Научная статья на тему 'FEATURES OF AUDIO-VISUAL EDITING OF THE FILM “BYGONE DAYS”'

FEATURES OF AUDIO-VISUAL EDITING OF THE FILM “BYGONE DAYS” Текст научной статьи по специальности «Искусствоведение»

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Oriental Art and Culture
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sound / film / music functions / noise functions / audio-visual editing / sound film / author's music / folk music / uzbek cinema

Аннотация научной статьи по искусствоведению, автор научной работы — Shoxrat Charievich Amanmuradov

This article is devoted to the features of audio-visual editing on the example of film “Bygone days" (1969). The author of the article reviews the functions of musical and background noise design of the film. Music is subdivided into author’s music and folk music, borrowed from the musical heritage of the Uzbek people. The article contains the musical characteristics of the main characters, as well as an analysis of the offscreen sound of folk instrumental music. At the end of the article, the author writes about the significance of this film in the history of the development of Uzbek cinema.

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Текст научной работы на тему «FEATURES OF AUDIO-VISUAL EDITING OF THE FILM “BYGONE DAYS”»

FEATURES OF AUDIO-VISUAL EDITING OF THE FILM "BYGONE

DAYS"

Shoxrat Charievich Amanmuradov shokhrat26@yandex.ru UzSIAC

Abstract: This article is devoted to the features of audio-visual editing on the example of film "Bygone days" (1969). The author of the article reviews the functions of musical and background noise design of the film. Music is subdivided into author's music and folk music, borrowed from the musical heritage of the Uzbek people. The article contains the musical characteristics of the main characters, as well as an analysis of the offscreen sound of folk instrumental music. At the end of the article, the author writes about the significance of this film in the history of the development of Uzbek cinema.

Keywords: sound, film, music functions, noise functions, audio-visual editing, sound film, author's music, folk music, uzbek cinema.

Introduction

The cinematography of Uzbekistan in the second half of the 1960s entered the history of the development of Uzbek cinema under the name "poetic wave". This era "turned out to be so prolific that its echoes in one form or another are reflected in the creative searches of directors of all subsequent periods" [4, 139].

The feature film "Bygone Days" directed by Yuldash Azamov, representing the genre of the film adaptation of a literary work, was created in 1969. It is based on the historical novel "Utgan Kunlar" ("Bygone days") by the famous Uzbek writer Abdulla Qodiriy. The music for the film was written by composer M.Leviev; sound director - G.Senchilo. A. Qodiriy's novel, with its vividly outlined images of heroes and colorful pictures of national life, provided the filmmakers with a large and interesting material for recreating the historical panorama of the mid-19th century. While unfolding this topic, an important role is given to music.

Main part

The music for the film largely aligns with the existing experience in this field in Uzbek cinema. Here you can feel the reliance on the experience of using music in the film "Nasreddin in Bukhara". Like in the film "Nasreddin in Bukhara", in "Bygone days" music is presented in two main "versions" - author's music written by composer M. Leviev, and traditional Uzbek music (both folk and classical professional). M. Leviev's compositional music is designed in the national style and has a bright flavor. This helped to achieve a complete stylistic unity in musical terms.

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At the same time, traditional music very closely follows the plot of the film, strictly corresponds to its historical reality. In addition, traditional music also corresponds to its local features - the Fergana-Tashkent area, where all the events take place and are described in A. Qodiriy's novel and reflected in the film.

The film begins, the credits appear while national music is played by the orchestra. Then there is an episode of the wedding of the main characters-Atabek and Kumish, in which a typical folk ensemble for such events (an ensemble like "karnai-surnai"), consisting of three karnai, two surnai and nagora, plays in the frame. This is followed by a performance in the frame of the singer with an ensemble (consisting of tanbur, dutar, etc.), also typical for Ferghana style of performance. Then there is a merry-making of girls-bridesmaids with singing and dancing to the famous Ferghana wedding song "Er-er", which is also characterizes the city of Margilan and the Ferghana Valley in general. Thus, we see a strong influence of the musical and ethnographic beginning, which, however, is completely justified and organically connected with the events taking place in the film. And most importantly, it exactly corresponds to the local (Ferghana) type of culture.

Photo 1. Frame from the film "Bygone days" The same exact musical and musical-historical signs should include: the rhythm beaten out on the big drum (in the frame), during the execution of Atabek and his father-in-law suspected of treason; the sounds of doira beating out a certain rhythm (usul) at night (voice-over); the game of the karnai-surnai ensemble (in the frame), during the performance of "acrobats" in Tashkent, etc.

The film highlights the episode of Atabek's visit to a teahouse (so-called "choyxona") and his attempts to forget about the grief that has befallen him, turning to wine drinking and music. This episode stands out noticeably in Qodiriy's novel itself, as it describes the hero's special attitude to music, and contains deep judgments about music. Classical Uzbek music, which sounds in the frame, very accurately

conveys the mental state of the hero, corresponds to his experiences and imaginations about his beloved.

To create a stable characterization of the hero, his emotional state and accompanying states, the composer created a very expressive melody - a kind of vocalization performed by a female voice without words. This melody, sustained in the tradition of national classical singing, serves as a leitmotif. It not only reveals the character's condition, but also greatly enhances the dramatic action in all the episodes where it appears. As such it appears in the episode of the delivery of prisoners of Atabek and his father-in-law on the arba, the meeting of Atabek and Kumish, the leaving of Atabek from Margilan to Tashkent. And at the very end - in the episode of Atabek's farewell to the deceased Kumish, where this lonely female voice takes on an expressive symbolic meaning - the tragic end of pure love, doomed to perish by insurmountable obstacles.

In addition to this melody, we can separate another leitmotif-an instrumental melody of an expressively sad nature, performed solo on an oboe that imitates the national instrument surnai in its sound. This timbre effect, supplemented in some cases by other instruments, creates a very expressive image of sadness and grief, close to the state of doom. It psychologically reinforces the scene of the meeting between Atabek and Kumish after her arrival in Tashkent, shortly before her death. Here, the solo instrument is played against the background of a harp accompaniment.

It is possible to note several other very successful musical characteristics present in the film - this is, for example, the musical characteristic of the mass scene-an episode of mugging and robbery of the ordinary population of Tashkent - it takes

place against the background of mourning choral singing. The background solo playing of the national instrument gijak, during Atabek's exile from the house of his fiancee, and his leaving from Margilan to Tashkent, etc., is expressive. There are also successfully "recorded" sounds of nature in the film - birdsong during Atabek's travels from Tashkent to Margilan, and back through the foothills, with their rich green vegetation; the sounds of turtledoves in the courtyard of the house (khovli) of Atabek's parents, which creates a typical picture of the traditional way of life of a wealthy family with its peace and illusory well-being.

Thus, the musical design of the film "Bygone days" is organized in the best traditions of Uzbek cinema, which have already developed by this time. The main one is the exact adherence to the historical reality displayed on the screen, the exact correspondence of the included music to the emotional experiences of the film's characters, and compliance with national ideas about the artistic, aesthetic and functional significance of a particular type of music. The film shows a very careful and thoroughly considered attitude of the composer to the author's music created by him, the desire to achieve its full compliance with national traditions and the director's dramatic plan. The audio-visual editing of this film is one of the best achievements of Uzbek cinema and can serve as an example of a thoughtful and deeply meaningful and conceptual approach to this area of cinematic art.

Conclusion

On December 29, 2019, with the support of the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Uzbekkino and 10 national TV channels organized a campaign to broadcast the full version of the film "Bygone days". The screening of the film, based on the novel by the outstanding writer Abdulla Qodiriy, is timed to coincide with the 125th anniversary of his birth. "On the personal initiative of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev Miromonovich, full version of the popularly beloved film "Bygone days", created in 1969 by the famous director Yuldash Azimov, was restored and digitized from the negative film and transferred to Uzbekistan on December 27, 2019," - said F.Abdukhalikov, General Director of Uzbekkino. The unprecedented action, which was carried out with the support of the well-known patron Alisher Usmanov, was the first step in the implementation of a national project to return digitized versions of masterpieces of national cinema from the Russian film fund.

Reference

1. Abul-Kasimova X., Teshabayev D., Mirzamuxamedova M. Kino Uzbekistana. Tashkent: Izdatelstvo literaturi i iskusstva im. Gafura Gulyama, 1985. -286 c.

2. Abul-Kasimova X. Osnovi kinoiskusstva. Tashkent., 2007. - 120 c.

3. Annotirovanniy katalog xudojestvennogo kino Uzbekistana (1925 - 2008). [Kollektiv avtorov]. /Otvetstvenniy redaktor Xaytmatova S.A. Tashkent: Izdatelstvo jurnala «San'at», 2009. - 242 c.

4. Karimova N. Igrovoy kinematograf Uzbekistana. Tashkent: Izdatelstvo jurnala «San'at» , 2016. - 216 c.

5. Yanov-Yanovskaya N.S. Muzika uzbekskogo kino. Tashkent: Izdatelstvo «Fan» Uzbekskoy SSR, 1969. - 174 c.

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