FACTORS AFFECTING THE STATE MANAGEMENT OF THE MEDIA Текст научной статьи по специальности «СМИ (медиа) и массовые коммуникации»

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Russian Law Journal
Ключевые слова
Management / State Management / Media

Аннотация научной статьи по СМИ (медиа) и массовым коммуникациям, автор научной работы — Vu Thi Phuong Le, Nguyen Le Van

This study focuses on factors affecting the state management of contemporary media. The scope of research is on media in Vietnam from 2010 until now. By primarily utilizing metaanalysis, this study aims to elaborate on both the media's positive and negative impacts on state management. Through this, we offer solutions to increase the effectiveness of state management of the media in the upcoming stages.

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Vinh University1

Department of Information and Communications in Ho Chi Minh City2 levtp@vinhuni.edu.vn1

Abstract - This study focuses on factors affecting the state management of contemporary media. The scope of research is on media in Vietnam from 2010 until now. By primarily utilizing meta-analysis, this study aims to elaborate on both the media's positive and negative impacts on state management. Through this, we offer solutions to increase the effectiveness of state management of the media in the upcoming stages.

Keywords: Management, State Management, Media


The media has a monumental role in modern life. The research and investigation of factors affecting the state management of the media allow us to have an objective and comprehensive scientific view of state management, thus increasing the role of the media in social development. In our opinion, the state management of the media in Vietnam is currently being affected by many factors, including internal factors such as the philosophy of the Authority, the institutional laws regarding the media, the organization of government agencies in the media, media staff... As well as external factors such as media culture, advancements in science and technology, especially communication technology...

In the context of the positive and negative influences affecting the state management of the media, we also discuss and propose various solutions to increase the effectiveness of the state management of the media in Vietnam at this current stage.


Analysis and Synthesis are the two primary methods used to clarify the factors affecting the efficiency of the state management of the media. From a philosophical perspective, we use analysis to separate "factors" into each aspect, component, and relationship throughout time and history to detect and dissect each factor affecting the state management of the media. The analysis is followed up by synthesis to further investigate the nature and inner workings of the subject of interest. Synthesis is a method that allows us to link and unify factors that have been analyzed to gain a comprehensive insight into factors affecting the state management of communication as a whole.

Vietnam's current state is having a profound impact on the state management of the media. In the last decade, there have been drastic advancements in communication technology, such as the birth of the Internet, mobile phones, and digital means of communication such as Facebook, Twitter... The media heavily influences politics and democracy, ushering in a "borderless world" (Marc F. Plattner, 2012). The media is being profoundly impacted by the changes brought about by the 21st century: the development of mass media, the centralization of digitalization, and various trends in contemporary media culture. These trends have allowed the youth, especially students to gain an insider's perspective of how the communications industry is reacting to global movements from globalization to social media (Joseph Turow, 2009). Therefore, the state management of the media has to encourage and facilitate essential skills for its citizen to become well-informed. Media convergence is occurring on a global scale. It represents a new platform to deliver news and is also a development trend in modern media. Alongside the sudden influx of news sources and channels, in many converging media agencies, the main role of a reporter is to not only gather

information but also to curate and compile mass amounts of information, allowing them to display correlation and subliminal meanings. Media convergence is a global phenomenon, an essential trend, and the focal point of many media agencies worldwide, making many media leadership and organization formidable tasks (Nguyen Thanh Ltíi and Ltfu Ván An, 2017).

When analyzing common traditional media models and the impact each means of communication has on each other, there have been notions highlighting the roles of those who participate in the communication process (Betteke Van Ruler, 2018). As both the subject and object in the communication process, humans also play a crucial role in the government's management of this field (Marshall McLuhan, 1996).

Some insist that the development of the Internet has had both positive and negative impacts on our social life, setting new challenges for the government. Nowadays, the Internet is regarded as the most popular information network in the world. Apart from its pros, the Internet also has many cons, igniting many opposing viewpoints which can aggravate and escalate conflicts. From there, nations have to propose appropriate measures to combat this issue, including measures allowing governance over the Internet space and its users. Especially, the development of the Internet in Vietnam in the first two decades of the XXI century, besides creating job opportunities that accelerated the growth of the economy like never seen before, has posed massive obstacles to the stability of the country's politics in moderation as the Internet progresses and more social media platforms emerge. This has also been challenging to the state management of the media (Nguyen-Pochan, 2021).

Others insist that, in modern times, personnel managing the media have a crucial role in assessing as well as making decisions regarding publication or rejection. As writers can come from many different backgrounds, they cannot always comprehend the media standards set by one country. Hence, personnel managing the media becomes a reliable resource for publications intended for readers from different cultures (Jorgen Skrubbeltrang, 2015). Especially for those who work in international media, besides possessing the qualities fit for their profession, also need the professional, moral, and socio-political qualities to work in international media and be an international journalist (Le Thanh Binh, 2012).

From analyzing different perspectives, in our opinion, media is a field consisting of the application, handling, sharing, disseminating, and exchanging of information in the form of knowledge, ideas, emotions, skills, experiences, and cultural values to form connections that serve economic, political, cultural, and social purposes.

Means of media are divided into three fundamental categories: 1. Personal media: one of the means of media that is double-edged, pertaining to interactions and dialogues on a personal level, and personal media channels such as mobile phones, instant messaging, email... 2. Mass media: the process of conveying information to the general public through various means such as images, sounds, writings, or memorable, easy-to-understand, and approachable messages affecting our emotions and reasoning such as radio, television, newspaper, flyer, catalog, and brochure. 3. Social Media: a means that relies on the power of expansion and the prominent interactions of the public on popular social media platforms such as Facebook, Youtube, LinkedIn, Blogs, and Forums... The state management of the media is the government's utilization of authority, carried out by all government branches (legislative, executive, justice) to organize and adjust media processes and media participation of its citizens to provide information, achieve acknowledgment, approval, and cooperation between government bodies and its citizens and society; forming and advancing the reliable and long-lasting relationship between internal members of these agencies. To perform its managerial roles, the Government must enforce managerial tools and methodologies in information propagation, including the planning, organization, leadership, and regulation of organizations' media activities to achieve the set common goal.

The state management of the media is similar to other administrative management efforts in that it is highly authoritative, organizational, and dictated by the law; both common and specialized. The

effectiveness of the state management of the media is influenced by many attributes. In the case of Vietnam, those basic attributes are:

1. The philosophy of the Party on media

The Communist Party of Vietnam aims to build a media foundation with the utmost purpose of serving the people, ensuring a thriving media environment for its people that's suitable for modern development trends. The Party's judicious development philosophy, stable political platform, and orthodox idealogy will allow the media to leverage its strengths as well as allow the government to better conduct its managerial role in this field. The XIII National People's Assembly stresses the "Promotion of the growth of journalism, professional media, and humanities. Proficient cultivation and expansion of journalism systems and the media. Organization of the publishing and printing industry, facilitating streamlined, high-quality, and modernized publication. Increase management and development of means of communication on the Internet. Eliminate harmful, falsified, reactionary information that negatively affects political and social stability as well as national values" (Communist Party of Vietnam, 2021). The rational organization of the network of media agencies from central to grassroots levels; renewal of organizational models and structures, the application of new technological advancements, modernized facilities, and human resource development... will aid satisfy the country's demand for socio-economic development and the people's mass communication needs, ensuring national security and keeping up with local and international progress in media, compensating for any shortcoming or inadequacy former mass media development might have left behind.

2. Legal institutions regarding the media

This is an overview of the legal laws that hold close associations and are unified in terms of principles, procedures, order, and the legal contents of the media, which are expressed in legal documents. In recent years, the legal system has been continuously implementing and perfecting when it comes to regulations surrounding the media. Many important legislative documents have been established to be suitable and unified with the media organization, and the philosophy and idealogy of the Party as well as the legal system such as Telecommunication laws, Radio Frequency laws, Information Technology laws, Digital Transactions laws, Publishing laws, Data Security laws, Journalism laws (revised), Information Access laws, Cyber Network Security laws.; governmental decrees; decisions made by the Prime Minister; instructional circulars by the Ministry of Information and Communications. More than 300 active legislative documents on information and communications have helped create a relatively complete legal corridor, aiding the efficiency and effectiveness in the management of the government, and promoting and creating a competent legal foundation for the monitoring, enforcement, and inspection of media activities. Legislative documents made by the Government have created a legal corridor for companies, organizations, and information and media businesses to operate soundly, ensuring the harmony of user rights, businesses, and the Government, bolstering internal forces, and taking advantage of external ones. The Ministry of Information and Communications' classification of legislative documents according to their respective field has assisted in the propagation and popularization of the law and governmental management efforts. This is also a sound foundation for the staff of media agencies and businesses and individuals working in media in Vietnam.

3. The organization of administrative state agencies in communications

The bureaucracy is an entity and each administrative agency is a component. The whole entity can only function when each component is competently fulfilling its role and cooperating to achieve the common goal. Inversely, if the organizational structure is illogical, components without a strong bond will reduce the entity's overall operational efficiency. In Vietnam, the field of communications has three primary responsible agencies: apart from the personnel governing agency, there is also the leading agency, guided by the Propaganda Committee and the technology

and communications management agency (Ministry of Information and Communications). Inside the media management system, the allocation and identification of tasks for different agencies are the necessary balancing and collaboration to ensure the completion of the overall goals of both the bureaucracy and the government as a whole. Therefore, only when the role, function, authority, and relationship between the three aforementioned agencies are precisely established can they avoid any potential hindrance and optimize time, thus, aiding collaboration when satisfying demands. Furthermore, agencies and their leaders have a responsibility to deter inept management. In the communication process, the media agencies' principles, purpose, and operational structures and the leading agency's idealogy hold a crucial role, especially in determining the quality of communication activities. Above all, agencies handling the state management of the media have to thoroughly grasp the goal of maintaining political stability and fortifying the Party's solidarity in idealogy, raising the public's awareness, guiding the public's ideology, and boosting public engagement.

4. The quality of media personnel

Personnel quality has always been a deciding factor in the effectiveness of governmental management. A professional administrative foundation can only form a foundation for the development of human resources in a professional manner. Communication is a collective process in which the media staff is the core force, including journalists, editorial staff, directing staff, technical personnel, skilled workers. This team must possess exceptional moral qualities, be methodically trained, have adequate critical thinking skills, professional expertise, and sufficient cultural, scientific, and technological knowledge, and be passionate, proactive, and loyal to the Party and its people. Furthermore, the staff have to be sufficient in administrative work and experienced in the field of media. Besides competency in administrative work and a satisfactory understanding of work procedures and order, the professionalism of media personnel is also expressed through many aspects such as the ability to use foreign languages, the aptitude for technology as well as the ability to communicate, cooperate through teamwork or conflict resolution.. All these attributes greatly influence the effectiveness of the state management of the media. In the context of the current information boom, Vietnamese media staff has to quickly adapt to the rapid advancement of science and technology and strive to gain a footing in both the domestic and international information and media industry.

5. Finances and physical facilities, technicality in media

The state management of the media's effectiveness in each phase is heavily influenced by financial factors, the condition of physical facilities, and technology. The investment in the aforementioned sectors to maintain the operation of the machine as a whole and general civil service is not only a requirement but also a determining factor for the administration's capability. Even though the ability to afford and participate in various financial decisions of the government in media during each phase is variable, it is undeniable that this factor can profoundly impact the morale, attitude, and service quality of this field's administrative staff.

6. Cultural environment (including media culture)

In modern media, the border between nations in providing information has been blurred, making it hard to distinguish real from fake information. This has posed many significant issues for national security. Reality has shown that the general agreement in the consensus of all related parties regarding the acceptance, management, regulation, and development of modern media; the unity in the ideology of authority, and the responsibility of all parties over the approach to utilizing modern media will bolster or halt the state management of the media's effectiveness. This is the reality of the issues facing media culture. Therefore, there need to be laws in place to ensure and preserve the country's overall cultural values, especially regarding cultural behaviors and the protection of both local and international communities' benefits.

Furthermore, the culture of those who disseminate information is also an essential factor affecting the state management of the media. As a subject responsible for the creation of media products intended for the public, the culture of those who disseminate information does not only influence the public but also the state management of the media's effectiveness. Personnel working in the media (especially in journalism) who have stable and correct ideologies, and who are armed with the necessary knowledge and respectable moral standings will aid the government's managerial efforts. Inversely, media personnel have attitudes and behaviors unsuitable for the line of work, even those who are in charge of providing information on social media, will severely hamper the government's managerial efforts. Therefore, forming a positive and healthy media culture responsibly is crucial to elevate the state management of the media.

7. The development of the science and technology revolution, especially communication technology

The 4.0 Industrial Revolution has profoundly impacted the field of media, affecting all factors regarding the government's management of this field. Firstly, media convergence trends have forced leaders to unify and streamline the management and operation of publishing houses, journalism agencies, and media organizations. Media personnel also has to comprehend new operational trends. The Digital Revolution requires journalists, reporters, and media experts to be well-rounded in their skill sets, being able to write, film, photograph, and possibly even be proficient in graphic design and programming. The development of social media also commands media professionals to be flexible and acute in collecting and processing information and to have the capability to select and seek out narratives and approaches that would attract the public's attention. Secondly, the technology used in communications continually leads to changes in the public's perception of media products. Different from the reception of information in the past, nowadays, the public not only gets to proactively select what information they want to receive but also proactively participates in the formation of those messages in the media. Technological advancements during the 4.0 Industrial Revolution will continue to allow people to become closer to government agencies to voice their opinion and cooperate in media processes. On the other hand, this also means that government agencies ought to work alongside public participation in making crucial decisions when their main role of executing policies lessens in the presence of new competition, the restructuring and redistribution of authority with the dynamic aid of technology. Government agencies must confront the responsibility to elaborate to the public the formation of decisions as well as ensure that the formal information channels can reach the public promptly and leave positive influences, limiting conflict, and thus assisting social security. The growth of social media platforms like Facebook, and Youtube ... has exposed media management to information management issues on virtual grounds regarding cyber security, false information, and dangerous information criminals.


The state management of the media is impacted by many conditions. To promote the state management of the media's efficiency, there need to be solutions affecting those conditions. For Vietnam, in the foreseeable future, these are the fundamental issues that demand addressing: Firstly, promote the Party's leadership of the media. First and foremost, the Party needs to prioritize planning the development of the media in a period of industrialization, modernization, and globalization. Thus, this will aid the regulation of publication, content direction, and communication methodology through each period. The Party should strive to unify the management and leadership of media personnel by managing party members in the media by increasing individual responsibility, especially for the leaders of media agencies. The Party ought to utilize the role, proactivity, creativity, and responsibility of media agencies. The Party spearheads staff training and the arming of knowledge on content, specialization, and the management of media staff. The Party needs to promote policy communication in the context of rapidly, vastly, and

comprehensively advancing information technology. Notice No. 387/TB-VPCP dated 22/12/2022 conclusion of the Prime Minister at the Association

National online conference on Policy Communication: Awareness - Action - Resources has confirmed: The Party's political mission assigned to the Government, local authorities, and ministries in the foreseeable future will be opportunistic, favorable, yet, burdensome and challenging. Encouraging creativity in content conception and policy-making in the media, ensuring sufficient subject matter and real-life data, proactivity, creativity, flexibility, and increasing efficiency in guiding the media and its narratives. (The Government Office, 2022). According to the Decision approving the Development of the National Press until 2025 signed by the Prime Minister on the 3rd of April, 2019, Vietnam will have 6 primary multi-media agencies: Vietnam Television (VTV), Voice of Vietnam (VOV), Vietnam News Agency (VNA), People's Army Newspaper, Public Security News. These agencies will cover all means of media including digital and analog newspapers, broadcasting, and content distribution on all platforms (The Prime Minister, 2019).

Secondly, there needs to be a continuous effort to complete the legislation regarding media management. This means continued adjustments and additions to complete the legal basis for the government's management and organization of the media. The regulatory system of government agencies' management and organization needs to be meticulously elaborated regarding the legal devices, function, authority, and responsibility of legal subjects in charge of the state management of the media.

The system of documents established by government agencies (in the form of legal documents and special texts) managing the legislation surrounding the state management of the media requires constant adjustments suitable for changes in external factors to satisfy goals and managerial requirements.

The Prime Minster's Decision No. 362/QD-TTg on the 3rd of April, 2019 approving the Development of the National Press until 2025 clearly stated that: "Altering and completing laws regarding journalism, information technology, and communication to develop the governing of various forms of journalism and online information suitable for development trends of international and domestic communications." On the other hand "Adjusting and complementing laws regarding the punishment for legislative violations in journalist and digital information according to real-life contexts to aid the Government's managerial efforts" (The Prime Minister. 2019)

Thirdly, the government should invest in the research and development of state-of-the-art technical and technological instruments and vehicles for media management, especially for digital newspapers, social media, and other digital information platforms. Promoting the collaboration between agencies and cyber security programs to increase the spread of official information as well as deter and limit the influence of harmful, negative information. Efforts developing, structuring, and operating infrastructure applying information technology, and data infrastructures used by the Government as permitted by the Prime Minister; instructing local governments to deploy and utilize information technology to thrive, supplying smart city services. The Ministry of Information and Communications' new mission is to guide the nation's digitalization, building a digital Vietnam with a digital government, digital economy, digital society, and digital media. The Ministry has made it a goal to bring these categories to the top 30 to 50 nations worldwide in 2025. Vietnam has to become a powerhouse in cyber security to protect its prosperity in cyberspace. Mastering an ecosystem of safety products and cyber security (VGP News, 2021).

Currently, there are more than 60 radio stations and tens of high-volume broadcasting stations with programming in Vietnamese with frequent dishonest and biased reporting and commentary of events in Vietnam. Besides radio and television, rebellious and opposing forces also use a significant amount of other media platforms including 88 foreign publishers, more than 600 newspapers, magazines, and news boards in Vietnamese, ethnic minority languages, and foreign languages, tens of online Vietnamese news pages on the Internet, hosting content rebelling against the Party and the Vietnamese political system (Nguyen Si Trung, 2016). In 2021, the Ministry of Public Security

recorded 8 million cyber attack warnings. The authority uncovered 30 breaches of National secrets spanning 220 documents. According to the Ministry of Public Security's reports, from 2016 to 2021, more than 2,300 investigations were launched, more than 1,100 cases in which more than 1,000 individuals have been prosecuted, and 51 fraudulent cases related to property appropriation in cyberspace were administratively sanctioned (Nhtf Quynh, 2021).

Hence, it is instrumental that technical barriers be constructed to minimize the propagation of harmful materials. The Department of Cyber Security and Hi-tech Crime Prevention should fortify its defense of information systems, websites, and portals of the Party, State, and central financial sector. Proactively detect and compensate for security vulnerabilities and viruses endangering the Government's confidential data and Vietnam's relationship with the nation's international partners. The Ministry of Information and Communications needs to enforce competent sanctions, strictly penalize false accusations, and insults to one's dignity and honor, and fiercely combat offenses in cyberspace.

Fourthly, there requires a reformation of the bureaucracy in the communications field to avoid disorder and incompetent management. Lawmakers need to proceed more meticulously for optimal functionality, task achievement, and coordination structure among the MIC and other ministries/departments in the field of communications.

In the recent past, media agencies in Vietnam have grown significantly both in terms of quantity and quality. By the end of 2021, Vietnam had 816 press agencies which, in terms of the type of press, includes 114 newspapers and 116 magazines in both analog and digital formats; 557 analog newspapers and magazines, and 29 digital newspaper and magazines (Ministry of Information and Communications, 2021).

In terms of radio-television formats: There are 72 agencies with broadcasting permits including 2 state-funded agencies in VTC and VOV, 1 digital television station in VTC, 64 local broadcasting stations, 5 broadcasting units with no dedicated broadcasting facility in The People's Television, VNews, QPVN, The People's Public Security Television, Vietnam National Assembly Television Channel; 87 radio channels, 193 television channels.

Currently, the VOV has 6 broadcasting systems including 4 domestic ones and 2 for foreign affairs covering 97.5% of Vietnamese territory. VTV has formed 9 channels. Furthermore, cable television and digital television systems have rapidly flourished. There are currently more than 15 million televisions and 90% of the population gets to watch television nationwide (Nguyen ST Trung, 2016). Furthermore, there are more than 600 districtual radio and broadcasting stations and thousands of active communal radio stations providing daily information on all fields to the general public nationwide (Nguyen ST Trung, 2016). Currently, media activities in Vietnam are organized vertically with media agencies from the central level to the local level. In terms of horizontal organization, there is a system of communication agencies consisting of ministries, industries, and sectors. Fifthly, it is compulsory to elevate the quality of media staff, especially their managerial skills, specialized skills, and legal knowledge for the subjective agencies to fully utilize their responsibility, avoiding loose management, especially in media agencies. Furthermore, it is essential to train media personnel to detect conspiracies, expose schemes rebelling against the Party and the Government; identify fraudulent websites, sites hosting nefarious content, schemes used to steal personal accounts, information, and data, attacks using malicious codes, anonymous attacks using harmful software. In journalism alone, according to the Ministry of Information and Communications, Vietnam has had 11,000 individuals with journalist permits, and in 2021, this number has risen to 17,161 individuals; 40,000 individuals working in journalism agencies including officers, technical personnel, administrative staff, and partners (The Ministry of Information and Communications, 2021). Besides, some individuals work closely with the media or make a living by providing services for the media industry. It is of the utmost importance that rules of conduct for media personnel and officers are constantly revised and annexed. The Law Protecting Statee Secrets in 2018 dictates that content that cannot be leaked and distributed are: information on the preparation and deployment of administrative and organizational governmental efforts; exams

intended for leadership selection, hiring, promotion, and their solutions; national exams, their solutions and information on them (National Assembly of Vietnam, 2018).

Sixthly, promote a healthy media environment with humans at its core. It is necessary to develop the roles and responsibilities of related parties in approaching and utilizing modern media. There need to be legal regulations regarding the insurance of cultural standards and common cultural values, especially behavioral culture and culture surrounding protecting communal and social benefits domestically and internationally.

Currently, social media is regarded as the first option for the majority of the population for information exposure. There is even a component that participates in social media for entertainment and as a pastime. Up until January 2022, Vietnam has 72.1 million Internet users, equivalating to 73.2% of the nation's population (a 3% increase from 2021), with more than 76.96 million social media users, which equates to 78.1% of the nation's population (a 6.9% increase from 2021) (DataReportal, 2022). The most popular social media platforms in Vietnam are Youtube, Facebook, Zalo, Instagram, and Tiktok. Specifically, Facebook has 70.4 million Vietnamese users (DataReportal, 2022). The Party, the Government, and other political-social organizations' information channels are for the most part available on all social media platforms to be more widely accessible and suitable for the general public's habitual trends. Hence, it is compulsory to utilize social media for political communication (Nguyen Thj Trtfóng Giang, Nguyen Thj Thu, 2022), (Pham Anh Tuan, 2022).

Media activities should promote the propagation and education of the people, especially to elevate the youth's immunity and proactivity to deter harmful ideologies and opposition on the Internet; benign able to use the Internet effectively, practically, and healthily. As of October 2017, Google has blocked and removed 4466 malicious Youtube videos out of the 5000 videos the Ministry of Information and Communications suggested, making Vietnam within the 90th percentile of countries most catered to by Google worldwide; Facebook has removed 107/107 fake accounts, 394 links promoting illegal services and products, 159 insulting and rebelling against the Party and the Government (The National Assembly of Vietnam, 2018)

Developing a healthy media environment with modern culture as the core creates a sound foundation for the comprehensive development of humans. To achieve that goal, it is important to bolster the optimization, and scientification of cultural infrastructure. Being mindful of the advancement of day-to-day life creates a positive atmosphere within the general public's culture. Establish a system of legislative documents, using the law to adjust human behavior according to conventional ideological, moral, and cultural lifestyle standards. In all aspects, media ought to put humans as the central subject, creating a worldview and standpoint on values appropriate for technological advancement. Aptly process technological advancement, ideological changes, and institutional changes.


Governmental management is to support a professional media background, elevating the ideological quality, and boosting the appeal, modernity, and accessibility for readers. The state management of the media is profoundly impacted by many factors of which we have analyzed, evaluated, and emphasized those affecting the Party's policy line, the legal system of the Government, the media system, the quality of media personnel, the advancement of science and technology. Currently, competently fulfilling the state management of the media in Vietnam is creating a basic legal foundation, creating a liberally creative and equal environment for media development; ensuring the orientation of socialism, and preserving and expressing traditional cultural values. Above all, it is to allow the people - creative subjects to inherit an environment where factual, beneficial, robust, and humane information thrives. To achieve such a goal, governmental management structures should strive for sensible and modernized development to overhaul technological advancements worldwide.


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