Научная статья на тему 'Influence of the social environment on development of creative potential in younger schoolchildren'

Influence of the social environment on development of creative potential in younger schoolchildren Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Gulevich Tatyana Mikhailovna

The article reveals the importance of social environment in development of creative potential in younger schoolchildren. The subject-subject relations between adults and children in the course of creative activity are analyzed not only from the point of degree of influence of social environment on creative abilities, but also from the point of its importance.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Influence of the social environment on development of creative potential in younger schoolchildren»

Section 5. Pedagogy

and absent; who continuously strives for the improvement of his work; who prevents or deals with conflicts, facilitates co-operation and maintains the moral state? The model of these questions is used as the basis for the preparation of a competitive personality, and it performs the function of the demand for certain material [5].

Thus we can see that in the substantiation of competitiveness provided by several scientists it is possible to observe explicit tendency to characterize a competitive person, while acting in a particular field of education, identifying several functions to be performed and human qualities necessary for performing such functions.


1. Pauli G. Crusader for the Future: A Portrait of Aurelio Peccei, Founder of the Club of Rome. - Oxford: Pergamon. -2007. - 105 p.

2. Andreyev V. Pedagogy of Creative Self-Development. Book 2. - Kazan. - 2008.

3. Mitina L. Psychology of the Competitive Personality’s Development. - Moscow, - 2013. - 400 p.

4. Potemkina O. Psychological Diagnostics of Professional’s Competitiveness. - Moscow. - 2012.

5. Hansen K. Emphasizing your Transferable and Marketable Skills in Your Cover Letter. - 2008. [online] [11.09.2009.]. Available at: http://www.quintcareers. com7cover_letter_transferable_skills.html.

Gulevich Tatyana Mikhailovna, Moscow State Regional Institute of Humanities, Candidate of pedagogical sciences, Senior Teacher, The Department of social pedagogics E-mail: GulevichTatyana@yandex.ru

Influence of the social environment on development of creative potential in younger schoolchildren

Abstract: The article reveals the importance of social environment in development of creative potential in younger schoolchildren. The subject-subject relations between adults and children in the course of creative activity are analyzed not only from the point of degree of influence of social environment on creative abilities, but also from the point of its importance.

Keywords: a creative person, creative potential, social environment, younger schoolchildren.

Implementation of a new educational paradigm in XXI century imposes certain requirements for the development of an artistic personality that should have flexible productive thinking and developed active imagination.

Nowadays, one of the fundamental principles of renewal of educational content is personal orientation that presupposes the development of creative abilities in participants, individualization of their education taking into consideration their interests and inclination to creative activity. The strategy of modern education lies in the objective to give all students without exception «an opportunity to develop their talents and artistic potential implying the ability to realize their personal plans» [5].

Special relevance of the problem of creativity development is given to younger schoolchildren. At this age, learned cliche forms of behavior and thinking have not become dominant yet. A younger schoolchild has a vivid imagination, which, without a doubt, is a condition for creative establishment of a personality. And, most importantly, there are such new formations in the structure of personality of the younger schoolchild as self-analysis and internal plan of actions, de-centration, self-understanding and extension of I-image.

The younger school age is a step in personal formation of a child, development of their abilities to growing up,

responsibility for oneself and the surrounding world. Social reality acts as a basis for gradual immersion in the developing problem field of culture and understanding of sociocultural experience for the younger schoolchild. However, the driving force of a child’s social development is not just obtaining of human experience, but accumulation and expansion of life experience in the process of special interaction with an adult.

Hence, the task of development of the younger schoolchild, on the one hand as a social human, i. e. the ability to occupy their place in the society, and on the other hand as a cultured person learning culture and reforming it in their activity, is current.

Striving to learn the surrounding world and manifest their attitude towards it, the child refers directly to art as one of the most important kinds of children activity. Thus, one can and should refer to the younger school age as a sensitive period of creative development of a person. Conceiving a passion for art, the child practices their skills and develops valuable moral qualities. Socialization of their personality and development of its civil characteristics take place.

The issue of creativity was widely considered by the representatives of cognitive movement.


Influence of the social environment on development of creative potential in younger schoolchildren

In fact, one can refer the works of F. Galton, who studied intellectual gift (here, creativity acts as an intellectual gift), to the first researches [7].

R. Assagioli reckoned that creativity is the process of rising of a personality to «ideal I» and a way ofits self-revelation.

Thurstone was one of the first researchers to pay attention to difference between creative ability and intellect. He noted that such factors as peculiarities of temper, ability to learn quickly and generate ideas play an important role in creative activity, and that creative solutions come at the moment of relaxation and not at the moment when the mind deliberately focuses on solving problems.

Empiric researches in psychology of creativity aimed at revelation of intellectual activity, personal characteristics and capacity for creative activity (D. B. Bogoyavlenskaya, M. A. Kholodnaya etc.) should be noted separately.

Creative intellectual achievements are based on «the integration of different «psychical contents» in the form of knowledge, believes, emotional impressions, special states of consciousness etc. — M. A. Kholodnaya writes — with increase of creative level of intellectual gift, its psychological mechanisms become more and more personalized. Personalized, unique cognitive mechanisms take the place of general cognitive factors in the conditions of super-ordinary creative intellect» [3, 302].

D. B. Bogoyavlenskaya believes that a creative personality is a human with a high level of intellectual activity, expressed creative motivation, which is the result of cycle-personal activity processing in itself its cognitive, emotional and spiritual experience [2].

Notwithstanding a big number of researches aimed at studying creativity, the diversity of aspects and approaches to define conditions of realization and development of creative qualities in a person, the significant number of questions remains insufficiently developed. Particularly, it refers to definition of mechanisms of manifestation and formation of creative qualities of a personality in younger school age. Considering the importance of studies, a complex of social factors, influence of micro-environment on the development of creativity, it is important to study their role during this age period.

It is justified by a number of theoretical provisions uncovering the practicability of research of creativity in younger schoolchildren (L. S. Vygotsky, Yu. E. Gilbukh, N. E. Veraksa,

O. N. Garnets, V T. Kudryavtsev, M. S. Semiletkina, E. L. Yakovleva etc.) and practical value lately gained by the questions of influence of the peculiarities of micro-environment on the development of creativity in younger schoolchildren.

The growing interest for value-motivation plan of creativity enables us to make a conclusion about the establishment of a wide research strategy that regards spiritual and moral side of a human-creator as of paramount importance. Today, a lot of importance is given to spiritual and moral extent of human creativity: aspect of responsibility, «deed» — V. D. Shadrikov, a modern researcher, speaks about it. People are able to do a lot and the misbalance between their technological abilities

and spiritual resources is disastrous. Spirituality and creativity is a word combination, which is the key to discovering the value of these two notions. This problem is a scientific relay in XXI century [12].

So, what is the role of creative activity and what social conditions should be created for successful all-round development of younger schoolchildren?

The relevance of the issue is explained by the fact that the formation of an artistically active personality possessing the ability to solve life problems effectively and in out-of-the-box way is formed in younger school age and is a condition of further development of the personality and their creative activity.

All spheres of a child’s psychic are naturally involved in creativity by art and nature filling their life with real and not fictional values. It gives schoolchildren who learnt the internal essence of art an opportunity to turn their labor into beauty, the source of pleasure for themselves and people around them. Hence, social environment that implies the uniqueness of content of art and its forms in their oneness is seen by us as a reflection of reality (surrounding world) through art.

School period is characterized by rapid development of imagination determined by an intensive process of acquiring diversified knowledge and its application in practice. The importance of imagination in this sphere of human activity is considered equal to thinking. It is important that conditions of freedom of action, independence and leadership should be created for a human in order to develop imagination.

In cases when due to these or those reasons imagination in children is underdeveloped, they start doubting the existence even of quite real things. For instance, K. I. Chukovsky wrote that when in one of the schools pupils were told about sharks, one of the children shouted: «Sharks do not exist!» [6].

Along with the reduction of a human’s ability to fantasize, the personality becomes poorer, the abilities of creative thinking decrease and the interest for art and science fades.

Younger school children perform most part of their activities with the help of imagination. Their games are a fruit of vivid fantasy. They are engrossed in creative activity. The psychological basis of the latter is creative imagination. When in the process of studying children face the need to realize abstract material and they need analogies, a support due to insufficient life experience, imagination comes to rescue. Thus, the meaning of the function of imagination in psychical development is great.

Younger school age is called the peak of childhood. The child preserves many children’s qualities - carelessness, naivety, looking at an adult from bottom to top. But the child starts losing children’s spontaneity when they acquire a different logic of thinking. Studying is an important activity for them. They do not only gain knowledge and skills at school. They gain a certain social status. Their interests, values and lifestyle change.

Social world is a world which one is included into through social communication and subject-oriented activity. Participation in the activity is the basis of interaction of a personality


Section 5. Pedagogy

with social environment. Since childhood, in the process of cooperated creative activity, the motivation for activity and personal experience are formed and the specific of needs, interests and value orientations are determined; also, psycho-physiological bases of correction and self-regulation are defined.

Personal development is defined by many external and internal determinants. External factors include social environment, namely, affiliation of an individual with a certain culture, socio-economic class and family environment, which is unique for everyone. On the other hand, internal determinants include genetic, biological and physiological factors [14].

Methodological ground of modern educational paradigm in terms of influence of social environment on creative abilities of a person was clearly expressed by G.P. Schedrovitsky: «Does creativity belong to an individual or does it refer to a functional place in human organization and structure? I answer this question strictly, of course.. .A simple thing is stated: there is a culture, a combination of knowledge, which is rendered from generations to generations, and then, orthogonally to all this, a human is born, and he will either join this spirit and it will become available, or he will not join it» [10, 21].

Hereof, it is obvious that the need of formation of creative abilities should be established in culture, reflect in main cultural values and concepts realized in the child’s social environment.

It is important to understand the differences in results, which socio-pedagogical concepts different in quality give us. The whole strategy of life depends on the nature of socio-pedagogical environment, whether it will be innovative (creating conditions for active experiment) or conservative (rendering steady traditions and customs).

Based on the above stated, there is a task of formation of a social environment, which could offer a child both innovative and psychologically comfortable climate for release of their creative abilities, and the system of organizational measures and oral norms limiting and forming social responsibility for the results of their creative activity.

Taking into account the need for reformation of the system of education and its transition to a new scientifically-grounded concept of creative development and self-development of a personality, we see a solution in the following steps:

1. Active implementation of specialists on socio-pedagogical work in schools and supplementary education;

2. Organization of diverse forms and kinds of extracurricular activity on development of creative abilities;

3. Stimulation of creative and research activity of teachers on implementation of new achievements of pedagogical and psychological science in the form of teaching.

At younger school age the child’s activity becomes goal-oriented, meaningful and intended, which means that social environment becomes the main factor that forms the system and defines the peculiarities of development of creative abilities and further attitude of a person towards life in the whole.

Artwork is an excellent educational and socializing means that contributes to self-expression, development of

communicative and cognitive skills, forms active live position and increases the level of self-esteem in younger schoolchildren.

Hence, we believe that if a pedagogical space of socio-cultural development ofyounger schoolchildren is created, which will include macro- and micro-environment of development of «social understanding», zones of development of «subject qualities of a child» (self-cognition, self-upbringing, selfregulation, self-rehabilitation, self-realization, value-self-determination) and, herewith, goals and content of educational activity of primary school are agreed with the institutions of supplementary education, then one can expect value attitude to the surrounding world in younger schoolchildren, development of reflexive control, confidence in themselves, emotional stability, social adaptability, self-dependence, social activity, increase of the level of moral manner as a result of their sociocultural development.

Artwork can make the life of younger schoolchildren interesting and rich. Events on socialization should be performed through the preparation to contests and exhibitions, masterclasses; such forms of work should be offered, which will be aimed at cultivation of kindness and love for their Motherland.

Today, more and more solid steps of educational system aimed at the formation of creative thinking and imagination of schoolchildren through creative activity are observed.

In this article we would like to note the activity of an artistic union «Felt: items made of loose wool» of the Municipal budgetary educational establishment of supplementary education for children and the youth, the center for art development «Sozvezdiye» in Shatursk municipal district ofMoscow region, which contributes to development of emotionally-sensuous world of a child, where they feel secured and free.

Children with different level of development and social status, i. e. gifted and with pathologies, retardation of mental development, left- and right-handed, children from well-off and underprivileged families, cooperate, develop and study together at the given artistic union.

In order to develop creative abilities of younger schoolchildren, teachers designed a model of development of creative personality of a younger schoolchild.

Specialists rely upon the works of:

• L. Yu. Subbotina. Development of imagination in children [8];

• Yu. G. Tamberg. Development of creative thinking in a child [9];

• A. Ya. Tsukar. Classes on imagination development [11].

As a means to increase the level of creative activity, such forms of work as artistic exercises and tasks were selected. Developing goals and tasks of the given program, teachers proceed from general goals and tasks of work, which are aimed at the formation and development of abilities to manage creative process in schoolchildren: fantasizing, understanding of regularities, solving difficult problematic situations.

In the process of social support of development of creative abilities in younger schoolchildren, the sense of external


Influence of the social environment on development of creative potential in younger schoolchildren

and internal safety, relaxedness and freedom due to the support from their artistic fantasies is formed.

Schoolchildren participate annually in contests and exhibitions of different level.

Thus, in 2014 the pupils took the 1st place in the Sixth open Russian contest for decorative-applied and folk art

«Magic colors of life» conducted at the Republican Academy of supplementary education; 10 pupils became the prize winners of the 1st and 2nd degree at the International contest-exhibition «Star project»; 3 girls became the winners of the All-Russia contest «Russia is the address of childhood».

One can conclude that subject-subject relations realized at the given artistic union ensure mutual creativity and cooperation between an adult and a child, acceptance and support of their artistic manifestations.

Thus, to solve the problem of development of creative potential of a younger schoolchild, their activity and the environment should be in harmony.

The main indicators of the development of creative potential in the younger schoolchild are: presence and intensity of interest, formed interest for creativity, formed abilities for adequate (according to their inner world) perception of aspects of creative environment (emotional perception and sense of artistic style of artworks), degree of development of artistic-creative abilities, socio-useful value of the results of creative work.

Pointing out the result of inner self-asserting strengths of a child as the source of children’s creativity, the source of life itself, art, understanding the regulation of creative process, we determine the creation of the respective social conditions given the active role of a teacher as a guarantee of impact on the development of creative potential in children.

The principles of definition of a combination of conditions of organization of creative environment for the development of creative potential in the younger schoolchildren are:

- principles of humanistic orientation of pedagogical process;

- dialogue;

- integration for living a creative character and understanding of their emotional and sensuous nature when perceiving art;

- life-expositional.

Out of all principles, the most important one for us is the principle of integration for living a creative character and understanding of their emotional and sensuous nature when perceiving art. It gives an opportunity to consider different kinds of creative art not in theme unity, but in emotional kinship

through an integral systematic approach. It determines the task in creative art, which does not narrow down to simple image of an object, but expression of personal attitude towards it.

The conditions of organization of creative environment for the development of creative potential in younger schoolchildren are expressed in the following combination of forms, methods and means:

- gaining sensation experience and reflection of objective reality on the basis of knowledge about it in the form of active research of the surrounding world that presupposes the transition from passive contemplation of the studied object to active understanding and creative research work with it;

- development of colored vision through comparison of two aspects of social environment: natural and anthropogenic environment;

- communication with famous regional artists;

- understanding of the secrets of birth and formation of creative idea;

- integration for living a creative character and understanding of their emotional and sensuous nature when perceiving art;

- development of creative and constructive vision of the world;

- inclusion of the child into multi-aspect reflection of the world in creative art through communication with fine art (presentation of products of creative activity) in the form of a dialogue that presupposes communication with big art in the condition of different opinions;

- development of the sense of material;

- organization of subject-spatial surrounding of a schoolchild;

- development of the level of originality of children’s creative works (creative self-expression) through stimulation of internal motivations of the children in creative activity;

- consideration of the result as the end of creative process;

- application of games in the process of children’s artwork;

- application of creative tasks;

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- stimulation by way of evaluation of children’s creative works;

- organization of life-expositional space around a younger schoolchild.

Consequently, the development of children’s creativity directly depends on the effect of social environment, because this is where the resource for enriching subject experience of younger schoolchildren can be created.


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2. Bogoyavlenskaya D. B. About paths to creativity//Nauka i zhizn, - 1977. - № 2. - Р. 116-120.

3. Bogoyavlenskaya D. B. Major modern concepts of creativity and gift. - M. Molodaya Gvardiya, - 1997. - 379 p.

4. Kaloshina I. P. Psychology of creative activity. Manual for university students - M.: Yuniti-Dana, - 2012. - 655 p.

5. Shaun McNiff Integral perception of art therapy//Curing art: art therapy journal. - 2005. - Volume 8. - № 1. - Р. 10-23.

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Section 5. Pedagogy

8. Subbotina L. Yu. Development of imagination in children. - Yaroslavl: Nauka, - 1997. - 240 p.

9. Tamberg Yu. G. Development of creative thinking in a child. Published by «Rech», - SPb, - 2002. - 173 p.

10. Torshina K. A. Modern research of a problem of creativity in foreign psychology//Issues of psychology. - 1998. -№ 4. - Р. 21-48.

11. Tsukar A. Ya. Lessons of imagination development. Published by Rolf, - 2000. - 208 p.

12. Shadrikov V D. Psychology of activity and abilities of a man: Manual, 2nd edition, revised and completed. - M.: Logo”, -1996. - 320 p.

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Degtyaryova Galina Anatolievna, Kharkov Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine, chief of methods of teaching languages and literature department, candidate of pedagogical science, Doctor of Philosophy

E-mail: metukrlit@list.ru

The issues of standardization of teachers’ information-communication competency assessment

Abstract: In the article the approaches to standardization of teachers’ ICT-competence assessment in Ukraine and abroad are singled out. The attention to the necessity of standards’ working out in Ukraine for teachers’ ICT-competence in the system of postgraduate education is made.

Keywords: ICT-competence, standards, standards of teachers’ ICT-competence assessment, certification of ICT-competency, levels of teachers’ ICT-competence, the teacher’s basic ICT-competence, indicators of teachers’ informational and communication competences.

Problem statement. The modern professional’s information and communication competence (IC competence) is becoming one of the major qualities nowadays. As far as we focus on teachers, the IC competence is one of the central constituents of their professional competence and its assessment is essential for their successful professional development. K. Osadcha (2009) notes that the teachers’ IC competency standards and norms set the list of the correspondent professional requirements to improve the quality of educational work via the IC skills development. She also takes notice that the educational system improvement will promote the further social and economic development of the society” [9].

The aims and objectives of the article are to develop the approaches to teachers’ information communication competency assessment standardization in foreign countries and in Ukraine in order to work out and perform the special standards for teachers’ professional development assessment.

The analysis of recent research. The wide range of standards for teachers’ IC professional competency has been developed in the world. A lot of international institutions have been involved into this process. Here belong the Career Space (http://www.career_space.com), Le Cigref (http://www.ci-gref.fr), The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (http://www.oecd.org), European Information Technology Observatory (http://www.eito. com), European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) (http://www.cedefop.eu.int), E___Skills

NTO (http://www.e_skillsnot.org.uk), Council of European Professional Informatics Society (http://www.cepis.org), Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (http://www.cio_dpi. gc.ca), Australia National Training Authority, National Training Information Service (http://www.ntis.gov.au).

In the USA, the National Educational Technology Standards (NETS), supported by the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) are constantly implemented and updated in every state. The teachers-oriented Technology Standards have been implemented in 27 states from 42. National Educational Technology Standard (NETS^T) and Performance Indicators for Teachers (2008) perform the teachers’ activity coefficients and it considers the key positions of National Educational Technology Standards for students (NETS^S), because teachers develop, implement and assess the experience in order to encourage students and improve the learning process, enrich each other with professional practice, implement positive models for students, colleagues and society as I. Malitska notices [8].

In Europe, various organizations had developed the problem of IC competency assessment and certification by 2006 already. So, in the United Kingdom it is UK — public funding for industry certifications; in Ireland — Ireland — Higher Education & Training Awards Council; in Italy — an Italy — EUCIP in university syllabus; in Netherlands — Holland MoU for secondary schools (schools for profile), in Portugal — Portugal MoU — Cisco Network Academy; in Scotland — Scotland — Digital Media & ICT Vendor


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