclusion that it is teenagers and young people who are most exposed to the new reality, which they have to master spontaneously, without the guiding of mentors. The media plays the role of the mentor instead. Various media are becoming, as many authors write, a natural environment for young people to live in. These media contribute to the socialization of young people and boost their media literacy. Many researchers also note the paradox of today's media landscape in Russia is that despite the intense information attack of traditional and new media are waging on young people the country's media are largely alienated from their young audiences. This is a deep conflict, which requires serious study.

Today's media space is constantly being filled with new content. The topics that young people show interest in are changing. For 16- and 17-year-olds , the most popular headings are in the fields of music, fashion and cinema, while 18-20 year-olds are more interested in films and celebrities. They display a lot of interest in oppositional leaders too. In this perspective, new media appear as a subject of powerful influence on the society and, at the same time, as an object outside the field of legal and ethical regulation.

We believe it important to include a course on new media in media education. The block-based organization of the curriculum has long been the principle on which journalism programs rest in Russia. Now, this approach requires special emphasis. Media education is not conceivable without active methods of teaching, based on the principles of humanistic psychology and pedagogy, on which world science relies. The learning algorithm includes strategy (working with information, creating a text and analyzing it) and tactics; identification of organizational and methodological conditions necessary for the successful development of information search skills.

Social networks have become a familiar way of exchanging information much as telephone communication was before it. We are talking about the use of "generalist" social networks ("VKontakte", "Odnoklassniki" (Classmates), Facebook, Twitter, MoiMir@Mail.ru, "MirTesen", Badoo, Instagram, Livejournal, and YouTube).

There is a dangerous practice of involving young people - school students and college students - in extremist organizations. Throughout history, mankind has repeatedly experienced a

wide variety of manifestations of extremism, political and religious intolerance and xenophobia. Extremism penetrates public consciousness gradually, pushing people to aggressive actions. Undoubtedly, national extremism, xenophobia, radicalism, ethnic negativism and other forms of extremism are undoubtedly a particular danger for the Russian Federation, which has historically evolved as multinational and multi-confessional entity. These ideas split Russian society and violate interethnic and civil harmony. The extremist orientation of the public dialogue is noted in a number of modern studies (Bidova, 2012).

According to the crime statistics of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, there has been a steady growth of extremist crimes: 2012 - 696, 2013 - 896, 2014 - 1034, 2015 - 1329, 2016 -1450, 2017 - 1521 (The Prosecutor General's Office of the Russian Federation. The portal of legal statistics. http://crimestat.ru/24).

Some researchers (S.N. Fridinsky, N. Baal, and others) believe that youth extremism is an acute problem for Russia today. The causes of the spread of extremism among youth include:

1. Social tension. This is a whole series of problems related mainly to the quality of education, the labor market, inequality, etc.

2. Active involvement of youth in the criminal business.

3. Value changes. Different religious organizations, as well as sects, pose a particular danger, promoting extremism and calling for the rejection of generally accepted social norms.

4. Psychological factor. Young people are characterized by some impulsiveness, and even aggression, which is often used by experienced leaders of extremist organizations.

5. The Internet. Thanks to the "World Wide Web", extremist organizations have access to large audiences and are actively promoting their activities.

The iniquitousness of the Internet has led to the fact that virtual communication prevails over real interaction for many people. Teenagers find friends by joining social media groups and form their worldview based on what they read online. Recently, communication on the Web has acquired an aggressive nature, and many sociologists and political scientists have seriously started talking about "Internet revolutions": people, uniting in virtual social networks, in real life espouse revolutionary ideas, which are often destructive.

That is why one of the most important areas of combating extremism is prevention, aimed at addressing the causes of extremism among young people.

A survey of the existing journalism programs in Russia and abroad makes it possible to identify several main blocks in the content of media education.

The first of these is the transfer of information in society. It includes: a) the concept of communication; b) the concept of sign systems and ways of presenting information; c) the history of information transfer; and d) mass communication and its patterns.

The second block examines the structure of mass communication. It includes the study of individual media outlets: newspapers and magazines, photography, radio and sound recording, cinema, television, and the Internet. The third block of content covers social issues of the media. It includes: a) control over mass information; b) the economics of mass communication; c) obtaining mass information and its impact. This analysis indicates that there is insufficient attention to social networks, which should also be part of media training.

J. Katz notes that online culture is so different from print culture. Frank and informal, online information is always available, it is not delivered once a day. There is a sense of unceasing conflict, discovery, occasional hostility, intensity, the feeling that your world is breaking, while all these unknown galaxies fly past you. You enter a network, never fully knowing what kind of discussion or dispute you will become involved in, whom you will meet or who will suddenly emerge from your own past.

A social network is an interactive multi-user web site, the content of which is filled by the participants of the network (Bundyugova, 2015: 168). As a rule, the function of the social network is to provide each user with a personal profile, an opportunity to create links with other accounts and some additional services. As an important factor in personal development communication for young people acquires special significance. Social networks may have both a positive and detrimental effect both on the development of an individual. O.S. Pustoshinskaya argues that young people, dependent on the adult world, are most susceptible to its frustrating pressure. This causes a critical attitude of its representatives to the institutions of government, motivates them to participate in protests, determines their orientation to the political forces of the opposition and

extremist modalities. The latter are interested in spreading the ideas of counter-legitimacy and nationalist apologetics in the youth environment (Pustoshinskaya, 2010: 26-30).

Indeed, Russian young people play a more active role in the country's protest activities, a process often guided by what some scholars refer to as tactical media.

Tactical media are mass media expressing the point of view of minority groups, for one reason or another not represented in the mainstream media. Thus, the author of the Media Activist's Cookbook, Moscow art and media critic O. Kireev emphasizes that "the word" tactical "emphasizes mobility, which gives superiority over such "strategic" players as big business and the State" (Kireev, 2006). Tactical media is a means of expressing (representing) a youth subculture that takes on the form of video activism, low budget cinema, social networks, samizdat magazines, leaflets and street actions that invade the official (global) information space.

At present, there is a certain contradiction between a school student's natural need of media education and their reluctance to use media resources in the educational process and everyday life, which plays a negative role from the point of view of media education. This is partly overcome by the learning environment. Teaching practice shows that the success of the applied methods depends on the teacher's professionalism and experience who should be able to involve students into trusting communication. Through discussion the instructor helps students to interpret media content.

In view of the importance of a systematic approach to the problem of youth extremism, it is necessary to introduce a course in the information security in social media into the curriculum of the program Journalism for High School Students.

Young people should be told about the nature and types of extremism. They should develop skills that would protect them from manipulation, help them analyze crisis situations arising from intercultural interaction.

The Internet has accelerated global information changes that impacted the values of generation Z. For them, the problem is not the ability to access and own technology, but the ability to understand and interpret information.

Information on events and its interpretation is found in social networks. You can select several major sites for blogging in social networks.

Vkontakte. A universal platform, it allows users to publish content in each new message including text, pictures, video, audio recordings, polls, links, etc. It has an internal messenger with extensive functionality. By the same principle, such social networks as Facebook and Odnoklassniki (Classmates) operate. It allows us to collect statistics about user activity on the page.

Instagram. The main content is pictures and videos, which can be accompanied by text. This site is distinguished by a number of features: a) the main content includes photos and videos with text to go with them; b) the presence of an internal messenger; c) "instant" messages, i.e. stories that allow you to increase the amount of content offered, but do not overload the news line; d) a flexible system of profile settings; e) advanced features for business promotion: accounting for user activity, simple mechanics of placing advertisements, links to products, etc. It is well suited for maintaining a corporate blog.

Twitter. A social media for conducting a microblog, which restricts the number of characters in entries to several hundred. Convenient to use as a mobile version, it allows you to publish visual content (photos and videos), polls and geo-tags and has an internal messenger.

Youtube. The most popular service for downloading and watching videos. It is convenient for video blogging, because it has a wide functionality. It allows users to upload videos of any length and broadcast them as well as add interactive subtitles and links directly to the video. An intelligent system of recommendations is based on user activity. Any video uploaded to Youtube is usually supported by most sites.

All these social media allow users to embed content posted on their site in content published on other platforms; and both can also be synchronized.

In schools, a system of educational and preventive work is created that is designed to reduce the level of juvenile delinquency. It provides for analytical and diagnostic activities and extracurricular activities for schoolchildren, including legal awareness classes and school holidays. What is lacking is media education to combat youth and adolescent extremism. The reason is effective media literacy training is only possible at the college level.

Extremism arises not only as a result of external influences. It is important to understand the need for a systematic approach to the problem. This approach should strive to strip the communication space of the perpetrators of terrorist attacks of opinion leaders and provide truthful information about the roots and motives of the terrorist groups.

The theory of information-psychological warfare operates the concepts of invisibility and absolute invisibility. Invisibility is understood as the elimination of a part of its structure or individual elements (knowledge) from the system or the inability of the system in a certain state to realize what is happening. Absolute invisibility is understood as follows: if input data F that enters the informational self-learning system does not cause any reaction from the system, besides the destruction of the input data F, then this data F (facts, rules) is completely invisible for this system (Veprintsev, 2005: 215). Based on these definitions, it can be assumed that by changing the perception of opinion leaders' messages, it is possible to devalue these messages in the eyes of target audiences, making them invisible to a wide audience.

For example, publications about the financing of the ultra-left terrorist organizations of the Federal Republic of Germany by Geneva bankers or police provocateurs who have pushed certain protesters onto the path of terror, may have decreased the confidence in ultra-left terrorist rhetoric more noticeably than yet another attempt to clarify the destructive nature of ultra-left terrorism. Similar tactics may be applied to other terrorist organizations. However, the use of such tactics is possible only if the criminal nature of terrorism becomes more evident to the general public. The goal is again to achieve greater protection of the target audience from manipulation.

A new type of information flow - the blogosphere - is a virtual agora, where social critics freely express opinions about current events in the country and the world. The analysis of information trends in the blogosphere allows us to predict the transformation of blogs into tactical media that will make up the content space of the opposition-minded communication environment. The most complete article devoted to the Livejournal Russian-speaking community, its history, development features, participants motivation and perspectives, was written in English and posted on the Internet in 2004 (Gorny, 2004). Earlier, in 1998, a study of the communicative possibilities of daily personal impressions published online was undertaken by Japanese scientists (Kawaura, 1998). L. Lessig, a professor at Harvard Law School argues that there are people who use blogs to simply talk about their private lives. However, there are those who use blogs to discuss public lectures or current affairs, criticize politicians for their decisions, and offer solutions to problems of public interest (Lessig, 2007). A union of tactical media and opposition media has a good potential in terms of the political mobilization of the population.

Alexei Navalny's blog enjoys great popularity. Sociologists expain this popularity by the popularity of criticism at a period when society "begins to doubt, that is, when the old values are vacillating, and new ones still have to be created" (Ullrich, 2004: 37-38). According to M. Walzer, political condemnation, moral accusation, skeptical inquiry, satirical comment, angry prophecy, utopian speculation are not alien to social criticism. All this can be found in the texts of Alexei Navalny, the founder of the Anti-Corruption Fund.

Many Russian and foreign psychologists (B.I. Dodonov, P. Fress, A.N. Leontiev, P.V. Simonov, V.K. Vilyunas, L.S. Vygotsky, etc.) hold the view that the demonstration of emotions in the communicative process prompts the recipient of the message to take a certain point of view, make a choice, etc. Emotion is a psychological category, which at the linguistic level is transformed into the emotiveness or tonality of the text. The tone of the text is the author's emotional attitude to the event, the process, the phenomenon, i.e. to reality. Toning, as well as ideology, nomination, evaluation, interpretation, is a text-forming category of critical discourse.

Expanding the definition given by N.I. Klushina, we emphasize that the text is characterized by a paradigm of not only the author's strategies, but also their tactics, which form genre invariants (Klushina, 2008). The concept of author's strategy was first introduced in the 2000s in the Russian narrative discourse research including the study of the author's thinking (Issers, 2006; Kiselev, 2012).

The strategy is linked to the global goal of communication, aimed at achieving a planned, result, which is postponed in time. In the process of communication, the goal is mediated by specific tasks that determine the choice of speech tactics within a given strategy. A verbal means of implementing tactics in the chosen strategy is a communicative move.

The study of communicative strategies and tactics used in tactical media is an important task, because, on the one hand, it expands the understanding of the forms of "verbal behavior of individuals in different types of discourse" (Kiselev, 2012: 16) and on the other, allows to determine the specificity of the blogger's texts . In the blog text, the author's position is openly stated, presented in strategies which O.S. Issers understands as a set of speech actions aimed at achieving a communicative goal.

Discourse analysis is a valid method of studying communication strategies because it helps reveal the semantic concepts embedded in the text. Thus, the discursive model of Navalny's texts is characterized by the concepts that form the semantics of the invective: "crooks and thieves."

The study of Navalny's discourse shows the dominance of opinion over facts, the intensification of emotions, the prevalence of impact and evaluation over information, emotional over rational. The discourse is increasingly becoming a directive aimed at influencing, motivating and inspiring the recipient. With no journalist background, A. Navalny uses the entire range of journalistic means to influence the consciousness and behavior of the audience. In terms of emotional appeal, tactical media have an advantage over traditional media. This is a decisive factor for political opposition in their choice of tactical media as partners in political campaigns. Here is what one of the students said who participated in A. Navalny's protests: "I went to the rally, because I wanted to see how strong the opposition is in the country. I was curious to know how many people will come. I learned from the blog of Navalny about the march. I came to protest against what is going on in the country rather than to lend him my support. My schoolmates are not particularly interested in politics. Teachers and classmates are more apolitical. I am interested in it, and since such an event is taking place in my city I went." The coverage of the protest in social media will arouse much greater interest in it in the young audience and play the role of political socialization of the current generation of Russian young people.

4. Results

We developed an educational portal modeled on a social network. The Internet site is intended primarily for students and teachers of the University. It provides a platform for interaction and joint activities in a virtual Internet environment. This portal is a "continuation" of the space of communicative interaction between teachers and students, a technological environment for the exchange of electronic materials for educational purposes, the accumulation and simultaneous use of these materials in the electronic information and educational environment. Like any social network, the educational portal us provides: 1) user registration, the formation of personal pages, friendly ties; 2) publication of notes, documents, photographs, video and other digital content, the exchange of this information between the user and his or her friends; 3) communication and exchange of electronic materials in the Internet communities; 4) the creation of new groups and other public resources of the social network.

5. Conclusion

Media education is designed to acquaint students with the factors that lead to terrorist activities, for example, members of ultra-leftist or separatist terrorist groups and explain the inadequacy of the terrorists' response to social inequality.

Students need to know that tactical media are created to conduct political campaigns and acts that violate public order, promote protest moods, create a terrorist threat. They need to see new educational opportunities that exist in virtual environments. What is the peculiarity of social networks in comparison with the already proven educational forums? What new opportunities do they offer? First and foremost, social networks are independent resources open to users. They are not just guests who leave messages from time to time, but constantly acting and changing subjects. Participant in the chat are visible only via their messages, social media participants are visible even when they are not online. It is important to remember that social networks provide free resources.

Popular social networks significantly expand the possibilities of presenting information and working with it, allowing to post, view, comment on content, and use additional applications: games, voting, graffiti boards, etc. Thus, the teacher gets to use the equipped multimedia platform for educational purposes. Accessibility and openness of networks for all Internet users, often referred to as a problem, can play a positive role in teaching. Educators can invite experts and scientists to a discussion. Participants of educational and cultural events on the Internet can be the

parents of students, their brothers and sisters. The internal boundaries of a school, college, or university are eroded as virtual classes and conferences can simultaneously have different classes, groups, departments, and faculties. From a personal profile in a social network, you can build a path to an academic virtual community. The Internet erases time frames, allowing to build classes both on-line and asynchronously. Using social networks as a platform for learning ensures the continuity of the educational process and helps plan research work. It can also be noted that social networks make teachers socially accessible to students (Malysheva, 2013: 789-798).

For teachers, managing student learning becomes much easier through the use of a single educational space. For example, it takes less time to check the comments of all students on a topic on the social network than to interview each student in class. Learners, however, need to first remember that any of their comments are public, i.e., visible to all participants in the discussion.

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