Научная статья на тему 'ELITE BIATHLETES’ SHOOTING SKILLS KINEMATICS ANALYSIS'

ELITE BIATHLETES’ SHOOTING SKILLS KINEMATICS ANALYSIS Текст научной статьи по специальности «Медицинские технологии»

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Ключевые слова
ELITE BIATHLETES / SHOOTING SKILLS / KINEMATIC CHARACTERISTICS / QUALYSIS

Аннотация научной статьи по медицинским технологиям, автор научной работы — Ivanov D.I., Chumakov V.N., Karintsev I.A., Lobanov N.V.

Objective of the study was to analyze the biathlon elite’s shooting skills kinematics and give progress recommendations. Methods and structure of the study. We sampled for the study the 1623yearold elite biathletes (n=16) qualified Masters of Sports (n=8) and Class I Athletes (n=8). Their shooting skills kinematics were tested at laboratory of the Federal Medical Research and Training Center with "Snezhinka" Winter Sports Arena of the A.A. Danilov Tchaikovsky State Academy of Physical Culture and Sports using Qualisys optoelectronic/ dynamometric digital test system plus the AMTI strain gauge platform equipped with 12 highrate video cams. For the test purposes, we fixed markers on the front sights of the rifles, and the sample made five prone and five standing shots with no time limitations. Results and conclusion. The elite biathletesshooting skills kinematics tests and analysis using modern Qualisys optoelectronic/ dynamometric digital test system with the AMTI strain gauge platform made it possible to find the typical errors in the shooting skills including too high frontal pressure on the butt, rifle stoppage disorders; and deviations from the optimal aiming speeds and barrel movement amplitudes in the aiming sequence. Further studies to optimize the shooting skills kinematics are recommended for application in the elite biathletes’ training systems for technical and competitive progress.

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Текст научной работы на тему «ELITE BIATHLETES’ SHOOTING SKILLS KINEMATICS ANALYSIS»

Elite biathletes' shooting skills kinematics analysis

UDC 796.92.093.642

D.I. Ivanov1

PhD, Associate Professor V.N. Chumakov1 I.A. Karintsev1 N.V. Lobanov1

1Tchaikovsky State Academy of Physical Culture and Sports, Tchaikovsky, Perm Territory

Corresponding author: dmnqwerty@mail.ru

Abstract

Objective of the study was to analyze the biathlon elite's shooting skills kinematics and give progress recommenda-

Methods and structure of the study. We sampled for the study the 16-23-year-old elite biathletes (n=16) qualified Masters of Sports (n=8) and Class I Athletes (n=8). Their shooting skills kinematics were tested at laboratory of the Federal Medical Research and Training Center with "Snezhinka" Winter Sports Arena of the A.A. Danilov Tchaikovsky State Academy of Physical Culture and Sports using Qualisys optoelectronic/ dynamometric digital test system plus the AMTI strain gauge platform equipped with 12 high-rate video cams. For the test purposes, we fixed markers on the front sights of the rifles, and the sample made five prone and five standing shots with no time limitations.

Results and conclusion. The elite biathletes' shooting skills kinematics tests and analysis using modern Qualisys optoelectronic/ dynamometric digital test system with the AMTI strain gauge platform made it possible to find the typical errors in the shooting skills including too high frontal pressure on the butt, rifle stoppage disorders; and deviations from the optimal aiming speeds and barrel movement amplitudes in the aiming sequence. Further studies to optimize the shooting skills kinematics are recommended for application in the elite biathletes' training systems for technical and competitive progress.

Keywords: elite biathletes, shooting skills, kinematic characteristics, Qualysis.

Background. Modern biathlon training systems give a special priority to the shooting skills perfection and correction elements critical for competitive progress. This progress is known to depend on the technical performance and mental fitness plus the shooting accuracy largely secured by the weapon control skills [1, 3, 4]. Presently the sport community demonstrates a special interest in the rifle movement amplitude profiling studies viewed among the key shooting skills success factors, with a special emphasis on the key muscle group stresses and the small-caliber rifle control impulses in the shooting process. Many national biathlon elite experts appreciate benefits of Qualisys optoelectronic/ dynamometric digital test system with the AMTI strain gauge platform that generates reasonably objective and dependable test data [2].

Objective of the study was to analyze the biathlon elite's shooting skills kinematics and give progress recommendations.

Methods and structure of the study. We sampled for the study the 16-23 year-old elite biathletes (n=16) qualified Masters of Sports (n=8) and Class I Athletes (n=8). Their shooting skills kinematics were tested at laboratory of the Federal Medical Research and Training Center with "Snezhinka" Winter Sports Arena of the A.A. Danilov Tchaikovsky State Academy of Physical Culture and Sports using Qualisys optoelectronic/ dynamometric digital test system plus the AMTI strain gauge platform equipped with 12 high-rate video cams. For the test purposes, we fixed markers on the front sights of the rifles, and the sample made five prone and five standing shots with no time limitations.

Results and discussion. Most successful in the tests were the biathletes that controlled above 70% and less than 30% of the rifle weight by the left and right (lead) hands, respectively. It should be emphasized that this logic was found only for the shooting technique with widely set hands. As for the prone shooting position, its success was found dependent on the position efficiency with the gravity center and rifle projection effectively controlled within a trapeze formed by the elbows and pelvis.

Our analysis of the standing shooting skills kinematics found a gravity center shift in the shooter-rifle system to the margin of the support area indicative of a certain imbalance; plus some extra compensatory muscular efforts to keep the rifle on the target. The study found that an optimal standing position implies 60% and 40% of the system weight controlled by the left and right legs, respectively. Such position will secure good accuracy of the shooting skills due to the shooter-rifle system gravity center being controlled by moves in the hip joint with a minimal stress on the key muscles. This weight control proportion may be interpreted as indicative of a stable shooting position, with the key bodily elements and links well harmonized to compensate stresses in the system.

Furthermore, our analysis of the prone shooting skills kinematics found the weapon control efforts and amplitudes significantly variable in the sample - apparently due to the differences in the individual muscular stress control and bodily elements harmoniz-ing/ compensating skills (p<0.05). It should be also mentioned that the group differences in the prone and standing shooting skills kinematics were also meaningful (p< 0.05). However, the aiming speed, support control and rifle movement tests of the standing shooting sequence kinematics found no significant differences in the sample (p>0.05).

The multidimensional analysis of the elite biathletes' shooting skills kinematics using modern instrumental methods found the sample in the prone shooting sequence prone to push the weapon forward in the sagittal plane by pressing the butt; although this move mobilizes a few non-key muscles at detriment to the key muscle group performance with negative consequences for the shooting accuracy. The prone shooting skills kinematics analysis showed the best results achieved when the front sight moves within at most 2 mm in the sagittal plane. The standing shooting skills kinematics analysis showed a higher optimal movement amplitude range with the front sight

allowed to travel within the 6 mm range in the sagittal plane.

The prone shooting skills kinematics analysis with a focus on the rifle movement in the horizontal plane with the front sight base moving up 0.2-0.4 seconds before the shot - found the shooting being most successful when the barrel movement amplitude is kept within the 5 mm range. The standing shooting skills kinematics analysis, however, found the best barrel movement amplitude varying in a wider range of 7 mm at most. This travel range may be interpreted as characteristic of the individual rifle control and shooting skills, i.e. technical mastery on the whole.

Analysis of the front sight movement in the frontal plane found a significant difference between the high and low shooting skills in the following aspect: the higher are the individual shooting skills, the lower is the front sight travel amplitude. Generally the high movement compensation skills at the rifle stopping moment are indicative of the high body balancing abilities. In more specific terms, we found that the movement amplitude in the frontal plane 0.2-0.4 seconds before the shot should be kept within the 8 mm and 18 mm ranges in the prone and standing shooting positions, respectively. We also found beneficial the ability to fast mobilize muscles after pulling the trigger to fast reload the rifle so as to prevent the front sight traveling too far from the shooting line.

We also found the front sight virtually never stopping firm on the target as it keeps floating in the aiming sequence. This is the reason for us to recommend the aiming speed being kept under 0.13 mm/s and 0.17 mm/s in the prone and standing shooting positions, respectively; with a special attention to the compensatory movements geared to effectively balance the shooter-weapon system for accuracy.

Correlation analysis of the shooting skills kinematics found correlations between the left/ right arm control and competitive shooting accuracy in the prone position (rs=0.58). As for the standing shooting position, we found a lower correlation between the left/ right leg control and competitive shooting accuracy (rs= 0.31). The analysis also showed a clear correlation between the rifle movement amplitude in the frontal plane in the aiming sequence and the competitive shooting accuracy in the prone position (rs= 0.51).

Conclusion. The elite biathletes' shooting skills kinematics tests and analysis using modern Qualisys optoelectronic/ dynamometric digital test system with the AMTI strain gauge platform made it possible to

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Theory and Practice of Physical Culture I teoriya.ru I February I № 2 2022

find the typical errors in the shooting skills including too high frontal pressure on the butt, rifle stoppage disorders; and deviations from the optimal aiming speeds and barrel movement amplitudes in the aiming sequence. Further studies to optimize the shooting skills kinematics are recommended for application in the elite biathletes' training systems for technical and competitive progress.

References

1. Muraleeva E.V., Chumakov V.N., Karintsev I.A. Actions to build static and dynamic balancing skills in shooting training of skilled biathletes. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2020. No. 3. pp. 21-23.

2. Romanova YS., Zagurskiy N.S. Analysis of shooting fitness indices of biathletes at sports excellence stage. Uchenye zapiski universiteta im. P. F. Lesgafta. 2020. No. 8 (186). pp. 252-255.

3. Khalmanskikh A.V., Gurev L.A., Manzheley I.V. Shooting training for biathletes. M.: Direct-Media publ., 2017. 218 p.

4. Laaksonen M.S., Finkenzeller T., Holmberg H.C., Sattleckerb G. The influence of physio-biomechanical parameters, technical aspects of shooting, and psychophysiological factors on biathlon performance: A review. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 2018. 7 (4). pp. 394-404.

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