Научная статья на тему 'Distance learning in higher education of Great Britain and Russia'

Distance learning in higher education of Great Britain and Russia Текст научной статьи по специальности «Народное образование. Педагогика»

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ВЫСШЕЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ / HIGHER EDUCATION / ДИСТАНЦИОННОЕ ОБУЧЕНИЕ / DISTANT LEARNING / ИНФОРМАЦИОННЫЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ / INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES / СТУДЕНТЫ / STUDENTS / TEACHERS / УНИВЕРСИТЕТЫ / UNIVERSITIES

Аннотация научной статьи по народному образованию и педагогике, автор научной работы — Stepanova Svetlana Nickolaevna

In this article the comparative analysis of distance learning in institutes of higher education of Great Britain and Russia is carried out. Distance learning is considered as the totality of technologies, providing necessary material and interactive interconnection between students and teachers in the process of learning, giving students opportunities for self instruction. The comparative analysis shows that Russia remains behind Great Britain in the field of distance learning. On the one hand, this form of education has not yet found its function and role in Russian higher education but, on the other hand, the necessity of distance education in Russian regions is very high.

ДИСТАНЦИОННОЕ ОБУЧЕНИЕ В ВУЗАХ ВЕЛИКОБРИТАНИИ И РОССИИ

В данной статье проводится анализ дистанционного обучения в вузах Великобритании и России. Дистанционное обучение рассматривается как совокупность технологий, обеспечивающих студентов необходимым материалом, предоставляющим обучаемым возможности для их самостоятельной работы. Сравнительный анализ показывает, что Россия отстает от Великобритании в области дистанционного обучения. С одной стороны, эта форма образования еще не раскрыта полностью в Российском высшем образовании, но, с другой стороны, необходимость в дистанционном обучении в России очень высока.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Distance learning in higher education of Great Britain and Russia»

PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCES

DISTANCE LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION OF GREAT BRITAIN AND RUSSIA Stepanova S.N. (Russian Federation) Email: Stepanova433@scientifictext.ru

Stepanova Svetlana Nickolaevna - Candidate of Psychological Sciences, Professor, DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS, MANAGEMENT AND APPLIED INFORMATICS, MOSCOW REGIONAL BRANCH

SAINT-PETERSBURG UNIVERSITY OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, MOSCOW

Abstract: in this article the comparative analysis of distance learning in institutes of higher education of Great Britain and Russia is carried out. Distance learning is considered as the totality of technologies, providing necessary material and interactive interconnection between students and teachers in the process of learning, giving students opportunities for self instruction. The comparative analysis shows that Russia remains behind Great Britain in the field of distance learning. On the one hand, this form of education has not yet found its function and role in Russian higher education but, on the other hand, the necessity of distance education in Russian regions is very high.

Keywords: higher education, distant learning, information technologies, students, teachers, universities.

ДИСТАНЦИОННОЕ ОБУЧЕНИЕ В ВУЗАХ ВЕЛИКОБРИТАНИИ И РОССИИ Степанова С.Н. (Российская Федерация)

Степанова Светлана Николаевна - кандидат психологических наук, профессор, кафедра экономики, менеджмента и прикладной информатики, Московский областной филиал Санкт-Петербургский гуманитарный университет профсоюзов, г. Москва

Аннотация: в данной статье проводится анализ дистанционного обучения в вузах Великобритании и России. Дистанционное обучение рассматривается как совокупность технологий, обеспечивающих студентов необходимым материалом, предоставляющим обучаемым возможности для их самостоятельной работы. Сравнительный анализ показывает, что Россия отстает от Великобритании в области дистанционного обучения. С одной стороны, эта форма образования еще не раскрыта полностью в Российском высшем образовании, но, с другой стороны, необходимость в дистанционном обучении в России очень высока. Ключевые слова: дистанционное обучение, высшее образование, информационные технологии, студенты, университеты.

In this paper the comparative analysis of distance-based learning in universities of Great Britain: England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Russia is carried out.

Distance education is considered as a set of technologies providing material necessary for teaching, interactive collaboration of students and teachers in the educational process, giving students the possibility of independent work.

The world's first University distance education- Open British University appeared in the UK in 1969. Open University was personally supervised by Prime Minister Harold Wilson. Curricula, programs, study guides and education technologies. were developed with his participation. The founder of the University was Queen herself. Open British University was named so to demonstrate its availability due to low prices and the lack of need for frequent

attendance of lessons [1]. Distance learning programmes are based on the principle of autonomy. Some courses allow students to build the learning process on their own. Usually a student is engaged at home, relying on a series of specially designed educational packages. Help of the teacher is carried out through regular or electronic mail. For distance education other means of communication: television, video and Internet are also used [2].

In 1983 the Open University Business School was founded, which later became the largest in Europe. Today, the Open University has offices in 30 countries of the world, the number of students studying remotely reached 225 thousand.

It should be noted that the University of London and many other higher educational establishments of England also offer a variety of options for remote learning. The student receives the necessary materials by mail, but also has the ability to access online library of the University. In order to obtain a diploma in the shortest possible time, the student is recommended to study about 20 hours per week.

Note that all distance education in Ireland is under control of the so-called curator-National Centre for distance education. The Organization was established in 1982 under the patronage of the oldest university in Ireland-Dublin University. In accordance with the set of rules, all remote programs are necessarily accompanied by teaching materials (disks, accesses to databases and electronic manuals). Materials may be sent to the student either by mail, or he (she) will get the keys and passwords to obtain online access to them.

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At the universities of Ireland the student can get not only a Bachelor's degree, but graduate from Magistracy, as well as choose one or more courses [3].

It is interesting that in another part of the UK-Scotland new development by Robert Gordon University of Aberdeen is a virtual campus created by open and distance learning. The virtual campus is a new step in distance learning through the Internet. Students using the Internet can work at home, while receiving the same degree and diplomas as fulltime students. The Centre for Open and Distance Learning gives help and advice, how to be a successful online learner. The virtual campus offers free training modules for distance education. An experienced mentor carries out constant monitoring of the training. In addition, some other specialists in fields of study help the student as the personal project progresses. The online student becomes a member of a group studying some definite speciality and is able to discuss the work on a project with other students and has access to the University Library. Distance learning materials are related to the personal research project, which forms the main content of the course. Interactive surrounding gives the student the opportunity to discuss ideas and to take the necessary decisions in real time. In addition to the basic purpose for distance education the virtual campus operates as an intranet, connecting the students and the teachers of the faculty. The students can read the necessary announcements, download lectures, use the library catalog, visit the on-line bookstore magazine and other Web resources or put a question to the teacher [7].

The analysis of the literature identified that the main distance educational technologies, both in the UK and in Russia are case, Internet and telecommunication technologies. The combination of key technologies is possible.

In addition, from a functional perspective, the technology of distance-based learning activities of the interaction between the teacher and the student can be divided into two large groups: interactive and noninteractive. The higher the grade, the better the learning process.

Case (portfolio) technology is based on cases acquisition of multimedia teaching materials (on paper, electronic and other carriers) and sending them to students for self-study.

Internet (network) technologies are based on using modern educational environments, which include tools of individual, group, training, education, forms of online student-teacher or student - student interaction as well as group designing of educational process on the basis of the wide use of global and local area computer networks.

Telecommunication technology is based on the use of cable and television space systems. Now these technologies are not widely applied in Russian education.

In universities in the UK and Russia the following organizational technological distance learning models are used:

Single media using only one learning tool and channel of information transfer. For example, educational radio or television. In this model, the dominant tool for learning is generally printed material. Two-way communication is almost non-existent, that brings this model to the traditional distance learning.

Multimedia - use of various training facilities: training aids on the basis of printing paper, computer programs for educational purpose, audio and video recordings, etc.

Hypermedia - the third generation distance learning model, which provides the use of new information technologies while computer telecommunications are dominating. The simplest form is the use of e-mail and teleconferences, as well as audio teaching (a combination of phone and facsimile). The further development of this model of distance learning involves the use of complex tools such as video, facsimile and telephone (for video conferences), audio drawing and wide application of videodiscs, various hyper means, knowledge systems and artificial intelligence.

Virtual universities. Created by universities educational servers are extension of the walls of the University. In its virtual classrooms as well as in basic, you can listen to a lecture, and perform laboratory on a virtual stand. But it is possible that all of the above mentioned will become the prerogative of specialized virtual universities-electronic open universities without walls. This model of distance learning is not used in Russia yet.

The organizational-methodical models of distance learning, utilized in the universities of Great Britain and Russia include:

Training by type of external studies. Examination-oriented education university requirements were intended for students who, for whatever reasons, could not attend common schools. So, in 1836 the University of London was organized, the main task of which was to assist in carrying out examinations for students not attending ordinary schools.

One university-based training. It is the whole system for students who are training by correspondence or distantly. Such programmes for obtaining various certificates of education are developed in many leading universities of the world. For example, the new South Wales University conducts extramural and distance education for 5000 students, while permanently it trains only 3000 students.

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Cooperation of several educational institutions. The heads of the British Commonwealth countries met in 1987 year in order to agree on the Organization of distance learning network for all Commonwealth countries. The purpose of the program is to enable any citizen of the Commonwealth get any education on the basis of colleges and universities functioning in the countries of the Commonwealth without leaving their country and their home.

An informal, integrated distance learning based on multimedia programs. Such programmes are directed towards teaching adult audience, those people who for some reason could not finish school-education. These projects can be specially oriented to some definite education aim (for example, the British literacy programme).

In Russia May 30, 1997 can be regarded as the date of the official distance learning development. On that date came the order of the Ministry of Russian Education to perform the experiment in distance learning [4].

Since that time, distance education technologies in Russia have received intensive development: the special direction was created, the funds for the development of distance education were provided.

It is essential that the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation developed a programme for the development of e-learning from 2016 to 2020, for the application of which a significant part of the budget will be directed. In the document, the Ministry of Education indicated that the aim e-learning is "ensuring access to education and improving the quality of education" [6].

Currently, computer telecommunications used in our country are able to provide transfer of knowledge and access to a variety of educational information on an equal

basis, and sometimes much more efficiently than traditional learning tools. New electronic technologies, such as interactive CDs, electronic bulletin boards available via the Internet, can not only ensure the active involvement of students in the learning process, but also allow them to manage this process in contrast to most traditional training surroundings. Interactive potentialities of programs and information delivery systems used in the distance learning system, allow the students to establish and encourage feedback, to ensure the dialogue and ongoing support, which is not possible in the most traditional training systems [5].

It is important that the present stage of development of the Russian higher school is characterized by very intense interpenetration of Western education methods into Russian and vice versa. Russian large university centers actively develop in the image of the leading centers in Europe. The modern stage is characterized by the creation branches of the leading universities. This sharply extends the market of educational services and saves money, invested in education.

Now the work is carried out to establish the Russian Open University (similar to the British Open University). It means that students will be able to choose the best courses in various universities, receiving thus the best opportunity for education. The concept of the Virtual University of Europe and Central Asia is worked out, in which Russia will be included.

The comparative analyses showed that at present Russia remains behind Great Britain in the field of distance learning. However, in Russia availability and quality of education are constantly increasing because the demand of regions in this kind of training is very high. Popularity and need in distant education will depend on several factors: Internet availability in Russian regions, application of distant training in higher education, political and economic situation in our country.

References in English / Список литературы на английском языке

1. Bugaychuk K.L. Mass open distance courses: history, typology, prospects. // Higher education in Russia, 2013. № 3. P.148-155.

2. Chertovskih O.O. Historical-pedagogical bases of the system of university education in Great Britain. // Herald of the MGIMO, 2013. № 2 (29). P. 183-187.

3. Order of the Government of the Russian Federation. [Electronic resource], 2014. December 29, № 2765-r. Moscow. URL: //government.ru/media/files/mlorxfXbbCk.pdf/ (date of access: 20.03.2017).

4. Scottish universities//New Knowledge ONLINE: educational journal for adults [Electronic resource]. URL: http://novznania.ru/ (date of access: 20.03.2017).

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5. Solovov A. Distance learning: technologies and target groups. // Higher education in Russia, 2006. № 7. P. 119-125.

6. The Open University. [Electronic resource]. URL: http://www.open. ac.uk/, free. (date of access: 02.04.2017).

7. To receive education in Ireland. [Electronic resource]. URL: logosstudy.ru/ (date of access: 02.04.2017).

Список литературы / References

1. Бугайчук К.Л. Массовые открытые дистанционные курсы: история, типология, перспективы. Высшее образование в России. № 3, 2013. С. 148-155.

2. Чертовских О.О. Историко-педагогические основы системы университетского образования Великобритании / О.О. Чертовских // Вестник МГИМО, 2013. № 2 (29). С. 183-187.

3. Распоряжение Правительства Российской Федерации от 29 декабря 2014 года № 2765р. [Электронный ресурс]. Режим доступа: http://government.ru/media/files/ml orxfXbbCk.pdf/ (дата обращения: 20.03.2017).

4. Шотладские университеты // Новые Знания ONLINE: образовательный журнал для взрослых. [Электронный ресурс]. Режим доступа: http://novznania.ru/ (дата обращения 20.03.2017).

5. Соловов А. Дистанционное обучение: технологии и целевые группы. Высшее образование в России. № 7, 2006. С. 119-125.

6. Открытый Университет. [Электронный ресурс]. Режим доступа: http://www.open. ac.uk/ (дата обращения: 02.04.2017).

7. Получить образование в Ирландии. [Электронный ресурс]. logosstudy.ru/ (дата обращения: 02.04.2017).