Научная статья на тему 'Feature s of the realizati on of state Personnel Policy in the educati on in Ukraine'

Feature s of the realizati on of state Personnel Policy in the educati on in Ukraine Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Ключевые слова
STATE PERSONNEL POLICY / PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION / MECHANISMS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION / EDUCATION OF UKRAINE / HIGHER EDUCATION OF UKRAINE / STATE PERSONNEL POLICY IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION / ДЕРЖАВНА КАДРОВА ПОЛіТИКА / ДЕРЖАВНЕ УПРАВЛіННЯ / ПУБЛіЧНЕ УПРАВЛіННЯ / МЕХАНіЗМИ ДЕРЖАВНОГО УПРАВЛіННЯ / ОСВіТА УКРАїНИ / ВИЩА ОСВіТА УКРАїНИ / ДЕРЖАВНА КАДРОВА ПОЛіТИКА У СФЕРі ОСВіТИ / ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ КАДРОВАЯ ПОЛИТИКА / ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ УПРАВЛЕНИЕ / ПУБЛИЧНОЕ УПРАВЛЕНИЕ / МЕХАНИЗМЫ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО УПРАВЛЕНИЯ / ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ УКРАИНЫ / ВЫСШЕЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ УКРАИНЫ / ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ КАДРОВАЯ ПОЛИТИКА В СФЕРЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Malygina Iryna Victorivna

In the article the features of realization of personnel policy of the state in the sphere of education are researched. The author considers it as the purposeful strategic activity of the state, connected with the planning and forecasting of the formation, professional development and rational use of personnel in the field of education, the definition of goals and priorities of personnel and the state order for the training of specialists with higher education. It is argued that this is also an integral part of the state’s strategy for the formation and rational use of the human potential of society. It is shown that the structure of the state personnel policy in the field of education, as well as the structure of the state personnel policy in general, is based on the principles, includes entities, objects, mechanisms of formation and implementation. The basic principles of state personnel policy in the field of education are social justice, complexity and consistency of its implementation; balance of public interests and interests of certain social groups; professionalism; balance of representation of experienced and young workers with regard to gender equality; responsibility of the state for creation of preconditions for realization of vital interests of the person, realization by citizens of the right to education and labor; mutual respect between the individual and the state, employee and employer; partnership between the state and the non-governmental sector; continuity of training. In addition, according to the author, as the principles of state personnel policy in the field of education, it is proposed to consider the rules based on foreign and domestic experience, which are the basis of the activity of the subjects on the formation and implementation of personnel policy of the state the bodies of state power and local self-government, departments, institutions, organizations, enterprises in the field of education. The ineffectiveness of the state cadre policy leads to the fact that there is a significant gap between the requirements of employers and the level of education in Ukraine. It is also determined that the mass of higher education necessitates the optimization of the state order in order to bring it into line with the real needs of the national economy.

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ОСОБЕННОСТИ РЕАЛИЗАЦИИ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЙ КАДРОВОЙ ПОЛИТИКИ В СФЕРЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ В УКРАИНЕ

Исследованы особенности реализации кадровой политики государства в сфере образования как целенаправленной стратегической деятельности государства, связанной с планированием и прогнозированием формирования профессионального развития и рационального использования кадров в сфере образования, определением целей и приоритетов кадровой деятельности и государственного заказа на подготовку специалистов с высшим образованием. Аргументировано, что это также и составляющая стратегии государства по формированию и рациональному использованию кадрового потенциала общества. Показано, что структура государственной кадровой политики в сфере образования, как и структура государственной кадровой политики в целом, базируется на принципах, включает субъекты, объекты, механизмы формирования и реализации. Основные принципы государственной кадровой политики в сфере образования это социальная справедливость, комплексность и последовательность ее проведения; сбалансированность общественных интересов и интересов отдельных общественных групп; профессионализм; сбалансированность представительства опытных и молодых работников с учетом гендерного равенства; ответственность государства за создание предпосылок для реализации жизненно важных интересов человека, реализации гражданами права на образование и труд; взаимоуважение в отношениях между лицом и государством, работником и работодателем; партнерство государства и негосударственного сектора; непрерывность обучения. Кроме того, принципами государственной кадровой политики в сфере образования предлагается рассматривать сформулированные на основе зарубежного и отечественного опыта правила, которые положены в основу деятельности субъектов по формированию и реализации кадровой политики государства органов государственной власти и местного самоуправления, ведомств, учреждений, организаций, предприятий в сфере образования. Неэффективность государственной кадровой политики приводит к тому, что существует существенный разрыв между требованиями работодателей и уровнем образования в Украине. Также определено, что массовость высшего образования вызывает необходимость оптимизации государственного заказа для приведения в соответствие с реальными потребностями национальной экономики.

Текст научной работы на тему «Feature s of the realizati on of state Personnel Policy in the educati on in Ukraine»

UDC: 351.329:336.58

DOI: https://doi.org/10.32689/2617-2224-2019-17-2-170-185

Malygina Iryna Victorivna,

PhD student of the Department of Social and Humanitarian Policy of the National Academy of Public Administration under the President of Ukraine, Kyiv, Str. Ezhena Potie, 20, tel.: +38 (098) 445 00 79, e-mail: mira579@ ukr.net

ORCID: 0000-0002-1492-4330

Малигта 1рина BiKmopieHa,

асшрант кафедри сощальног та гумат-тарног полтики, Нащональна академiя державного управлтня при Президенто-ei Украгни. 02000, Кигв, вул. Ежена По-тье, 20, тел.: +38 (098) 445 00 79, е-mail: mira579@ukr.net

ORCID: 0000-0002-1492-4330 Малыгина Ирина Викторовна, аспирант кафедры социальной и гуманитарной политики Национальной академии государственного управления при Президенте Украины. 02000, Киев, ул. Эжена Потье, 20, тел.: +38 (098) 445 00 79, е-mail: mira579@ukr.net

ORCID: 0000-0002-1492-4330

FEATURES OF THE REALiZATiON OF STATE PERSONNEL POLiCY iN THE EDUCATiON iN UKRAiNE

Abstract. In the article the features of realization of personnel policy of the state in the sphere of education are researched. The author considers it as the purposeful strategic activity of the state, connected with the planning and forecasting of the formation, professional development and rational use of personnel in the field of education, the definition of goals and priorities of personnel and the state order for the training of specialists with higher education. It is argued that this is also an integral part of the state's strategy for the formation and rational use of the human potential of society.

It is shown that the structure of the state personnel policy in the field of education, as well as the structure of the state personnel policy in general, is based on the principles, includes entities, objects, mechanisms of formation and implementation. The basic principles of state personnel policy in the field of education are social justice, complexity and consistency of its implementation; balance of

public interests and interests of certain social groups; professionalism; balance of representation of experienced and young workers with regard to gender equality; responsibility of the state for creation of preconditions for realization of vital interests of the person, realization by citizens of the right to education and labor; mutual respect between the individual and the state, employee and employer; partnership between the state and the non-governmental sector; continuity of training.

In addition, according to the author, as the principles of state personnel policy in the field of education, it is proposed to consider the rules based on foreign and domestic experience, which are the basis of the activity of the subjects on the formation and implementation of personnel policy of the state — the bodies of state power and local self-government, departments, institutions, organizations, enterprises in the field of education.

The ineffectiveness of the state cadre policy leads to the fact that there is a significant gap between the requirements of employers and the level of education in Ukraine. It is also determined that the mass of higher education necessitates the optimization of the state order in order to bring it into line with the real needs of the national economy.

Keywords: state personnel policy, public administration, public administration, mechanisms of public administration, education of Ukraine, higher education of Ukraine, state personnel policy in the field of education.

ОСОБЛИВОСТ1 РЕАЛ1ЗАЦП ДЕРЖАВНО*! КАДРОВОЕ ПОЛ1ТИКИ У СФЕР1 ОСВ1ТИ В УКРАШ1

Анотащя. Дослщжено особливосп реалiзацiï кадрово!' пол^ики держави у сферi осв™ як щлеспрямовано!' стратепчно!' дiяльностi держави, пов'яза-но!' з плануванням та прогнозуванням формування професшного розвитку та ращонального використання кадрiв у сферi освгги, визначенням щлей i прюритепв кадрово!' дiяльностi та державного замовлення на шдготовку фахiвцiв з вищою осв^ою. Аргументовано, що це також й складова стратеги держави з формування й ращонального використання кадрового потенщалу сусшльства.

Показано, що структура державно!' кадрово!' пол^ики у сферi осв™, як i структура державно!' кадрово!' пол^ики загалом, базуеться на принципах, включае суб'екти, об'екти, механiзми формування та реалiзацiï. Основнi принципи державно! кадрово! полiтики у сферi осв™ — це соцiальна спра-ведливють, комплекснiсть та послiдовнiсть ïï проведення; збалансовашсть суспiльних iнтересiв та штереав окремих суспiльних груп; професiоналiзм; збалансовашсть представництва досвщчених та молодих пращвниюв з ураху-ванням гендерно!' рiвностi; вiдповiдальнiсть держави за створення передумов для реалiзацiï життево важливих штереав людини, реaлiзaцiï громадянами права на осв^у i працю; взаемоповага у вщносинах мiж особою та державою, пращвником та роботодавцем; партнерство держави i недержавного сектору; безперервшсть навчання.

Зокрема, принципами державно! кадрово! полiтики у сферi освiти пропо-нуеться розглядати сформульоваш на основi зарубiжного та вггчизняного досвiду правила, якi покладеш в основу дiяльностi суб'ектiв з формування й реа^заци кадрово! полiтики держави — органiв державно! влади та мю-цевого самоврядування, ввдомств, установ, органiзацiй, пiдприемств у сферi освiти.

Неефективнiсть державно! кадрово! политики спричинюе те, що iснуе суттевий розрив мiж вимогами роботодавцiв та рiвнем освiти в Укра!'нi. Та-кож визначено, що масовiсть вищо! освiти зумовлюе необхiднiсть оптим^ заци державного замовлення вiдповiдно до реальних потреб нащонально! економiки.

Ключовi слова: державна кадрова политика, державне управлшня, пу-блiчне управлiння, механiзми державного управлшня, освта Укра!ни, вища освта Укра!ни, державна кадрова полiтика у сферi освiти.

ОСОБЕННОСТИ РЕАЛИЗАЦИИ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЙ КАДРОВОЙ ПОЛИТИКИ В СФЕРЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ В УКРАИНЕ

Аннотация. Исследованы особенности реализации кадровой политики государства в сфере образования как целенаправленной стратегической деятельности государства, связанной с планированием и прогнозированием формирования профессионального развития и рационального использования кадров в сфере образования, определением целей и приоритетов кадровой деятельности и государственного заказа на подготовку специалистов с высшим образованием. Аргументировано, что это также и составляющая стратегии государства по формированию и рациональному использованию кадрового потенциала общества.

Показано, что структура государственной кадровой политики в сфере образования, как и структура государственной кадровой политики в целом, базируется на принципах, включает субъекты, объекты, механизмы формирования и реализации. Основные принципы государственной кадровой политики в сфере образования — это социальная справедливость, комплексность и последовательность ее проведения; сбалансированность общественных интересов и интересов отдельных общественных групп; профессионализм; сбалансированность представительства опытных и молодых работников с учетом гендерного равенства; ответственность государства за создание предпосылок для реализации жизненно важных интересов человека, реализации гражданами права на образование и труд; взаимоуважение в отношениях между лицом и государством, работником и работодателем; партнерство государства и негосударственного сектора; непрерывность обучения.

Кроме того, принципами государственной кадровой политики в сфере образования предлагается рассматривать сформулированные на основе зарубежного и отечественного опыта правила, которые положены в основу деятельности субъектов по формированию и реализации кадровой полити-

ки государства — органов государственной власти и местного самоуправления, ведомств, учреждений, организаций, предприятий в сфере образования.

Неэффективность государственной кадровой политики приводит к тому, что существует существенный разрыв между требованиями работодателей и уровнем образования в Украине. Также определено, что массовость высшего образования вызывает необходимость оптимизации государственного заказа для приведения в соответствие с реальными потребностями национальной экономики.

Ключевые слова: государственная кадровая политика, государственное управление, публичное управление, механизмы государственного управления, образование Украины, высшее образование Украины, государственная кадровая политика в сфере образования.

Problem statement. Both the success of the reform of the state and the development of society depend, first of all, on the level of professionalism and quality of training of management personnel, working not only in state authorities and local self-government, but also in all spheres of public life. 'The need to radically improve the quality of human resources, ensuring its effective professional development is conditioned by the need for highly skilled personnel, erudite, competent managers with innovative thinking, able to responsibly make managerial decisions' [1, p. 3]. At present, the reform of the State Personnel Policy is taking place in Ukraine. In today's conditions of globalization and the need to increase the country's competitiveness, it is the improvement of public administration and administration at the state and regional levels is an important criterion for a successful solution to social problems and the strengthening of statehood (O. Zubchyk) [2].

Analysis of recent publications on the issues and identification of previ-

ously unsettled parts of the general problem. Recently, the State Policy has become the subject of research by researchers in the context of the prospects for building an efficient and competent public service. The authors reveal the most important problems of human resources and staffing of the main spheres of society, as well as proposals for their research and practical solution. There is a considerable number of the following works dealing with issues of the State Personnel Policy: analysis of theoretical foundations of the development of the State Personnel Policy (V. Averi-anov, H. Atamanchuk, V. Bakumenko, T. Vytko, V. Hoshovska, S. Dubenko, Y. Kovbasiuk, V. Kniazev, V. Luhovyi, V. Malynovskyi, N. Nyzhnyk, O. Obo-lenskyi, V. Oluiko, L. Pashko, S. Serio-hin, V. Soroko, Yu. Surmin and others) in the domestic scientific literature [3-4]. The article of T. Vytko describes the theoretical principles of the State Personnel Policy, in particular its conceptual categorical apparatus, examines the current state of some personnel processes in the civil service of Ukraine,

analyses their normative legal support and outlines the prospects for building an efficient and competent public service [5]. It should be noted that in the scientific report of the author's collective of the National Academy of Public Administration under the President of Ukraine on the basis of the Decree of the President of Ukraine № 45/2012 'On the Strategy of the State Personnel Policy for 2012 -2020' [6] the results of analytical comprehension of the essence, content of the state personnel policy, and ways of implementing its strategy at the present stage of stateadministrative reforms in Ukraine [7]. There are also researches of problems of the State Personnel Policy in the Field of Education through the prism of the problem of administrative efficiency and competitiveness of the state (O. Zubchyk) [8].

Selection of previously unsettled parts of the general problem. Despite current research on the theoretical and methodological and organizational legal principles of the State Personnel Policy, the current state of formation and functioning, prospects for the development of the State Personnel Policy in the Field of Education require additional research. In particular, improvement requires a mechanism for its implementation.

Formulating the goals of the article (Statement of the task). The purpose of our article is to find out the essence and peculiarities of the State Personnel Policy in the Field of Education as a component of the State Personnel Policy. The task is to find out the characteristic features, to analyse the current state of formation and implementation of the State Personnel Policy in

the field of education in Ukraine. The object of research is the social relations that arise in the context of the implementation of the State Personnel Policy in Ukraine. The subject of the study is the mechanism of implementation of the State Personnel Policy in the field of education as a component of the State Personnel Policy in Ukraine.

Description of the main results of the study. The content, scope, limits of state regulation of personnel processes, the level of their decentralization and democratization depend on the strategy of further development of the state. The State Personnel Policy Strategy for 2012-2020 was adopted in the sphere of personnel policy, in particular

[9]. The Concept of the development of Ukrainian education for 2015-2025

[10] was developed (the project was proposed for public discussion at one time) in the sphere of education. The authors of the concept (expert group under the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, founded in July 2014) stressed that 'there were accumulated a number of systemic problems throughout the period of existence of independent Ukraine in the educational sector of the country; the main ones being the decline of the material and technical base, low wages payment to teachers, and reducing the social status of education workers' [11]. Experts also called, during the promotion of the draft Concept of the Problems of the Educational System of Ukraine, as 'the inefficient, excessive centralized and outdated system of governance and financing, the growing inequality in access to quality education, the excessive commercialization of educational services, corruption and the reduction

of the quality of education' [12]. It is stated in the Concept.

What is the State Personnel Policy in the Field of Education today? In particular, in the field of higher education. The State Personnel Policy in Education is 'a set of principles, methods of actions of state educational authorities on the organization of human resources of the industry on the basis of the formation, support and development of educational values and ideals, norms, rules, procedures capable of ensuring the integrity and sustainability of the education system in accordance with state-owned targets' [13, p. 36]. We can note that the State Personnel Policy in the Field of Education of Ukraine is a purposeful strategic activity of the state related to the planning and forecasting of the formation, professional development and rational use of personnel in the field of education, the definition of goals and priorities of the personnel and the state order for the training of specialists with higher education. But this is also a part of the state's strategy for the formation and rational use of the human resources of society.

The structure of the State Personnel Policy in the Field of Education, as well as the structure of the State Personnel Policy in general, is based on certain principles, including entities, objects, mechanisms of formation and implementation. The basic principles of State Personnel Policy in the Field of Education are those that form the basis of the construction and implementation of Personnel Policy in the country. There are among them, first of all, such as 'social justice, complexity and consistency of its implementation; balance of public interests and interests of certain social

groups; professionalism; balance of representation of experienced and young workers with regard to gender equality; responsibility of the state for creation of preconditions for realization of vital interests of the person, realization by citizens of the right to education and labour; mutual respect between the individual and the state, employee and employer; partnership between the state and the non-governmental sector; and continuity of study' (M. Bilynska) [14, p. 4].

In addition, we propose, as the principles of State Personnel Policy in the Field of Education, to consider the rules based on foreign and domestic experience, which are the basis of the activity of the subjects on the formation and implementation of State Personnel Policy of bodies of state power and local self-government, departments, institutions, organizations and enterprises in the Field of Education.

The subjects of State Personnel Policy in the Field of Education are considered by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the President of Ukraine, the Government of Ukraine (and authorities authorized by it, institutions, departments and organizations), territorial bodies of state power and bodies of local self-government. The object of the State Personnel Policy in the Field of Education of Ukraine is a set of relevant legal norms, principles, forms, methods and tools that ensure the effectiveness of the formation, development, use of personnel in the field of education. At the same time, it is possible to consider pedagogical and scientific and pedagogical workers of the sphere of education, the activity of which is aimed at the direct influence

of the subjects of personnel policy in this area.

As I. Husak noted, the feature of the New State Personnel Policy is that 'the state and the person act as social partners in professional work. The defining principle of modern personnel activity is the achievement of a harmonious combination of the interests of the individual and the state, individual and national interests and the promotion of creative self-realization of the individual [15, p. 296]. Therefore, in our opinion, it should be noted that the State Educational Policy in the Field of Education focuses on human potential. That is, the State Personnel Policy in the Field of Education is a human potential and its formation, implementation in the field of education, managerial decisions, personnel work, institutions and mechanisms of social partnership. We can also determine that the subject of the State Personnel Policy in the Field of Education is a social relation to the formation, reproduction, development and use of pedagogical and scientific and pedagogical as well as administrative and administrative personnel in the field of education. Accordingly, the mechanisms of formation of the State Personnel Policy in the Field of Education are a set of actions of state institutions and other actors aimed at developing the human resources management system and forming its potential opportunities, while mechanisms for implementing the State Personnel Policy in the Field of Education are a set of legal norms, principles, tools that ensure the effective selection, preparation, use and development of human potential in the field of educational activities.

Today, the reform of staffing of the Education System is one of the priorities of the State Personnel Policy of Ukraine. The development and implementation of the modern Personnel Policy of Ukraine in the Field of Education requires an effective human resources system, which includes all components of it as from managerial decisions to staffing institutions and organizational structures that carry out the integral management of the formation and implementation of the personnel policy in the field of education in order to achieve the identified development priorities of society. V. Oharenko determines that the specifics of the educational system in Ukraine as the object of personnel policy are fundamental features of the teacher's profession [16]. Consequently, the authors research the set of elements of the educational system and their interaction, relationship and mutual assistance. Therefore, the essence of the management of the Education System can be defined as activity aimed at creating pedagogical, social, personnel, legal, organizational, material and financial and other conditions that are necessary for the normal functioning and development of the industry and the realization of its goal.

In this context, we consider the modern System of Higher Education in Ukraine, analysing it in connection with managerial decisions and the formation of the State Personnel Policy of Ukraine. The modern System of Higher Education is a highly dynamic, open and flexible system. It is capable of responding adequately to changes in the external economic environment. Today, the System of Higher Education itself is transformed to a certain extent in or-

der to provide an in-depth and multidimensional compliance with the actual demands of social progress in the conditions of the formation of the knowledge economy. In particular, this is a task of providing highly skilled personnel. Consequently, the key trend in the development of higher education in modern conditions is the large-scale growth of its importance in the formation of the knowledge economy. This implies the synthesis of the functions of higher educational institutions as transmitters of knowledge and information and as generators of innovative ideas. This tendency is manifested in the increase in the length of the educational process, the increase in the number of students, the increase in the coverage of the population by higher education, the share of people with higher education in the vast majority of countries, and not only in Ukraine.

Taking into account the peculiarities of the State Personnel Policy in the context of the priority tasks of the development of the Ukrainian economy, the following tendency of the development of higher education follows as the change of requirements to the content, methods and forms of the educational process. Consequently, another task is put in the context of State Personnel Policy. At the same time, the educational process should be focused on the training of personnel for the national economy. They must have professional knowledge, skills, abilities, and the ability to learn throughout life, to master the innovations, to work in a team, to conduct effective inter-ethnic dialogue, to improve them and to develop creative and creative abilities. Moreover, improving the quality of the organiza-

tion of the educational process in higher educational institutions provides for its full support and regular updating of the material and technical base (training laboratories, lecture rooms and specialized offices), Computer Park, introduction of information and communication technologies, etc.

At the same time, the main principles of the State Educational Policy, enshrined in the National Education Development Doctrine and the National Strategy for the Development of Education in Ukraine. They provide for the implementation of a number of measures to reform the Higher Education System in Ukraine in the new social and economic conditions and taking into account global (general civilization) tendencies development of higher education.

Thus, it is absolutely justified to distinguish the decisive role of higher education in social progress, scientific and technological progress, the innovative development of the national economy and the formation of the knowledge economy. As these issues were investigated by I. Kaleniuk, O. Honta, M. Ver-bovyi and N. Kholiavko, the integration of higher education in Ukraine into the European and world educational space is slow. But the main characteristic features of the knowledge economy are as follows: rapid development of knowledge, transformation of knowledge into direct productive force, expansion of the knowledge and intensive sector, acceleration of processes of informatization and computerization [17]. The factors of competitiveness, factors and indicators of world leadership of the countries are significantly changed in such circumstances. In particular, the

importance of intellectual resources in the global competitiveness system is increasingly increasing. One of the central places among the set of factors and indicators of competitiveness of the national economy are information and communication technologies [18]. However, the same requirements are put forward to the person as a carrier of advanced knowledge and the driving force of economic growth of the country.

Higher education provides fundamental scientific, professional and practical training, obtaining citizens of educational and qualification levels in accordance with their vocations, interests and abilities, improvement of scientific and professional training, retraining and improvement of their qualification [19].

The training of specialists with higher education is carried out by appropriate educational or scientific programs at the following levels of higher education:

1. Elementary Level of Higher Education (Short Cycle), which corresponds to the sixth level of the National Qualifications Framework [20] and involves gaining general cultural and vocational training, special skills and knowledge as well as some experience in their practical application in order to fulfil the typical tasks provided for primary positions in the relevant field of professional activity.

2. The First Level of Higher Education (Bachelor's degree) corresponds to the seventh level of the National Qualifications Framework and involves obtaining the person theoretical knowledge and practical skills and skills sufficient to successfully complete the

professional duties of the chosen specialty.

3. The Second Level of Higher Education (Master's degree) corresponds to the eighth level of the National Qualifications Framework and involves obtaining a person with in-depth theoretical or practical knowledge, skills, skills in the chosen specialty (or specialization), general principles of the methodology of scientific and/or professional activity, other competences, sufficient for the effective performance of tasks of an innovative nature of the corresponding level of professional activity.

4. The Third Level of Higher Education (Educational-Scientific/Educational-Creative Level) corresponds to the ninth level of the National Qualifications Framework and involves gaining the theoretical knowledge, skills, skills and other competencies sufficient to generate new ideas, solve complex problems in the field professional and/ or research and innovation activity, mastering the methodology of scientific and pedagogical activity, as well as conducting own scientific research, the results of which have scientific novelty, theoretical and practical significance.

5. The Scientific Level of Higher Education corresponds to the tenth level of the National Qualifications Framework. It involves acquiring competencies in the development and implementation of methodologies and research methods, the creation of new systembuilding knowledge and advanced technologies, and the resolution of an important scientific or applied problem of national or global significance.

Obtaining higher education at each level of higher education involves the

successful completion of a person's relevant Educational or Scientific Program in Ukraine. It is the basis for awarding a corresponding degree of higher education (Junior Bachelor degree, Bachelor degree, Master degree and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)/Doctor of Arts (D.A./DArts).

As of the beginning of 2017-2018, the training of specialists with higher education was carried out by 661 institutions of higher education in Ukraine (Table 1). The number of students who obtained higher education was 1,539 thousand people (at the beginning of 2016-2017 academic year — 657 and

Table 1.

Training of specialists with higher education in Ukraine at the beginning of 2017-2018 [21]

Quantity of HEi (universities), units Number of persons

enrolled (freshers) students graduators

Ukraine 661 323577 1538565 421131

Vynnytsia oblast 23 9366 44955 9495

Volyn oblast 14 6018 25288 7480

Dnipropetrovsk oblast 55 25061 113079 31208

Donetsk oblast 29 7513 32186 8747

Zhytomyr oblast 20 6911 29942 8097

Zakarpattia oblast 14 5163 23695 5480

Zaporizhzhia oblast 24 13191 67444 19548

Ivano-Frankivsk oblast 16 8446 37088 10960

Kyiv oblast 21 5708 27545 8404

Kirovohrad oblast 16 3353 14433 4442

Luhansk oblast 13 4738 19120 5333

Lviv oblast 43 26687 123148 32222

Mykolayiv oblast 17 6806 31640 8484

odesa oblast 40 21408 107517 31914

Poltava oblast 18 9875 46224 12383

Rivne oblast 14 7198 32473 10782

sumy oblast 14 7110 34604 9582

Ternopil oblast 18 9701 40992 10792

Kharkiv oblast 65 33294 171298 42672

Kherson oblast 21 6027 26635 7735

Khmelnytskyi oblast 18 6687 30983 8289

cherkasy oblast 16 6995 37035 12537

chernivtsi oblast 16 6835 29873 8178

chernihiv oblast 16 4281 20113 6137

the city of Kyiv 100 75205 371255 100230

1,587 thousand) in these institutions. In 2017, institutions of higher education were issued 421 thousand specialists, which are 34 thousand people (8,9 %) more than in 2016.

However, due to the lack of a flexible response to demographic changes in the field of higher education, a number of imbalances have emerged. So, the number of children aged 15-19 decreased by 41 % during 2000-2017, and the number of students decreased by 8 %. The gradual reduction in the number of applicants was delayed and was very slow. So, in 2015, 4/5 Ukrainian youth received higher education. In 2017, the situation remained unchanged, as since 80 % of school graduates fell in their statistics on entering higher education institutions (HEI) (universities), compared with 50 % in 2000.

There is, therefore, a significant gap between the requirements of employers and the level of education in Ukraine. 30 % of Ukrainians feel that they have a higher level of education than they need to do their job. Another disproportion is that the total number of students decreased by 33 %, while the number of those studying at the state budget cost was only 19 % during 2010-2017. In 2017, more than half of enrolled university students (freshers) as 51 % of the total were studying for state funds, compared with 38 % in 2010. The number of students per teacher, taking into account the daytime, evening and extra-mural form of education, amounted to about 11 people in 2017, while the average for the countries of Europe was 15.4 persons in 2015 [22].

In this regard, on M. Bobrytska's opinion that 'satisfaction of the re-

quests of the state, society and citizens of Ukraine concerning the improvement of the quality of educational services to the level of European, is possible in the conditions of implementation of approaches; taking into account the fact that the State Personnel Policy in the training of employees for the Education System should be an integral part of the State Personnel Policy' [23, p. 35].

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Conclusions. Both non-reformation of the Ukrainian economy and reducing the number of jobs in the real sector of the economy stimulate the demand for abstract 'universal' educational specialties (manager, economist, lawyer and journalist). At the same time, the mass of higher education determines the need to optimize the state order to bring it into line with the real needs of the national economy; as well as the active introduction of higher education in the educational and scientific activities of the entrepreneurial component. The level of education quality in Ukraine is very low, which does not correspond to the high level of coverage of higher education.

The imperfection of the State Personnel Policy in the Field of Education necessitates the development of scientifically based policy in the preparation of pedagogical, scientific and pedagogical and scientific personnel, adequate to the tasks and challenges of our time. Despite the significant steps taken to reform the management of the Education System, education in Ukraine continues to lag behind the needs of citizens, society, the state and the market. One of the reasons is that the quality of education deteriorated for decades, not least in terms of personnel issues in the conditions of the actual removal of

managers from the public discussion of accumulated problems.

Thus, the study of factors and main tendencies in the development of higher education and the mechanisms for their implementation provides an opportunity for a deep analysis of educational processes. Thus, it will contribute to the introduction of a competent approach in national education, to ensure comprehensibility and comparability of learning outcomes, competences and qualifications, degrees for all stakeholders (interested parties) and in such a way to create a basis for European and global integration taking into account the main tendencies in the development of higher education.

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