Научная статья на тему 'Functional state study of cardiovascular system among young boxers during special-preparatory period of the training process'

Functional state study of cardiovascular system among young boxers during special-preparatory period of the training process Текст научной статьи по специальности «Фундаментальная медицина»

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Ключевые слова
cardiovascular system / young boxers / functional state / special-preparatory stage

Аннотация научной статьи по фундаментальной медицине, автор научной работы — Albina F. Gaynullina, Alexsandr L. Lintvarev, Elvira S. Shayakhmetova

Young boxers’ training loads during special-preparatory period lead to considerable functional state tension of most physiological systems in an organism, in particular, cardiovascular system. That is why, in order to correct functional state of cardiovascular system and solve the problem of the loads increase or decrease, scientists recommend estimating this index during different periods of the training process. Materials. This research work studies the peculiarities of adaptation of young boxers’ main system of an organism. Research methods: scientific-methodical literature analysis and summarizing, pedagogical experiment, methodology, testing, statistical data handling. Results. During the research it was revealed that the mean values of blood pressure among young boxers were within the range of normal values in terms of different heart rate. However, short-term physical loads lead to negative levels of cardiovascular system (“bad”, “below the average”) working capacity among 41,6% of sportsmen from the control group and among 33,4% of boxers from the experimental group. Conclusion. The revealed peculiarities of the functional state of an organism among young boxers at special-preparatory stage of the yearly training cycle revealed the necessity to use the sessions of audiovisual stimulation, directed at internal reserves of organism activation in order to fulfill physiological functions rehabilitation and development.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Functional state study of cardiovascular system among young boxers during special-preparatory period of the training process»

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Authors information

Ludmila D. Nazarenko - Doctor of Pedagogics, Professo, Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University Named after I.N. Ulyanov, 4,Area of 100 th Anniversary of V.I. Lenin's Birth, Ulyanovsk, 432700, Russia, E-mail: ld_nazarenko@mail.ru

Elena E. Panova - Candidate of Pedagogics, Associate Professor Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University Named after I.N. Ulyanov, Area of 100 th Anniversary of V.I. Lenin's Birth, Ulyanovsk, 432700, Russia

Olga N. Valkina - Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University Named after I.N. Ulyanov, 4, Area of 100 th Anniversary of V.I. Lenin's Birth, Ulyanovsk, 432700, Russia

For citations: Nazarenko L.D., Panova E.E., Valkina O.N. Psyhological - pedagogical basis of gender upbrining, The Russian journal of physical education and sport (pedagogico-psychological and medico-biological problems of physical culture and sports), 2017, Vol. 12, No.3, pp. 172-178. DOI 10.14526/03 2017 255

DOI 10.14526/03_2017_256

FUNCTIONAL STATE STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM AMONG YOUNG BOXERS DURING SPECIAL-PREPARATORY PERIOD OF THE TRAINING PROCESS

Albina F. Gaynullina - Postgraduate Student Bashkir State Pedagogical University Named after M. Akmulla, 3, October Revolution Str.,Ufa, 450000, Russia Alexsandr L. Lintvarev - Associate Professor Bashkir State University, 3, Zaki Validi str., Ufa, 450017, Russia Elvira S. Shayakhmetova - Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor Bashkir State Pedagogical University Named after M. Akmulla, 3, October revolution str.,Ufa, 450000, Russia

e-mail: Shaga.elv@yandex.ru

Annotation. Young boxers' training loads during special-preparatory period lead to considerable functional state tension of most physiological systems in an organism, in particular, cardiovascular system. That is why, in order to correct junctional state of cardiovascular system and solve the problem of the loads increase or decrease, scientists recommend estimating this index during different periods of the training process. Materials. This research work studies the peculiarities of adaptation of young boxers' main system of an organism. Research methods: scientific-methodical literature analysis and summarizing, pedagogical experiment, methodology, testing, statistical data handling. Results. During the research it was revealed that the mean values of blood pressure among young boxers were within the range of normal values in terms of different heart rate. However, short-term physical loads lead to negative levels of cardiovascular system ("bad", "below the average ") working capacity among 41,6% of sportsmen from the control group and among 33,4% of boxers from the experimental group. Conclusion. The revealed peculiarities of the functional state of an organism among young boxers at special-preparatory stage of the yearly training cycle revealed the necessity to use the sessions of audiovisual stimulation, directed at internal reserves of organism activation in order to fulfill physiological functions rehabilitation and development.

Keywords: cardiovascular system, young boxers, functional state, special-preparatory stage.

Urgency. It is known, that the training loads of young boxers during special-preparatory process lead to considerable functional state tension of most physiological systems in an organism, in particular, cardiovascular system (CVS) [6, 7]. That is why, in order to correct functional state of cardiovascular system and solve the problem of the loads increase or decrease, scientists recommend estimating this index during different periods of the training process [2, 4].

The aim of this research work is functional state peculiarities study of cardiovascular system among young boxers during special-preparatory stage of yearly training cycle.

Research organization, research methods and the methodology of the research. The research was held on the basis

of psychophysiology and experimental psychology laboratory of Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M. Akmulla, sport complex of Bashkir State University and on the basis of "Dynamo" stadium in Ufa.

The research works were held during special-preparatory period. This stage was chosen because of different kinds and high physical loads, which should lead to considerable functional transformations in an organism of sportsmen. At the beginning and the end of the research sportsmen went through thorough medical check-up in the Republican medical-physical dispensary and were healthy.

In terms of educational-training process 72 sportsmen (13-14 years-old), which formed the control group (CG) and the

experimental group (EG) were examined. Sportsmen from the control and the experimental groups were of the same age, had the same experience of going in for boxing and the level of readiness. Sportsmen were allowed to take part in physiological examination on the basis of written consent from one of the parents and administration of sports school.

In terms of the research young boxers' level of adaptive abilities of cardiovascular system was estimated according to the value of adaptive potential of blood-circulation apparatus (APbca, absolute units, a.u.), estimated according to a traditional methodology of R.M. Baevskiy (APp) [1] and calculated according to the offered by the author formula.

AP=0,011(HR)+0,014(SBP)+0,008(DBP)+0

where: AP - adaptive potential, points; A - age, years; BW - body weight, kg; H -height, cm, HR - heart rate; SBP - systolic blood pressure; DBP - diastolic blood pressure.

On the basis of the received APp values the following levels of adaptive abilities of blood-circulation apparatus were revealed: 1) satisfactory adaptation; 2) tensity of adaptation mechanisms; 3) unsatisfactory adaptation; 4) adaptation break-down.

Functional state of cardiovascular system regulatory mechanisms study was realized according to the methodology of variation cardio-intervalometry (VCM). Electriccardiosignals were registered, recorded and analyzed with the help of APPT -1/30 (apparatus of psychophysiologic testing) "Psychophysiologist" (LLC Medicom MTD, Taganrog) from built into the frame of apparatus electrodes.

Mathematical-statistical handling of the experimental material was held with the help of Microsoft Exsel and software package Statistica 6,0. In order to reveal the differences in physiological indices of 13-14 year-old boxers the method of groups comparison, according to Student t-test, was used (with significance level p<0,05, p<0,001).

Research results and their discussion. Functional abilities estimation of boxers' cardiovascular system was realized according to the value of Harvard-step test index and helped to reveal the following levels of working capacity. The results of analysis are presented in table 1.

During special-preparatory period the level of young sportsmen's functional state cardiovascular system was estimated in the following way: "perfect" (91,1±0,45 c.u.) -among 2,8% of sportsmen from the control group (CG) and 5,6% of sportsmen from the experimental group (EG). "Good" level (83,2±0,80 c.u.) was revealed among 36,1% of sportsmen from the control group and 30,5% of sportsmen from the experimental group. "Average state" of cardiovascular ,0iyli(te^0,002+BWW0-e,ii.()9wi)-§m3ng 19,5% of sportsmen from the CG and 30,5% of sportsmen from the EG. Cardiovascular system state "below the average" (62,2+0,64 c.u.) was revealed among 22,2% of sportsmen from the CG and 16,7% of sportsmen from the EG. "Bad state" of cardiovascular system (61,2+0,45 c.u.) was among 19,4% of sportsmen from the CG and 16,7% of sportsmen from the EG.

Also adaptive abilities of 72 boxers' cardiovascular system were studied during special-preparatory period. SBP( systolic blood pressure) was 119,2 mm of mercury, DBP (diastolic blood pressure) - 66,7 mm of mercury, HR - 72,2 bpm. It should be noted, that mean values of blood pressure among young boxers were within the range of normal values (116/66 mm of mercury) in terms of different frequency of heart rate. HR increase of normal values among 22,2% of the respondents we connect with hormonal transformations during pubertal period of an organism development. During this period young boxers had satisfactory adaptation of blood-circulation apparatus (1,22±0,04 c.u.).

Summarizing, one may conclude that, from the point of physiology, functional state estimation is realized by means of blood circulation level working capacity diagnostics, the features of developing tiredness revelation as the criterion of the

functional state transfer from the norm to pathology.

Table 1 - The results of functional state of cardiovascular system study among young boxers

(n=72), %

The levels of cardiovascular system working capacity Harvard-step test indices, c.u. Control group (n=36) Experimental group (n=36)

Qu antity % Qu antity %

Bad lower than 61 7 19, 4 6 16, 7

Below the average 61 - 70 8 22, 2 6 16, 7

Average 71 - 80 7 19, 4 11 30, 5

Good 81 - 90 13 36, 1 11 30, 5

Perfect 91 - 100 1 2,8 2 5,6

As a result of the research during special-preparatory period it was revealed that the mean values of blood pressure among young boxers were within the range of normal values with different frequency of heart rate. However, short-term physical loads lead to negative levels of working capacity of cardiovascular system ("bad", "below the average") among 41,6% of sportsmen from the control group and among 33,4% of boxers from the experimental group.

Training loads of special-preparatory, pre-competitive and competitive periods lead to compensator- adaptive mechanisms tension with reversable and irreversible phenomena of disadaptation development [7].

Taking this into consideration it is necessary to reveal and correct timely developing dysfunctions of sportsmen's organism systems, monitor their health in dynamics of training-competitive process.

One of the informative methods of functional state of an organism study is the method of variation cardio-intervalometry (VCM). The advantages of this method are the following: non-invasiveness, high level of efficiency and informativity, simplicity and

availability of the initial information [3, 5, 8].

On the basis of heart rate calculation heart rate variability was estimated according to 5 functional levels: functional state of the organism in norm; functional state close to optimal one; permissible functional state; maximum permissible functional state; functional state negative tension; critical functional state .

Table 2 shows that the level of functional state among young boxers was the following: 16,6% of boxers from the control group and 11,1% of sportsmen from the experimental group had critical state of cardiovascular system and were recommended to visit cardiologist. Negative level was revealed among 11,1% of sportsmen from the control and the experimental group. Maximum permissible cardiovascular system state was among 19,5% of athletes from the control group and 30,6% of sportsmen from the experimental group; permissible functional state had 36,2% of sportsmen from the control group and 30,6% of sportsmen from the experimental group, close to optimal level had 16,6% of sportsmen from the control group and 16,6% from the

experimental group. Thus, prevailing part of sinoatrial rate, some predominance of

boxers from the control (36%) and ergotropic activity in terms of the balanced

experimental (30,6%) groups had an optimal influence of the central and autonomous

functional state, which is characterized by circuit of regulation and a high level of

normocardia (with HR higher than mean functional abilities. values) in combination with an optimal

Table 2 - The results of functional state level study of cardiovascular system (n=72), %

Functional state level Control group (n=36) Experimental group (n=36)

Quanti ty % Quanti ty %

0 - critical 6 16,6 4 11,1

1 - negative 4 11,1 4 11,1

2 - maximum permissible 7 19,5 11 30,6

3 - permissible 13 36,2 11 30,6

4 - close to optimal 6 16,6 6 16,6

5 - optimal - - - -

Adaptation peculiarities of vegetative nervous system during special-preparatory stage of yearly training cycle are in an insignificant shift of vegetative balance towards sympathetic nervous system prevalence. All heart rate variability indices prove the ability decrease of sinoatrial node to concentrate heart rate, high mobilization of blood circulation organs, centralization degree increase of heart rate control. Such kind of vegetative balance shifts towards sympathicotonia can be connected with the training process intensification, the number of training combats increase, psycho-emotional tension.

Conclusion. Thus, received during the research results help to state that sports activity is a wasteful activity, as it leads to some organism resources exhaustion. It is proved by functional states of cardiovascular system, which are defined as "negative" and "maximum permissible". At the same time, functional state indices of cardiovascular system can be reliable indicators of tiredness. It is known that the level of training and psycho-emotional loads of pre-competitive period is sufficiently high and the definite

conditions violation of a sportsman's health preservation (timely diagnostics and prevention of tiredness and overtiredness, regimen of rest realization, vitaminization and correct nutrition and others) can lead to competitive effectiveness and sports longevity decrease. The revealed peculiarities of the functional state of an organism among young boxers at special-preparatory stage of the yearly training cycle revealed the necessity to use the sessions of audiovisual stimulation, directed at internal reserves of organism activation in order to fulfill physiological functions rehabilitation and development.

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Authors information:

Albina F. Gaynullina - Postgraduate Student Bashkir State Pedagogical University Named after M. Akmulla, 3, October Revolution Str.,Ufa, 450000, Russia

Alexsandr L. Lintvarev - Associate Professor Bashkir State University, 3, Zaki Validi str., Ufa, 450017, Russia

Elvira S. Shayakhmetova - Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor Bashkir State Pedagogical University Named after M. Akmulla, 3, October Revolution str.,Ufa, 450000, Russia, Ee-mail: Shaga.elv@yandex.ru

For citations: A.F. Gaynullina, A.L. Lintvarev, E.S. Shayahmetova. Functional state study of cardiovascular system among youth boxers during special-preparatory period of the training process, The Russian journal of physical education and sport (pedagogico-psychological and medico-biological problems of physical culture and sports), 2017, Vol. 12, No.3, pp. 178-183. DOI 10.14526/03 2017 256

DOI 10.14526/03_2017_257

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