Научная статья на тему 'Educational media resources as a means of forming a new content of regional history in the light of the problem of teachers' readiness to profess it to high school students'

Educational media resources as a means of forming a new content of regional history in the light of the problem of teachers' readiness to profess it to high school students Текст научной статьи по специальности «СМИ (медиа) и массовые коммуникации»

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Аннотация научной статьи по СМИ (медиа) и массовым коммуникациям, автор научной работы — Alekseeva L., Svyatchenko I., Zvereva G.

This article actualizes the importance of using media resources in the educational process as a means of updating and forming a new content of regional history. The characteristic is given of the current situation with the teaching of regional history in Russia and the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area (KhMAO Yugra). The authors identify the historical and socio-cultural features of the region, which influenced the formation of regional historical education which needs of modernization at the present stage. Teachers complement the outdated components of the current KhMAO history textbook with the media resources available on the Internet, including regional databases of information on the history of the region, focused on the portals of universities, libraries, museums, archives. These resources make it possible to expand the information opportunities of teaching regional history, as they help to fill the content of lessons with new data presented in scientific works, collections of documents, exhibitions of museums, video and photo documents. The authors identify the most popular types of media resources in the educational process. They determine the degree of teachers readiness to profess the history of the KhMAO Yugra to high school students. The research was conducted on the basis of the teachers survey and results obtained through the experiment.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Educational media resources as a means of forming a new content of regional history in the light of the problem of teachers' readiness to profess it to high school students»

Copyright © 2019 by Academic Publishing House Researcher s.r.o.

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Published in the Slovak Republic Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie) Has been issued since 2005 ISSN 1994-4160 E-ISSN 1994-4195 2019, 59(2): 194-206

DOI: 10.13187/me.2019.2.194 www.ejournal53.com

Educational Media Resources as a Means of Forming a New Content of Regional History in the Light of the Problem of Teachers' Readiness to Profess It to High School Students

Lubov Alekseeva a , * , Inna Svyatchenko b , Galina Zvereva c

a Nizhnevartovsk State University, Russian Federation b Nizhnevartovsk Municipal secondary school № 40, Russian Federation c Nizhnevartovsk Municipal secondary school № 2, Russian Federation


This article actualizes the importance of using media resources in the educational process as a means of updating and forming a new content of regional history. The characteristic is given of the current situation with the teaching of regional history in Russia and the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area (KhMAO - Yugra). The authors identify the historical and socio-cultural features of the region, which influenced the formation of regional historical education which needs of modernization at the present stage. Teachers complement the outdated components of the current KhMAO history textbook with the media resources available on the Internet, including regional databases of information on the history of the region, focused on the portals of universities, libraries, museums, archives. These resources make it possible to expand the information opportunities of teaching regional history, as they help to fill the content of lessons with new data presented in scientific works, collections of documents, exhibitions of museums, video and photo documents. The authors identify the most popular types of media resources in the educational process. They determine the degree of teachers' readiness to profess the history of the KhMAO -Yugra to high school students. The research was conducted on the basis of the teachers' survey and results obtained through the experiment.

Keywords: media resources, regional history, content, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area (KhMAO - Yugra), teacher.

1. Introduction

Here are a few trends in access to media and educational resources. They are openness, accessibility and convenience of use for all categories of students. Today, media is commonly understood as cinema, television, video, multimedia computer systems, the Internet, radio, printing, graphics, photography, music, communication (Kuzmina, 2009: 22). Pedagogical innovations are largely determined by the method of working with media resources in teaching History also. And here the difficulties are obvious, because the total use of electronic means of education has not led to an increase in students' knowledge of History, moreover, there is a downtrend. Accordingly, the use of media resources should not be an end in itself, but should correspond to pedagogical aims.

* Corresponding author

E-mail addresses: lvalexeeeva@mail.ru (L. Alekseeva), inn111980@mail.ru (I. Svyatchenko), galina.zvereva2000@mail.ru (G. Zvereva)

Today there is a real technical opportunity to use media resources in the educational process, including the course of regional history as because all schools in Russia are equipped with computers and have access to the Internet. Any teacher, referring to the media data, quickly forms electronic modules of lessons taking into account the latest achievements of regional historiography. She/he introduces new content in the course of the regional history with no limited. There is a problem, however. What guides teachers in choosing media resources on regional history? Do they know the information bases of these resources? Which of teachers are most in demand? Are the teachers ready to include them in the educational process to update the content of the course (if they haven't done it yet)? Do they prefer to use a printed textbook? What is the quality of the resources involved? Is the use of low-quality educational media resources observed?

We believe that the use of educational media resources not only helps to fill the missing facts in the textbook. Media resources allow a teacher to observe a certain balance in the selection of content for lessons, guided by the need to present the truth of history also. For example, Yugra is the land of exile, deportations, special settlements in the past. The problem becomes here. How to overcome the contradiction between the unseemly nature of some historical facts and phenomena in the history of KhMAO and the vital need to educate a young person who loves their land, ready for conscientious work and responsibility for their life? Many facts of unpleasant pages of the history of the Northern region are already known to science. They are contained in numerous media and educational resources. These facts are little reflected in the textbook unfortunately. A teacher needs to extract, understand and adequately dispose these new historical facts for teaching.

Many researchers pay attention to the educational potential of regional history. For example, E.I. Gololobov notes the growth of public interest in regional history. He emphasizes its importance: "It is the regional history that is designed to determine the place of the native land in the world historical process, to link the history of the region with the history of the country, to establish a sense for the district's inhabitants to its past and traditions" (Gololobov, 2015: 5). Along with the noted positive phenomenon, adverse trends are observed in this field. We have had many conversations with the teachers of Nizhnevartovsk. The survey showed that today teachers are facing infantilism, low-performing of the history, poor everyday culture in general. As a result, many high school students have low motivation to study (Zvereva, Alekseeva, 2017: 53-55). These problems ruin the formation of adequate human feelings arising in the study of the regional history. The population of the district has a peculiarity. It's a "guest" mentality. There is a large number of students and their parents who know nothing about the modern and early modern history of the region. They have another homeland - somewhere out there, on the "Mainland". All these problems set difficult tasks before a teacher of history.

It is well known that the quality of schoolchildren's education is largely determined by the teachers' qualification. One of them is historiographical knowledge. Does a teacher know the historiographical situation? Does she/he know where databases and resources are concentrated? Therefore, we believe that the teachers' knowledge about the main research centers on the history of the North of Western Siberia and information capabilities of media resources is the most important condition for the effective implementation of the regional history course. The method of using resources in the regional history lessons, in autonomy homework and in the students' educational and research activities is another main significance.

And of course we should not forget about the role of the state in this matter. The state history policy has a big impact on the situation with the teaching of regional history also. It is just being formed. It does not consider all the importance of regional and local history as one of the levels of historical education, especially in the Russian civil education, unfortunately.

2. Materials and methods

The following materials were used for the study. These are the works of well-known foreign experts first of all (Aboulkacem et al., 2018: 40-52; Bergstrom et al., 2018: 113-131; Black, 2018: 203-214; Bulger, Davison, 2018: 1-21; Drew, Mann, 2018: 1-13; Markowski et al., 2018: 128-149; Mason et al., 2018: 1-10; McDougall et al., 2018: 263-279; Meyers et al., 2013: 355-367; Potter, 2018; Ragains, 2015: 1-5; Silverblatt, 2016: 54-71; 2018: 66-71; Simons et al., 2017: 99-115; Stephen, 2016: 5-17; Wallis, Buckingham, 2016: 1-17). Besides them these are scientific publications of Russian media educators (Fedorov, 2001; 2007: 107-116; 2015; 2019; Fedorov,

Levitskaya, 2018: 6-23; 2019; Klusova et al., 2015; Kuzmina, 2009: 22-29; Kuznetsov, 2015: 24-27; Levitskaya, Seliverstova, 2019; Tynnikov et al., 2016: 29-46; 2017: 58-74; 2018: 90-99). These are researches of regional experts on history too (Gololobov, 2015; Kibenko, 2015: 72-81; Ushakov, 2009: 57-63). These are works of methodologists on history at last (Alekseeva, 2016: 140-148; Chernov, 2001: 40-46; Frolova, 2017: 130-134; Mishina, 2016: 46-51; Studenikin, 2007; Svyatchenko, Alekseeva, 2016: 50-52; Vyazemsky, 2012: 21-40; 2017: 3-11; Zvereva, Alekseeva,

2017: 51-55).

Here were used the following methods: analysis, generalization, classification. They were used in the process of studying the scientific literature. The main method of the research was an ascertaining experiment. It is possible to identify teachers training to implement regional history education, including their knowledge of various types of educational media resources; which of them are more used in teaching the history of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area. The following methods were used to study the teachers' experience: survey, pedagogical observation, analysis of training plans for students of regional history, evaluation of teaching guidelines of lessons, programmes of additional education and conversations.

3. Discussion

As it is widely known, and it has been often noted in the research, "in Russia and abroad accumulated quite a large scientific and methodological arsenal of media-educational tools and theoretical and methodological support" (Kovaleva, 2017: 14). The problem of media literacy is the subject of active study in foreign media pedagogy. While historically the term literacy has referred to the ability to read and write, in modern society most information is distributed through a variety of communication technologies, making the ability to "read" and understand a range of mediated formats an essential skill to successfully navigate today's culture (Bergstrom et al., 2018: 113). Media literacy is a field of studies that is growing with the overgrowth technology and means of media production. The researchers emphasize that media literacy is a field of studies that is growing with the overgrowth technology and means of media production (Aboulkacem et al., 2018: 40). Today we have a tendency when in terms of definitions of literacy, there is a move back from a notion of critical literacy to one of functional literacy (Wallis, Buckingham, 2016: 4)

KhMAO has a significant database of media resources containing historical material also. These include resources for websites of the universities of Yugra. These are universities: Nizhnevartovsk State University (http://nvsu.ru/), Surgut State University (http://www.surgu.ru/index), Surgut State Pedagogical University (http://www.surgpu.ru/), Yugra State University (https://www.ugrasu.ru/). In addition to universities, media resources are concentrated in other institutions. These are the website of the Institute of education development (http://iro86.ru/); websites of museums, including "The Museum of Man and Nature" (http://ugramuseum.ru/); the libraries websites, for example, "The State Library of Yugra" (http://www.okrlib.ru/); websites of municipal archives and "The State Archive of Yugra" (http://www.gahmao.ru/). Media and educational resources are concentrated on the portals of these organizations. Among them are resources of electronic libraries, versions of the proceedings of scientific conferences, collections of articles, monographs, teaching guidelines. Media literacy is required from both teachers and students to work with these resources. Sometimes digital literacy is considered a school-based competency, but it is introduced and developed in informal learning contexts such as libraries, museums, social groups, affinity spaces online, not to mention the home environment (Meyers et al., 2013: 355).

At the same time, it should be emphasized that educational media resources containing new scientific data on history of the region are not only a means of transmitting information, but a source, which are competitive with a teacher's knowledge too (Tunnikov et al., 2018: 99). We cannot ignore the fact that many popular media presentations derive their meaning from the historical events of the day, the sudden appearance (or disappearance) of information can furnish perspective into the historical period in which it was produced (Silverblatt, 2016: 61).

In order to understand how important media and educational resources are in updating the content of regional history, it is necessary to characterize the current situation with regional history education in the country. Russia is a country of regions that differ from each other by historical and cultural originality. The main discussions of Russian scientists and teachers about the place of regional history in the schoolchildren's education are reduced to one thesis: regional history is necessary, it is one of the levels of presentation of historical material along with the world and

national history. The state approach this issue is opposite. The Law of the Russian Federation on Education was adopted on December 29, 2012 (№ 273). It supersedes the regional component of education. The Federal State Standards of General Education (FSES) do not refer to the regional component of education also (2009). Thus, E.E. Vyazemsky emphasizes that the FSES abolishes the national-regional component of the content of education as a pedagogical phenomenon (Vyazemsky, 2012: 25). However, the school curriculum contains a regional component. Thus, the inclusion / non-inclusion of the subject in the curriculum remains at the discretion of the master (which largely depends on their competence). There is a situation when school principals prefer to abandon the study of regional history as a systematic course in many regions of Russia. Teachers were recommended to implement the regional component in the lessons of national history (10 % of the training time). I.A. Mishina draws attention to the position of regional history in history education, stressing that "regional and local history is often considered as secondary, used to confirm and illustrate the processes disclosed in the framework of Federal history. The periodization of regional and local history is often artificially adjusted to the periodization of national history, which is not always justified. The regions study the history of the so-called "titular nation" usually" (Mishina, 2016: 48) and all of us so say.

The Concept of a new EMK (educational and methodical complex) on national history was approved in 2014. It contains the Historical and Cultural Standard (HCS). This happened on the expanded meeting of the Council of the Russian historical society. This document is a scientific core of the content of school historical education, where one of the methodological foundations is a multi-level representation of history. The course of national history should combine the history of the Russian state and its peoples, the history of the regions and local history. This approach will contribute to the awareness of students of their social identity in a wide range (as citizens of their country, residents of their region, city, representatives of a certain ethnic and religious community, keepers of the traditions of the genus and family) (Frolova, 2017: 132). Thus, there is a contradiction between the Federal law "On Education in the Russian Federation", the Federal State Educational Standard and the Historical and Cultural Standard in terms of the content of history education, the place and the role of the regional component in it.

With regard to the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area, this problem is among the most urgent ones. In addition to the general trends of development (including the sphere of history education), typical for the whole country, the region has some peculiar features. One of them is the composition of the population. The locals of the region are formed not only naturally, but also due to a significant proportion of migrants who now have no idea (or have a very weak) one about the stages of the historical development of the territory, its epochal events, the price of today's socioeconomic well-being of the district. In such a region, the course of regional history is intended to play an important role in the population's education. "The problem of education of the younger generation remains one of the most important tasks of all subjects of educational activity. And the education of a nationally rooted, not internationally blurred and impersonal globalization", as noted by S.N. Klimov and Y.V. Sysoev (Klimov, Sysoev, 2018: 120). We wholeheartedly agree with S.N. Klimov and Y.V. Sysoev. There is a socio-cultural feature of KhMAO. There were no scientific personnel, higher education institutions in the region for many years. There were no objective conditions for studying the history of the region and preparing a textbook of the regional history respectively. The first University appeared in Yugra in 1988 only. It was as a branch of the Tobolsk Pedagogical Institute (now - Nizhnevartovsk State University). The first historical faculty was established in the district in 1993. In this regard, it should be borne in mind that a medium is a technology within which a culture grows; that is to say, it gives form to a culture's politics, social organization, and habitual ways of thinking (Mason et al., 2018: 2).

The History of the KhMAO as a regular course was never taught in secondary schools. However, the preoccupation of the regional government in creating the "The history of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area" was felt in the second half of the 1990s already. The district became a full-fledged subject of the Russian Federation according to the Constitution 1993. The authorities were concerned about the formation of the regional identity. One of the means of identity was considered the students' training course on the history of the region. According to E.E. Vyazemsky "One of the most significant identities is a civil identity (connection with the country, the big and small Motherland), which is closely connected with patriotism" (Vyazemsky, 2017: 5). We would find difficulty to quarrel with this statement. At the same time, as V.A. Kibenko noted, "regional and local identities do not enter into conflict with each other and do not constitute a civil

competition, which is an important factor of stability" in the region (Kibenko, 2015: 80). It is a veracious statement.

A textbook on the history of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area (1999) for high school students was prepared by the group of authors, mainly from Yekaterinburg (Redin et al., 1999). The decision was made by the first Governor of Yugra, A.V. Filipenko. Teaching the course on the local history began in the 10th grade in 2000. It was designed for 2 years, for the high school students. It is fair to note that this textbook has played a positive role in the development of regional history education. However, by the beginning of the second decade of the new century it became obvious. The textbook is outdated on many items. A new study book is needed.

The district power (represented by Governor N.V. Komarova) in the framework of the project "Centuries-old Yugra " set the task to prepare a new textbook for high school students in 2017. Its presentation is planned for the 90th anniversary of the Autonomous Area (December 2020). The authors who have started working on the textbook for high school students are academic staff of the Yugra Universities. The existing educational media resources can have a significant impact not only on the creation of a new educational book, but on the formation of a new content of the current course also. Educational media resources can modernize the educational environment. The current textbook on the regional history does not meet the state of modern science. In addition, in this construction of content, the goals of media education are achieved when it is integrated with the basic one. This fact was emphasized by L.S. Zaznobina (Zaznobina, 1999: 4).

A.V. Fedorov drew attention to the great potential of media resources back in 2001. The scientist emphasizes that in the modern educational process it "is determined by a wide range of development of the human personality: emotions, intelligence, independent creative and critical thinking, worldview, aesthetic consciousness, perception skills of artistic analysis, etc., activation of knowledge gained in the study of traditional disciplines of the Humanities" (Fedorov, 2001: 8). It is obvious that the mass introduction of e-learning, distance learning technologies, including educational media resources is one of the trends in the development of modern education (Kashina et al.: 459). Therefore, we assign an important role to media resources in updating and shaping the content of the regional history. In this regard, it is necessary to pay attention to the idea, which is reflected in the S. Klimov and Y. Sysoev's work. They write: "The content of education does not always meet all the needs and requirements of practice. Huge flows of information do not contribute to the systematic assimilation of knowledge by students, and information diversity does not allow to both comprehend, and to use these flows of information" (Klimov, Sysoev, 2018: 119). Similar opinions have foreign scientists too (Potter, 2018). The main criterion for the selection of information for the course of the regional history should be the compliance of the content of education with the requirements of the development of the region, society, science, culture and personality both on the basis of the inclusion of traditional necessary knowledge and skills, and in the context of their modern development, the special aspects of modern ethno-regional features (Ushakov, 2009: 58).

Consequently, a teacher's work full of various media, requires information skills for the new media environment. We can talk about mobile learning here. Mobile learning (M-learning) represents a way to address a number of traditional, distance and electronic learning issues and limitations. Using mobile devices such as PDAs, tablets and smart phones as learning tools enable innovation and support learners, instructors, parents and decision makers accessing to digital material and personalised achievements assessment.

Many research studies have been performed in M-learning related to its requirement analysis, design needs and application development issues and challenges, "foresight analysis of the development of education in Russia and abroad shows that the functions of the teacher gradually shifted from direct communication with the students to interact with them through various media, development of educational computer programs, adapting them to specific conditions, including to changes in the media sphere" (Tynnikov et al., 2016: 30). Thus, history teachers need to understand the changes taking place in the modern information environment. They need to have a number of important competencies that allow them to find information, determine its accuracy on a number of General, personal and contextual criteria. While scholars continue to conduct media literacy interventions and extend curricula into new topical areas, limited assessments exist that measure the impact of media literacy interventions over time (Bergstrom et al., 2018: 123). It is obvious that teachers' media education is necessary. As a number of researchers emphasize, "In Russia, the practice of obtaining media education in the

framework of professional development by working professionals is widespread, however, this trend is not massive" (Popkova et al., 2017: 30), which is confirmed by the materials of our study too. According to A.S. Tynnikov et al., specific conditions for the formation of a teacher's media competence is dynamic information and educational environment, their constant changes. For teachers it is important to detect such changes in a timely manner. Teachers are to predict their impact on educational practice, taking into account the identified changes of their activities and personality. The school educators have to master the ways of solving new professional problems, the necessary knowledge, skills, abilities. In this regard, the structure of media competence of a teacher is necessary to include a new component - the willingness to adequately respond to the changing educational and information environment (Tynnikov et al., 2017: 61). We are entirely in agreement with them. Indeed, the changes that have taken place over the past 25 years in regional historiography are so significant that most teachers do not have time to track them and as a result do not have the latest knowledge, with the rare exception.

The most popular groups of media resources containing educational and cognitive information are those that the researchers call educational, reference, scientific and popular resources that form educational media content (Gubanova, 2017: 152). Today all teachers and students have mobile personal means of access to multimedia cultural and educational information into the Internet at any time and in any place. And here it is important for a teacher to determine the range of media used by students on their own. Any device, emphasizes S.V. Kuvshinov, available in the student's pocket needs to work on education (Kuvshinov, 2010: 118). For example, the potential for tablets to empower and engage school students is of shared interest among the various stakeholders described and the research communities working across the fields of education and literacies (McDougall et al., 2018: 264). Therefore, the use of media resources in the educational process should be managed by a teacher, aimed at the intellectual students' development (Tunnikov et al., 2018: 90). It should be emphasized here that knowledge requires a familiarity with factual information, an understanding of derivations, contexts, and processes. Moreover, knowledge is cumulative, building on existing information to extend an idea or create a new concept. Knowledge requires a familiarity with factual information, an understanding of derivations, contexts, and processes. Moreover, knowledge is cumulative, building on existing information to extend an idea or create a new concept (Silverblatt, 2016: 55). We are in agreement with this researchers.

However, access to resources is not enough for educational purposes. A.V. Kuznetsov believes that education will not be sufficient without at least a minimum of self-realization, knowledge testing and correction (Kuznetsov, 2015: 26). But a significant part of teachers use materials that do not meet the criteria of scientific competence. A teacher must have information literacy to understand what resource is in front of her/him, whether it is necessary to use it in the educational process. Therefore, special attention is required to the quality of resources and adequate methods of their use in the educational process.

Here it is necessary to take into account the general level of teachers' media literacy in KhMAO, which leaves much to be desired. However, the value media literacy is vital importance (Silverblatt, 2018: 71; Stephen, 2016: 5-17). Digital literacy involves the ability to work with any sources of information (oral, written, analog and electronic/digital), as well as with all types of information resources (Klusova et al., 2015: 8). Scientists of Yugra State University conducted the study. It shows that the prerequisites are only created for the introduction of educational institutions of the course of media information literacy and training (retraining or advanced training) of teachers in the educational module "Media and Information Literacy" (Klusova et al., 2015: 12) in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra.

Media competence is one of the most important competencies of a modern specialist noted by many researchers (Popkova et al., 2017: 28), and teachers are no exception. There is an opinion that effective media education requires that teachers have sufficient media literacy competencies as well as the competencies to promote media literacy in students (Simons et al., 2017: 99). We know that skilled searching, selection, and analysis of information play central roles in good analytical thinking, since these activities help one frame better questions and generalizations (Ragains, 2015: 2).

A.V. Fedorov distinguishes between the concept of media personality and the teacher's media competence. If A.V. Fedorov under the person's media competence understands the totality of her/his motives, knowledge, skills, abilities that contribute to the choice, use, critical analysis, evaluation, creation and transmission of media texts in different types, forms and genres, analysis

of complex processes of media functioning in the society (Fedorov, 2015), then A.V. Fedorov under the teacher's professional media competence imagines a set of skills (motivational, information, methodological, practical-operational/activity, creative) to carry out media educational activities in the audience of different ages (Fedorov, 2007: 108). Thus, media literacy educators teach people how to think, not what think (Silverblatt, 2018: 71). A.V. Fedorov and A.A. Levitskaya recommend to develop a comprehensive programme of media education at all levels of education and to begin training teachers in the field of media education in accordance with the recommendations of UNESCO (Fedorov, Levitskaya, 2018: 6) as the delay in teachers' education, in their opinions, is simply impossible. For example, in the master's degree programme of Nizhnevartovsk State University with the direction of specialization "Pedagogical Education" course "Mediation Competence in Professional Activities" introduced in the curriculum of student recruitment 2019/20 academic year. Prior to that, such courses were absent in the training of students, we regret to say. However, students do not always share our optimism about the study of a particular course, which is confirmed by research (Drew, Mann, 2018).

There is an opinion that media literacy is most successful when it is integrated across the curriculum. A number of studies have highlighted the need to change curricula for media literacy (Markowski et al., 2018). Researchers pay attention to the fact that media literacy, however, cannot be treated as a panacea. Media literacy is just one frame in a complex media and information environment (Bulger, Davison, 2018: 2). However, there is another opinion. Despite a general sense that the community had limited access to technology, and limited skills, some stakeholders identified an over indulgence of mobile digital media as a barrier to learning, aspiration, general well-being (McDougall et al., 2018: 273). The following fact cannot be ignored either. One implication of the time that is needed to transition to new modes of thinking is that single courses in information literacy can only have limited effectiveness. Students must have time to develop the intellectual maturity required to become fully information literate (Black, 2018: 211).

Summing up the discussion of media educators, methodologists and regional experts it is easy to see the general trend characterizing the increasing role of media resources in the educational process. Educators around the globe are striving to figure out the best way to make use of the recent technological revolution in enhancing student performance. The regional history constitutes no exception to it. An important role belongs to media resources, when we teach using media. And "it is difficult to overestimate the role of media education as a means of personal development aimed at arming it with adequate methods of activity in the media environment" (Kovaleva, 2017: 21). Teachers should be main verifiers of information, who feed the younger generation with new knowledge (Alekseev, 2017: 4). We see fully agree with M. Alekseev. The study of the facts of "close" history through media content has a completely different effect on the perception of the past by schoolchildren. It allows through the events in which the ancestors took part to feel oneself involved in the "great" history, to see and understand the role and importance of the region for the Russian and World history, which contributes to the formation of regional identity and patriotism.

4. Results

The aim was to determine the teachers' readiness to give classes on regional history. In the course of experimental work it was supposed to carry out the analysis of teachers' professional qualifications for the realization of regional history education, including the media educational resources for school purposes. We had yet to learn, theoretically justify and experimentally test the pedagogical conditions of teacher training for the implementation of regional history education and ensure the effectiveness. The following goals were identified at the ascertaining stage of the experiment:

- To establish the types of educational media resources, which are used by teachers in the preparation of the content area increasingly;

- To find out the nature of teachers' practical training for the realization of the regional history education;

- To diagnose the level of the teachers' professional qualifications for the implementation of regional history studies through on the basis of the developed criteria and indicators;

- To identify and experimentally test the pedagogical conditions of the teachers' education for the capstone programme of the regional history.

The method of ascertaining experiment was developed taking into account the goals. First of all, it was necessary to analyze the existing database of media resources on regional history. Here are just some information about the largest institutions that have extensive databases of various types of media and educational resources that allow you to work with them remotely. For example, the district's "Museum of Nature and Man" has the following collections of media resources: videos, audios, 3D objects, panoramas, virtual catalogs, thematic collections of resources: "The Great Feat of the People", "History of Exile and Special Settlements", "Historical and Cultural Heritage of Yugra". "Museum of Geology, Oil and Gas" has the following digital resources: collection "History of Technology", "Clothing Collection", "Geology", "Archeology", "Numismatics".

The content of the regional history course can be replenished with the resources of the district's archive (http://www.gahmao.ru/). The automated information system "Electronic Archive of Yugra" allows to work from home with inventories of funds as well as with some archival documents. The State Archive of Yugra has implemented a virtual project since 2016. It's called an interactive map of "The History of the Development of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area -Yugra". There are educational media resources on the following topics: "Churches, Temples, Monasteries in the District in the XV-XX centuries", "Disappeared Villages of Khanty-Mansi Area ", "Specially Protected Natural Areas", "Ways of Colonization of Yugra in the XI-XVI centuries ". In addition, there is a large number of digitized documents in separate thematic collections. The volume of resources is constantly replenished.

Media resources of "The State Library of Yugra" allow a remote access to the database. The institution has an electronic catalog and multiple databases, actively supports several sites on the Internet: official website of the library (http://www.okrlib.ru/); the portal "Library of Yugra" (http://ugra.okrlib.ru/); the website of the "Library Buildings: Architecture, Design, Organization of Space" (http://rba.okrlib.ru/); the portal " Literary Yugra " (http://ugralit.okrlib.ru/); the website of the Socio-economic library readings (http://event.okrlib.ru/). Thus, it was revealed that teachers have an access to a variety of media resources. That can be used in the educational process to update the academic content of regional history regardless of their place of residence.

The ascertaining experiment assumed the analysis of school practice for the purpose of identification of teachers' education for realization of regional historical syllabus. The goal at this stage was to determine the importance for the teachers and students of various types of educational activities (theoretical and scientific-practical) and the bases of media resources and their types, which teachers turn for planning history lessons.

We have prepared a questionnaire for the teachers. The survey was attended by 77 teachers and 12 student - teachers. In answer to the question about "How do you look for resources on regional history?" - 44 % of respondents said that they use search engines, 30 % work with University websites, 4 % turn to the resources of museums and archives, the remaining 22 % rarely turn to the Internet resources to attract additional information to the lessons on the history of the region. After was framed the question "What types of resources do you use most often?" - 63 % of respondents said that they use video presentations borrowed from the Internet, 17 % - video films, 15 % - photo documents; documentary films, video lectures; archival documents and media materials are used only by 5 % of respondents. To the question "What criteria do you use to evaluate a resource when you select it from information databases?" the following answers were given: the resource offers the necessary information - 79 %, the resource corresponds to the level of training of students - 23 %, the resource is multisensory (both visual and audio channels are involved) - 18 %, the resource contains previously unknown knowledge - 19 % of respondents. To the question "Do you have your own catalogue of media resources on regional history?" 17 % of respondents answered yes, no - 78 %.

The analysis of questionnaires revealed the following trends in the use of media resources: the majority of teachers use search engine materials - 44 %, 30 % use University websites. Search engines, websites and portals most popular among teachers (ranked by usage priority): 1) The Single Official Website of the State Bodies. Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra (admhmo. ru/); 2) The Free Encyclopedia Wikipedia (https://www.google.com/); 3) Search Engines: Google, Yandex.ru; 4) Scientific Electronic Library Cyberleninka (https://cyberleninka.ru/); 5) The Website NVSU (http://nvsu.ru/); 6) The Website of Local Museum in Nizhnevartovsk (nkmus.ru/); 7) The Website of the Scientific Electronic Library (https://elibrary.ru/defaultx.asp); 8) The Website of the Orthodox Clergy (http:pravoslavnoeduhovenstvo.rutwirpx.com); 9) The Website of the Central City Library of the

City of Nizhnevartovsk (http://www.mubis.ru); 10) The Website of the Center for Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ikhugra.ru).

The analysis of the questionnaires allowed to identify the most popular types of educational media resources. Most popular are video resources as a format of educational media content. Among them, 73 % were video presentations as a means of popularizing certain topics of the course of regional history and increasing the attractiveness of history classes. 46 % of respondents carry out the selection of visual material for classes from the Internet.

Further, it was important to identify the teachers' priorities in the choice of literature for classroom learning. Diagnosis of the level of teachers' training for the implementation of regional historical education included the study of the potential readiness to study the scientific literature about the historical facts and development of KhMAO-Yugra. We decided to learn this phenomenon in comparison with the expectations of school students. The research has found a significant difference in performance in relation to diverse types of teachers' and students' theoretical training. Thus, the study of scientific and educational literature was chosen by 65 % of respondents-teachers and 15 % of high school students only. We have identified the inconsistency of indicators of teachers' potential readiness and senior pupils' mind to study the scientific literature about the historical facts of KhMAO-Yugra. We assume that the insufficient level of such development of high school students students. It indicates little attention in the practice of the school on the formation of optimal pedagogical conditions favorable for the development of students' motivational potential to study the regional history. It was supposed that the teachers' training for the implementation of regional historical education would improve if pedagogical conditions were provided that are conducive for the integration of different types of educational activities.

Another pedagogical section was aimed at diagnosing the teachers' and students' intentionality in the process of studying the regional history. We created special pedagogical situations. The teachers had the opportunity to choose facts and phenomena of a personal value from the history of the region using media resources. In the presentation, the respondents were offered fragments of various cultural events, national rites, historical facts. Respondents denoted those moments that caused vivid mental images, intentions, feelings with pictograms after viewing the materials. The experimental materials were displayed with a computer and a video projector. Teachers and senior pupils of the control and experimental groups received sheets of paper, colored pencils, audio and video recording of historical events. The experimenter gave the goal: "I will switch on a video presentation. It includes various subjects from the historical heritage of our region. Watch this video. When the tape ends, indicate graphically those plots that have caused the images of emotionally significant and positive reaction. The quality of the graphic does not matter. Remember, you should use drawing to refer to close and similar, in your opinion, subjects".

The audio-visual information was provided at intervals. This technique facilitated the perception of the material. After recording personally significant facts by graphic means of the image, audiovisual information was postponed for about an hour, after which it was again taken into account. Teachers had to remember audiovisual information based on the graphic images. During the evaluation of the results of the study, the number of graphic images of audio-visual information of individual facts was calculated. Particular attention was paid to the methods of graphic images. We grouped them as follows: abstract (A), sign-symbolic (SS), specific (S), verbal (V) and metaphorical (M). Respondents, who were dominated by metaphorical and verbal images, went to make up a group with a dominant practical thinking, due to the predominance of emotional actions. Abstract and symbolic types of drawings testified to the presence of conceptual, abstract and logical thinking in the respondents, due to the predominance of intellectual actions. Specifically-effective thinking was typical for a group of respondents who operated with direct and real forms of objects.

The first group of respondents indicated those historical facts that caused them vivid representations and associations. They designated information with specific subject forms of natural, cultural or technical objects. We called this group of respondents of the control and experimental groups "specific". Their consciousness attracted not indirect information, but specific historical facts. These events were related to the stages of development of the region, culture and traditions of social life of the indigenous population. 60 % of respondents had the dominant specific facts of the regional history. The second group of teachers chose audiovisual information of a socially significant nature: folk traditions and the life of the indigenous population. They

denoted the information in symbolic form. We called this group "abstract" conventionally. They were tuned to the perception of information that activated the second signal system. Such teachers were 30 % of the total. The third group of respondents used narrative and metaphorical images. They were defined as "emphatic (expressive)" type. They accounted for 10% of the total number of respondents.

It was found out the 'teachers' intentional thinking is almost diametrically opposed to the students' one. It was revealed during the comparative analysis of the results of diagnostic examination of teachers of experimental and control groups. The teachers' group who had a "concrete" type was 60 % of the respondents. 50 % of schoolchildren had the "emphatic" type. Indicators of "abstract" type of students and teachers almost coincided (respectively 40 % and 30 %). According to the results of the analysis of indicators, it was found that the teachers' preparation for the implementation of regional historical education in the school is based on the activation of the supply of information of a specific type, having a factual basis. Thus theoretical means of training are prevail as pedagogically expedient.

It is interesting to note that the teachers assessed their readiness to profess regional history as follows: 46 % of the surveyed teachers believe that they are ready to teach the course; 29 % of the teachers are not sure that they are ready to profess the content area of the regional history; 52 % of them wish refresher courses on the methods of teaching the history of KhMAO and 42 % of the educators want courses on regional history to increase the level of theoretical knowledge.

Discussions with teachers on their training/retraining have shown the need to improve professional programs aimed at teachers' professional education on the regional history. These programs implemented by the universities of KhMAO-Yugra and the Regional Institute of Education Development should contribute to the understanding of the general changes that have occurred in the regional historiography over the past 25 years, the consolidation of the knowledge acquisition through online work. Teachers must gain access to have the Internet, to online tutors, discussion groups and chats. This is to ensure that all teachers could receive immediate and sustained access to new ideas, discuss them and exchange experiences on their application (Dryden, Vos, 2003: 649). During the study, the majority of teachers expressed the opinion about the need for training and the feasibility of introducing a special media course. It would contribute to the effective of teachers' professional education for the use of media for the implementation of regional history in high school, improve teachers' media literacy.

5. Conclusion

Teachers' readiness to profess regional history includes several components, one of which is modern educational resources for school purposes. Media resources in the current textbook of KhMAO-Yugra history, unfortiantly outdated in content and not corresponding to the achievements of historical science, are the most important means of forming a new academic content of regional history. The use of media makes up for the lack of materials available in the traditional printing textbook. It largely contributes to the renewal of the content of the regional studies through history. Opportunities to apply the educational media allow all teachers of the district, to extract new data remotely, regardless of their location, the data which are available on the websites and portals of universities, museums, archives, libraries of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area.

The study of the problem of teachers' training to use media resources in order to form a new content of the regional history revealed that the selection of quality media resources for lessons is an urgent task. The degree of teachers' orientation in the resource bases is more often manifested in the use of media resources of search engines (Google, Yandex.ru), the Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia Website (https://www.google.com/), rather than specialized websites and portals. The teachers do not appeal for the resources of The State Archive of Yugra, as well as the district Museum of Nature and Man, The Museum of Geology, Oil and Gas, electronic resources of The State Scientific Library of Yugra. Students apply to the scientific electronic archive of Nizhnevartovsk State University, and among the working teachers are mostly graduates of the recent years.

Experimental data analysis shows a depressing picture with the use of types of media resources. The video presentations are most popular in the educational process. These presentations are developed by someone else (colleagues, students, students) and suffer from significant shortcomings. Only 19 % of respondents (again mostly students and young teachers,

graduates of Nizhnevartovsk State University) use the media resource, if it contains new facts. The analysis shows that mechanical consumption of media resources prevails among the older generation of teachers, which leads to the formation of one-dimensional perception of reality.

The study of teachers' and pupils' intentional thinking showed that the importance of the internal attitude to the perception of specific facts of the history of KhMAO-Yugra is underestimated in the teachers' education for the implementation of regional historical learning at school. We can see the contradiction between abstract-oriented of teachers' training and specifically oriented age of high school students' necessity for study the regional history. It prevents the effective introduction of new forms and means of education, including usage of media resources. The degree of educators' preparation for teaching regional history cannot be considered satisfactory.

Modern high-quality educational media resources are not a means of forming and updating the academic content of the history of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area for most of teachers. It is important to prepare a new educational and methodical complex on the regional history and a new programme for professional retraining of teachers in this situation.


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