Научная статья на тему 'Food resources with nutrients'

Food resources with nutrients Текст научной статьи по специальности «Фундаментальная медицина»

CC BY
140
15
i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.
Журнал
Colloquium-journal
Ключевые слова
nutrition / food / raw materials / cereals / nutrients / dried fruits / питание / еда / сырье / злаки / питательные вещества / сухофрукты

Аннотация научной статьи по фундаментальной медицине, автор научной работы — Eshpanov V. S., Serikova A. S., Artykbaev Zh. S., Sarsembay M. V.

This article presents the material on nutrition, on the example of cereal porridge with the addition of dried fruits in the formulation, which retain all the unique balance of nutrients and thus increase the nutritional value of cereals.

i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.
iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.
i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.

В данной статье представлен материал по питанию на примере каши из злаков с добавлением в рецептуру сухофруктов, которые сохраняют весь уникальный баланс питательных веществ и тем самым увеличивают питательную ценность злаков.

Текст научной работы на тему «Food resources with nutrients»

/ BIOLOGICAL SOENgES 5

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

УДК: 582.575.94

Eshpanov V.S. Serikova A.S. Artykbaev Zh.S.

Kazakh University of Technology and Business

Sarsembay M. V. gymnasium № 22 Astana, Republic of Kazakhstan

FOOD RESOURCES WITH NUTRIENTS

Ешпанов В. С. Серикова А.С. Артыкбаев Ж.С.

Казахский университет технологии и бизнеса

Сарсембай М.В.

школа - гимназия №22,Республика Казахстан, г. Астана ПРОДОВОЛЬСТВЕННЫЕ РЕСУРСЫ С ПИТАТЕЛЬНЫМИ ВЕЩЕСТВАМИ Abstract

This article presents the material on nutrition, on the example of cereal porridge with the addition of dried fruits in the formulation, which retain all the unique balance of nutrients and thus increase the nutritional value of cereals.

Аннотация

В данной статье представлен материал по питанию на примере каши из злаков с добавлением в рецептуру сухофруктов, которые сохраняют весь уникальный баланс питательных веществ и тем самым увеличивают питательную ценность злаков.

Key words: nutrition, food, raw materials, cereals, nutrients, dried fruits

Ключевые слова: питание, еда, сырье, злаки, питательные вещества, сухофрукты.

One of the most valuable food resources is cereal crops. Cereals contain different amounts of vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins and fats. They are mainly divided on the nature of the cultivation and morphological characteristics of corn bread the first group of these cereals (winter and spring wheat, winter and spring rye, winter and spring barley, oats), grain bread the second group - millet (maize, millet, sorghum, rice).

From grain produce food: flour, cereals, bread and pasta.

Cereals one of the most important food products in the human diet is 8 - 13% of the total grain consumption, and having a high nutritional value are whole or crushed grains. It contains vitamins, mineral salts, essential amino acids [1,c.28].

Cereals are popular in the preparation of a variety of first and second courses in cooking, as well as for the production of canned food and food concentrates in the food industry. The chemical composition of cereals depends on the type of grain and production technology. Cereals contain 60-85% of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates cereals-it's mostly starch, a small amount of sugar and fiber. The change in the volume of cereals during cooking and the consistency of cereals depends on the properties and amount of starch. In cereals, rice, millet and corn have distinctive starch content. The protein content in cereals 7-13%. They are mostly complete and easily digestible for the human body. The largest protein substance in legumes. In cereals in a small amount of about 1-2% fat, and oatmeal-5,8-6,2%.

As well as cereals contain minerals and vitamins. Energy value 100 grams of cereals 322-356 1347-1489 kcal or kJ.

For the production of cereals is used for hydrothermal treatment (steaming under pressure) and drying. With this treatment, the cooking time is shortened (makes cereals boil quickly) and increases resistance during storage. During grinding the grain is removed fruit and seed shells, aleurone layer, embryo, due to grinding they take a rounded or oval shape, and the surface becomes matte or rough.

In some cereals such as rice and peas, an additional polishing process takes place, while the shell and the aleurone layer are removed. After the cereals improved appearance, but the value of nutrients is much reduced. Also in this process, the fiber removes: protein, vitamins, and minerals. Cereals are divided into varieties (millet, rice, buckwheat, oat), numbers (pearl barley, wheat, corn, oat flakes Extra) and brand (semolina) [2, c.256].

Cereals is the main natural raw material and the key to address the issues of filling the missing essential macro and micronutrients to the human body, with regular inclusion of human diet enriches vital nutrients.

In this regard, it is possible to carry out reduction, additive and detoxification therapy, individual correction of the nutritional status of the patient, and the life expectancy increases. The daily energy value of the human diet in the diet depends on the use proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and also need to take into account age,

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES / <<C©LL©MUM-J©U®MAL>>#2Î2&)),2(0]9

6

physical labor and climate. For example, for young people who live in a temperate climate and are not engaged in physical labor: proteins-13%, fats-33%, carbohydrates - 54% 100%, they approximate ratio of carbohydrates: starch 75-85%, easily digestible carbohydrates - 15-20%, fiber and pectins - 5%. When the ratio of essential vitamins per 1000 kcal (4,184 kJ) vitamin C - 25 mg, B1 - 0.6 mg, B2 - 0.7 mg, B6 a-0.7 mg, PP - 6.6 mg and for calcium and phosphorus, magnesium is 1:1,5:0,5.

However, to the human body received enough vitamins can be added to cereals dried fruits - fruits and berries dried. In the process of drying fruits retain most of the beneficial properties. They are rich in mineral elements (iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium), vitamins (A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6) and the protein content of 250 kcal and 1.5 - 5 g per 100 g Dried fruit gives you a chance to extend the storage life of the fruit, and it is one of the advantages of the flow of nutrients in the human body. Dried fruits are usually added in the cooking of pastries, cereals, muesli. With their daily use can improve health. In our time in Italy began to promote a new direction "dried fruits on our table" all year round, even in the season of fresh fruit. Dried fruits are best consumed during a shortage of fresh fruit and at the same time the human body needs vitamins [3].

With proper drying of fruit, you can keep all the unique balance of nutrients is vitamins and minerals: iron, magnesium, calcium. For example, five slices of dried apricot medium, contains a full daily rate of iron and calcium, they normalize the level of hemoglobin in our blood. Dried fruits-satisfy hunger, with daily use on the tenth day, the face is refreshed, nails and hair strengthen, digestion improves. Without harming the human body can also meet the need for sweet, as they are rich in fructose. Useful for the body are all kinds of

dried fruits, below are the useful properties of some dried fruits:

• Apricot, dried apricots - anemia and visual impairment

• Figs - dysfunction of the thyroid gland

• Pineapple-obesity for weight loss

• Apple, pear-in diseases: gastritis, gastrointestinal tract, blood, kidney, pecheniesli in the daily diet of a person include 150-200g of different types of dried fruits (pear, Apple, raisins, dried apricots, banana, plum, melon, pineapple), the body can normalize the metabolism and problems with the gastrointestinal tract, and when combined with nuts can fill hunger and nutrients. Products containing micronutrients are listed below:

• Green and yellow vegetables, peaches, apricots, legumes, apples and liver - vitamin A

• Broccoli, fish, prunes, raisins,

• Meat, beans, bread-vitamin B

• Liver, seeds, nuts, cereals, egg yolk-vitamin E

• Fish, seafood-vitamin D

• Mussels, sesame and pumpkin seeds, almonds, greens, beef, cheese, peanuts, legumes, wheat seedlings-Zinc

• Eggs, seafood, meat, liver, nuts, cereals-Selenium

One of the objectives of the research work is the theoretical and practical development of the formulation of cereals intended for school meals using the selection of components [4].

For this purpose, various raw materials were studied: cereals, dried fruits, nuts and vegetables. The composition of the formulation of cereals is planned to include: buckwheat crushed, crushed rice, barley, millet, dried fruit pear, apricot, dried pumpkin, pumpkin seeds. Was carried outrecruiting basics grain cereal. Table 1 shows the chemical composition of the components of porridge.

Table 1.

Chemical composition of grain porridge

a & Components Content grams per 100g

^ H Water Protein Fat Carbohydrates

% Buckwheat 14,0 12,6 2,6 68,0

sS 0J Rice 14,0 7,0 0,6 77,3

•U Millet 14,0 12,0 2,9 69,3 s

Barley 14,0 10,4 1,3 71,4 S

1 Pumpkin 20 1,3 0,3 7,7 >

Pumpkin seeds 18 24,5 45,8 4,7

•a a •c o Pear 24 2,3 0,6 62,6

Apricot (without stones') 20,2 5,2 0,3 51

The recipe of porridge is simulated taking into account requirements of rational food of the schoolboy.

<<Ш11ШетиМ-^©и©МА1>#М2&)),2(0]9 / BIOLOGICAL SClENgES

7

Table 2.

Shows the experimental formulation of porridge.

Names of raw materials Quantity, %

Grain crop

1. Crushed rice remainder

2. Buckwheat crushed 19-21%

3. Barley 18-20%

4. Millet 16%

Dried fruits (powder)

5. Pear and apricot (pitted) 10-12%

6. Pumpkin 4-8%

7. Pumpkin seeds 1-2%

Dry milk 12-15%

Salt 0,5-1%

Subtotal 100%

The main objective of the decision of school nutrition should include: continuous monitoring of the state of nutrition, the study of the possibility of using all types of raw materials to create an affordable food product with high nutritional and biological value, the widespread introduction of preventive fortification and mineralization programs, the development of assortment and technology of new types of semi-finished products, the production of which is possible in an industrial way, taking into account the requirements for school food, interested officials responsible for the nutrition of children in organized groups, development

and implementation of the legal framework necessary for the implementation of the directions.

Bibliography:

1. Shepelev, A. F.: commodity and examination of goods seromycin. Textbook. - Rostov-on-don: publishing center March, 2001- C.504.

2. Butkovskii, V. A.: Technology of grain processing industries. - Moscow: integraf SERVIS, - 1999 - C. 472.

3. http://sci-arti-cle.ru/stat.php?i=1409801277htm(10.09.2014)

4. http://useful-food.ru/suxof-rukty/htm(10.09.2014)

УДК 577. 1 (075.8)

Костенков Евгений Александрович, Загайнов Максим Александрович

БГТУ «Военмех» имени Д.Ф. Устинова

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ ВИТАМИНА «С» В СОКАХ И СОКОСОДЕРЖАЩИХ НАПИТКАХ

Zagaynov Maxim Alexandrovich, Kostenkov Eugene Alexandrovich

BSTU "Voenmekh" named after D. F. Ustinov

THE CONTENT OF VITAMIN «C» IN JUICES AND JUICE DRINKS

Abstract

In this paper, we determined the content of vitamin "C" in juices and juice-containing drinks. A chemical study was conducted, with the help of which we compared the amount of vitamin "C" in juices purchased in the trading network of the city, freshly squeezed juices, fresh fruits in the laboratory. The article presents the results of studies conducted using the method of iodometry.

Аннотация

В данной работе мы определили содержание витамина «С» в соках и сокосодержащих напитках. Было проведено химическое исследование, с помощью которого мы сравнили количество витамина «С» в соках, приобретенных в торговой сети города, свежеотжатых в лабораторных условиях соках, свежих фруктах. В статье приводятся результаты исследований, проведенных с использованием метода йодо-метрии.

Keywords: vitamins, vitamin "C", juices, fruit, iodometry.

Ключевые слова: витамины, витамин «С», соки, фрукты, йодометрия.

В настоящее время в торговой сети города продается огромное количество наименований соков и сокосодержащих напитков. Также часть горожан готовит свежевыжатые соки.

Поскольку потребление витамина «С» непосредственно влияет на состояние здоровья человека, а на растущий организм подростков в особенности, то знать, сколько мы употребляем его в

i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.