Научная статья на тему 'Information and didactic professional development for pedagogical community vocational improvement in the system of continuous education'

Information and didactic professional development for pedagogical community vocational improvement in the system of continuous education Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Ключевые слова
teacher / improving qualification / self-education / distance learning / correspondence education / model

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Karimov Komilzhon Abdurakhimovich

The article considers the “correspondence” type of long-distance learning as a form of education aimed at development of students’ self-educational activities and solving the contemporary educational problems, as well as meeting the educational needs of teaching staff.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Information and didactic professional development for pedagogical community vocational improvement in the system of continuous education»

INFORMATION AND DIDACTIC PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR PEDAGOGICAL COMMUNITY VOCATIONAL IMPROVEMENT IN THE SYSTEM OF CONTINUOUS EDUCATION

K. A. Karimov

The article considers the “correspondence” type of long-distance learning as a form of education aimed at development of students' self-educational activities and solving the contemporary educational problems, as well as meeting the educational needs of teaching staff.

Key words: teacher, improving qualification, self-education, distance learning, correspondence education, model.

The national program for professional development (1997), among the tasks connected to improving the preparation of the national pedagogical community, provides for development of a system of professional development of pedagogical specialists. The “flexible system of professional development and retraining of pedagogical specialists providing for high quality and stable development of education” is created that causes a priority orientation of the process of professional development towards support of teachers’ professional and personal development. In turn, “The national program of personnel training” demands a change in the contents and technologies of professional development. In recent years in Uzbekistan, research on development of the theory aimed to increase the qualification of pedagogical personnel has become more active

(N. F. Abdunazarova, N. Z. Mamedov, H. F. Rashidov, D. G. Yuldashev, etc.). On the basis of the best foreign practices, the State requirements for retraining and professional development of pedagogical cadres which “are applied to organizational and scientific, methodical support of educational activity of establishments in the field of retraining and professional development of pedagogical cadres were developed and defined: the structure of the system of retraining and professional development of teachers; the main types and forms of retraining and professional development ...”

The backbone of the component of the organizational structure of the system of professional development of pedagogical cadres is the block of organizational forms of retraining and professional development, which includes two main forms: straight lines (training for educational programs) and mediated (self-education). Straight lines or regular forms of professional development include: (a) training in an educational institution for the purpose of professional development; (b) training at the enterprise or in the research establishment; (c) training in the educational institution as a place of work, using the Ustoz-shogird method. The need for self-education of the teacher is dictated, on the one hand, by the specifics of pedagogical activity and its social role, and on the other hand by the tendencies of continuous education connected to the constantly changing conditions of pedagogical work, requirements of society, evolution of science and practice, and escalating requirements for teachers.

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The idea of self-education was accurately formulated by the Polish teacher V. Okon. "Self-education is a type of training, the purpose, contents, conditions and means of which depend on the subject’s needs. It is the process of an absolutely independent doctrine". In psychology and pedagogical sources, self-education is considered as a specially organized independent systematic cognitive activity (G. M. Kodzhaspirova); as a necessary element of creative activity, and continuous professional education (A. Y. Ayzenberg); as a process directed toward independent acquisition of knowledge (E.S. Rapatsevich); as a means of preservation of professional competence (K. M. Levitan), etc.

In the structure of self-educational activity, the leading place is occupied by the motivational component: awareness of the personal and public importance of continuous education, professional improvement and expansion of one’s outlook, the existence of resistant cognitive interests, inclinations, installations, the created call of duty and responsibility. Such a definition is contained in the resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan “About the state requirements for retraining of personnel (teachers) and increasing their qualification”: Selfeducation is independent development by pedagogical cadres of new knowledge and skills in the discipline taught in compliance with the State requirements on the level and quality of education. Readiness for self-education, in our opinion, consists of the existence of sufficient professional knowledge and the abilities to apply them. Therefore, pedagogical management of self-educational activity includes the functions of planning, organization and control. If the self-educational level of the teacher is low, then external management (but not self-control) will be the most productive.

Self-education acts as supporting activity in relation to the teacher’s professional activity. Implementation of pedagogical assistance to the professional self-education of teachers, using remote educational technologies as a modern means of communication, makes it possible to organize the education in a form convenient for both parties, as the interaction between trainer and trainee becomes more effective. Self-education acts as a key concept in relation to continuous pedagogical education. In relation to the concept of continuous pedagogical education, self-education plays the role of the educational mechanism of implementation of the concept. In relation to remote education as an organizational form of continuous pedagogical education, self-education plays the role of the didactic principle.

Remote education is an organizational and didactic form of education that differs from the other forms by its way of educational communication. The information and communication technologies used in distance learning are also their means. Their structure and specific weight changes depending on technological progress and the availability of models of organization of the educational process. For the solution of modern educational tasks, satisfaction of educational needs by teachers, by the “correspondence” model of distance learning is optimum. In the analysis of development of the theory and practice of remote education, two types of educational systems the distinction of which promotes understanding of the sense of the contradictions arising in attempts to give a definition to the concept of “remote education” and to come to an understanding of its essence are distinctly allocated.

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The educational system, which received the name: "correspondence education", historically arose prior to other types of distance learning. Educational communication at distance by means of post correspondence is the cornerstone of this type of training. The educational system of the second type evolved from information and communication means making it possible to broadcast classroom occupations to remote audiences and to provide educational communication at a distance by means of audio-video broadcasting. The correspondence educational system realizes the idea of remote education as the forms of education essentially different from traditional organizational forms of the educational process (cool and fixed, and lecture and seminar). The educational system of the “transmitting” type realizes idea of remote education as new educational technology reproduction at the distance of the traditional educational process. The parallel development of these two types of educational systems has also led to essentially different (at the level of didactic sense) interpretations of the concept of remote education. These two types of remote education, having various internal organization, also demand various methodologies. Because of the essentially various didactic sense, they need to be considered separately. Thus, if the “correspondent” type of remote education demands development of its own didactics, then the “transmitting” methodology provides the organization and technology of broadcasting (reproduction of a lesson, lecture, etc. at a distance).

The didactic principles of the “correspondent” educational system of remote education realize psychological features and educational requirements trained in this form of education. It is possible to refer to a number of general didactic principles: (a) "correspondent" training on the basis of self-educational activity trained and demanding creation of special educational and methodical and certification materials; (b) recognition of the independence of students in selecting the content and timing of training, a pragmatic attitude to intermediate and final certification, and assessment as a means of motivation and self-control, and not as the purpose and end result of learning; (c) separation of pedagogical roles: the teacher, representing the training content, and consultant (trainer, tutor), directing student activities through self-educational didactic interaction (dialogue); (d) the modular organization of the content of training providing a higher degree of variability and, on the other hand, facilitating “correspondent” communication; (e) flexibility and mobility of the terms of training and, respectively, of the rate of the educational process; (f) minimizing of number of internal occupations (sessions), the requirement of special forms of these occupations justifying their expediency. According to the didactic model of “correspondent” distance learning of educational systems, traditional classroom occupations (lectures and seminars) are replaced with other forms: first and foremost, educational activity training, which provides special sets of training methodical materials, and, secondly, intensive practical group training by so-called tutorials which are very different from ordinary seminars, and are considerably different from lectures. The means and channels of telecommunication are used as a system of delivering educational and methodical materials and ensuring their interactivity - communication between the tutor and trainee during individual consultations and intra group interactions. Only those materials which can be used by means of equipment easily available to the most

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part of trainees are included in the package of educational and methodical materials.

Realization of the didactic model of “correspondent” distance learning, demands special skills and abilities from the teacher (tutor) concerning individual work with trainees, including the most various types not only of consultations, but also psychological support, and carrying out tutorials for which the tutor has to be able, as well as possessing the material of several training courses, and the ability to organize group work.

The “correspondent” model of distance learning is optimal for the solution of modern educational tasks, and satisfying the educational requirements of pedagogical cadres.

Literature

1. Национальная программа по подготовке кадров. «Гармонично развитое поколение -основа прогресса Узбекистана». - Ташкент, 1997.

2. Постановление Кабинета Министров Республики Узбекистан от 16.02 2006. № 25 «О дальнейшем совершенствовании системы переподготовки и повышения квалификации педагогических кадров».

3. Азизходжаева Н. Н. Педагогические технологии и педагогическое мастерство. -Тошкент: ТГПУ, 2003.

4. Оконь В. Введение в общую дидактику. - М., 1990. - 381 с.

5. Коджаспарова Г.М. Теория и практика профессионального педагогического самообразования. - М.: Альфа, 1993. - 117 с.

6. Педагогика: Большая современная энциклопедия / сост. Е.С. Рапацевич. - Минск: «Современное слово», 2005. - 720 с.

7. Левитан К.М. Основы педагогической деонтологии: учеб. пособие для высшей школы. -М., 1994. - 192 с.

Translated from Russian by Znanije Central Translastions Bureas

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