Научная статья на тему 'DIAGNOSTICS OF PLANNING IN PRIMARY SCHOOLCHILDREN BASED ON A COMBINATION OF TWO TASKS'

DIAGNOSTICS OF PLANNING IN PRIMARY SCHOOLCHILDREN BASED ON A COMBINATION OF TWO TASKS Текст научной статьи по специальности «Фундаментальная медицина»

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Ключевые слова
planning problem solving / second grade students / a combination of two tasks / the task "Letters / numbers" / the task "Postman".

Аннотация научной статьи по фундаментальной медицине, автор научной работы — Zak A.

The article presents a study related to the diagnosis of planning in primary schoolchildren based on a combination of two tasks. One task includes more complex tasks for performing planning activities, and another less complex tasks. As a result of testing such a combination of two tasks with pupils of the second grade, it was shown that in this case it was possible to identify children who solved all the tasks of one task and did not solve some of the tasks of the second task. This fact testifies to the expediency of using a combination of tasks of varying complexity in diagnostics in order to obtain more complete information about the state of the planning action in a specific contingent of primary schoolchildren.

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Текст научной работы на тему «DIAGNOSTICS OF PLANNING IN PRIMARY SCHOOLCHILDREN BASED ON A COMBINATION OF TWO TASKS»

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCES

DIAGNOSTICS OF PLANNING IN PRIMARY SCHOOLCHILDREN BASED ON A COMBINATION

OF TWO TASKS

Zak A.

Leading Researcher, Psychological Institute RAE, Moscow, Russia

Abstract

The article presents a study related to the diagnosis of planning in primary schoolchildren based on a combination of two tasks. One task includes more complex tasks for performing planning activities, and another less complex tasks. As a result of testing such a combination of two tasks with pupils of the second grade, it was shown that in this case it was possible to identify children who solved all the tasks of one task and did not solve some of the tasks of the second task. This fact testifies to the expediency of using a combination of tasks of varying complexity in diagnostics in order to obtain more complete information about the state of the planning action in a specific contingent of primary schoolchildren.

Keywords: planning problem solving, second grade students, a combination of two tasks, the task "Letters, numbers", the task "Postman".

1. Introduction

According to the provisions of the new FSES of primary general education [8], the mastering of the basic educational program by children in the primary grades of school should lead not only to the achievement of subject educational results based on the assimilation of the content of programs of specific academic disciplines, but also to the achievement of meta-subject results, reflecting, in particular, the formation cognitive competencies, one of which is the ability to plan the solution of problems associated with such a psychological neoplasm of primary school age as the ability to act "in the mind", in the internal plane [1].

From the provisions of the new FSES, it also follows that it is necessary to control the level of formation of the considered metasubject competence, not only at the exit from primary school, but also in the learning process in primary grades. In this case, opportunities are created to identify children with insufficient formation of the ability to plan at the early stages of mastering the universal action of programming problem solving corresponding to this competence. This will allow such children to be provided with timely support and assistance.

The present study was aimed at developing a method for determining the formation of the discussed cognitive competence in second-graders in order to create means for monitoring the characteristics of how children master this universal action. At the same time, we believed that children should be asked to solve problems based on non-educational material (for the experience of using problems of this kind, see our works [3], [4], [5], [6]). As noted by the well-known Russian psychologist VV Davydov, "... in psychology it is generally accepted that with the help of this material it is possible to reveal the general features of the child's mental actions, regardless of their specific subject content" [2, p.334]. In other words, in this case, the influence of subject competences on the success of children's actions in solving problems is minimized.

The study was based on the assumption that the use of complexes of two tasks provides a more complete and more accurate diagnosis of the formation of

this cognitive competence in second-graders than the use of a separate task. In this case, the tasks in the complex should be selected in such a way that the successful completion of one of the tasks is associated with the child's ability to carry out more complex orientation in the conditions of the proposed tasks, and the fulfillment of another task - with the ability to carry out less complex orientation.

Such an approach will make it possible to characterize the formation of this cognitive competence in a certain group of second-graders with greater concrete-ness (as opposed to diagnostics associated with the use of only one task), since, as can be assumed, one part of them will cope with the tasks of both tasks, the other -with the tasks of only one task. tasks, the successful solution of which presupposes less complex orientation in their conditions, the third part will not cope with the tasks of both tasks or will only cope with the very simple tasks in both tasks.

Thus, opportunities are created to distinguish in a certain group of second-graders not only two subgroups of children - some have developed diagnosable cognitive competence (in this case, the tasks of the proposed task have been successfully solved), while others have not been formed (in this case, the tasks of the proposed task have been solved unsuccessfully), but also three subgroups - in particular, it will be possible to characterize such a subgroup, which will include children who have successfully solved the tasks of only one task (i.e., tasks whose successful solution requires less complex orientation in their conditions).

In other words, carrying out diagnostics by using two tasks that differ in the complexity of their constituent tasks, it is possible to single out children with a greater and lesser degree of formation of the assessed cognitive competence.

As you know, human cognitive activity can be aimed at reflecting the internal connections of objects and phenomena (theoretical, meaningful, rational knowledge) and at the reflection of their external connections (empirical, formal, rational knowledge), (see, in particular, [2], [7]).

Based on the characteristics of meaningful and formal cognition, planning, as a type of universal cognitive action, on the basis of which the corresponding cognitive competence is formed, is characterized as follows.

Planning as an action that is realized in the inner, mental plane, most intensively, according to the provisions of developmental psychology, is formed precisely at primary school age, since during this period the basic skills of educational activity are formed.

Characterizing the new qualities of the psyche in children at this age, V. V. Davydov points out: "The more" steps" of his actions a child can foresee and the more carefully he can compare their different options, the more successfully he will control the actual decision tasks. The need for control and self-control in educational activities, as well as a number of its other features (for example, the requirement of a verbal report, assessment) create favorable conditions for the formation of younger students' ability to plan and perform actions for themselves, in the internal plan" [1, p.83].

An internal action plan, formed at a high level, allows the child, as shown in a number of works (see, for example, [3], [4], [5]), to more easily perform orientation in the conditions of the task, highlighting data relationships in them and designating such relationships of all kinds of signs and symbols. All this provides the ability to correctly program the solution to the problem, presenting and "holding" in the internal plan the possible intermediate results of the intended actions when correlating them with the ultimate goal and with each other, comparing and evaluating different options for their implementation.

In the above studies, two levels of development of an internal action plan were distinguished, since planning as a mental action associated with building a program of steps to achieve the required result is carried out in different ways.

At the first level, a person each step within a certain sequence outlines and performs separately, programs the required sequence of actions in parts, in separate links that are not linked by him into a single system (this is how a person solves a problem by trial and error, alternating planning elements with implementation of individual steps of the solution). This is formal, partial planning.

At the second level, the entire sequence of steps is outlined by a person immediately, before the first step, i.e. he programs the execution of the required sequence of actions as a whole, comparing different options for performing whole sequences of links, or steps, and choosing acceptable ways to achieve the goal. In this case, the subsequent links of the required action are planned simultaneously with the previous ones, and the previous ones are planned taking into account the possible options for performing the subsequent ones. This is meaningful, holistic planning.

In accordance with these concepts, a general scheme of a two-part experimental situation was developed, designed to determine the characteristics of planning. In the first part of this situation, the subject is asked to master some simple action. In the second part,

it is required to solve several tasks for building the sequence of these actions.

In our studies [3], [4], [5], [6] it was established that the selection of problems in the second part of this situation must meet the following requirements. First, the sequence of executive actions should gradually increase from the first task to the last. Secondly, there should be at least two tasks with the same number of executive actions.

Third, and most importantly, the tasks should not have a common principle of solution so that it is necessary to experiment mentally every time, re-developing an ever-increasing sequence of actions.

2. Materials and methods

To determine the type of cognitive action (formal or meaningful), on the basis of which the ability to plan is formed, a complex of two tasks is used, in each of which an experimental situation is used, where the child is asked to solve a number of tasks with a gradually increasing number of executive actions. In this case, the tasks do not have a common solution.

The successful solution of problems with a relatively large number of actions is characterized by the child's application of holistic, meaningful planning, the unsuccessful solution of problems with a relatively large number of actions is associated with the child's use of partial, formal planning.

One task - "Letters, numbers" - includes a series of problems related to changing the location of objects on the playing field in an imaginary plan. Moreover, the formal rules for solving these problems are such that possible changes in the location of objects are not clearly represented.

For example, the sequence of letters T T P must be changed in one action so that the same letters are located in the same way as the same numbers in the sequence 8 7 7 (in this case, the extreme letters T and P should be swapped). Thus, in one action, there are two interdependent changes in the locations of objects, since the letters T and P move simultaneously: the letter T in the place of the letter P, and the letter P in the place of the letter T.

In this problem, the solution of the subsequent problems of the series required the execution of a larger number of executive actions (to change the location of objects) than the solution of the previous problems:

1. S N F F---------9 9 4 6 (2 actions)

2. J D P J J---------3 4 4 5 5 (2 actions)

3. W R L R R R--------- 8 5 8 4 6 8 (3 actions)

4. L T R T T P T-------6 6 6 4 5 6 7 (3 actions)

5. R R S P R M R N -— 9 4 2 4 8 4 6 4 (4 actions)

6. S S V L S S N S G — 6 4 3 3 3 5 3 7 3 (4 actions)

The proposed set of problems must be solved in a visual-figurative form in a group experiment.

The second task, "The Postman", also includes a series of problems related to the mental change of the location of an imaginary character ("postman") on the playing field. But, in contrast to the first problem, the formal rules for solving these problems allow possible changes in the location of the postman (i.e., his intended movements) to be visualized.

The fact is that the postman's mental movements are made in relation to the playing field, where circles

("houses where the postman brings letters") and lines ("paths along which the postman moves) are depicted.

- see the condition of the sample problem on the playing field (Fig. 1):

Fig. 1. Condition of the sample problem

Before solving the main problems of the "Postman" task, the children are told: "The circles are houses, the two images in each circle are residents, and the lines between the circles are the paths along which the postman walks and delivers letters." It is also noted that the postman, when moving, observes the rule: you can only walk along such a path that connects houses where there is the same inhabitant, but if the path connects houses where there is no identical inhabitant, then you cannot walk along it.

So, about the situation shown in Fig. 1, the following is said: "The postman left the post-house (there is a triangle and a dot) walked along one path to some house

(A2) Q

1.

2. (G4) -

and then along another path came to the house where the circle and the arrow live. You need to find out which two paths the postman took: first up, then down, or first down, then up? "

When discussing this problem, some children offer the correct solution: "First the postman goes down, then he goes up", other children offer the wrong solution: "First he goes up, then down." In both cases, the experimenter asks the children to recall the rule for the postman's movements and use this rule to justify their answers. "The Postman" quest consists of the following series of six problems ), - (Fig. 2):

(B4) (2 действия) (C5) (2 действия)

3. (G 5) -

— (G 4) (3 действия)

4. (AI) — I I — I I — (B3) (3 действия)

5. (В 2 ) — I I — I |— I |~ (Dl) (4 действия)

6. (С2) — I |— I |— I |- (B 4) (4 действия)

Fig. 2. Problems of the task "Postman"

The proposed series of problems must be solved in solving a series of problems of the "Postman" task a visual-figurative form in a group experiment. To do (Fig. 3): this, a playing field is depicted on the blackboard for

Fig. 3. The playing field for solving the problems "Postman

In these problems, a letter and a number are inscribed in the squares, which represent the houses, along the paths between which the postman walks.

Under the conditions of the six problems of the presented series, a letter and a number are presented in brackets, which denote the initial and final houses of the postman's path, and the empty square denotes the

intermediate houses that the postman entered on his way.

The meaning of each problem is to write in the empty squares a letter and a number that represent intermediate houses, for example, such a simple task (Fig. 4):

Fig. 4. Condition of a simple problem in 2 steps

In this problem, it is indicated that the postman went from house A3 to an unknown house, and then to house G4. You need to find out which house the postman got into from house A3, so that then, according to the rule of the postman's movements, to get into house

E4. Analysis of the playing field shows that in this problem, the house A4 will be the intermediate house. Its designations must be entered into an empty square, see Fig. 5:

Fig. 5. Solving a simple problem in 2 steps

Consideration of the playing field for solving the tasks of the "Postman" task shows that in these problems, possible changes in the location of an imaginary object (ie, possible movements of the postman) are clearly presented, since there is an independent, unidirectional mental movement of one object along visible lines.

In contrast, in the problems of the "Letters, numbers" task, possible changes in objects are not clearly presented, since there are interdependent, simultaneous mental movements of two objects (movements of two letters) and there is no support for visible landmarks.

In each task of the complex under consideration ("Letters, numbers" and "Postman"), the solution of subsequent problems among the six proposed ones required the performance of a larger number of executive actions (to change the location of objects) than the solution of the previous problems.

3. Results

In the first series of experiments, two lessons were conducted on the material of the assignment "Letters, numbers". A total of 46 people participated in the training. The processing of the obtained results showed that they successfully solved all six problems (i.e., they were able to carry out meaningful planning) - 23.9% of the subjects, successfully solved only four problems, -from the first to the fourth (i.e., they were able to carry out only formal planning) , - 54.4%, successfully solved only the first two problems), - 21.7%.

In the second series of experiments, two sessions were conducted on the material of the "Postman" assignment. The same 46 people participated in the classes as in the first series. The processing of the results showed that they successfully solved all six problems (i.e., they were able to carry out meaningful planning) - 45.5% of the subjects, successfully solved only four problems, - from the first to the fourth (i.e., they were able to carry out only formal planning) , - 41.3%, successfully solved only the first two problems), - 13.2%.

Table

The number of second-graders who solved 1 - 2 problems, 1 - 4 problems and 1-6 problems in the "Letters, num__bers" and "Postman" tasks (in%)_

Tasks Second graders groups

Solved 1 - 2 problems Solved 1 - 4 problems Solved 1 - 6 problems

"Letters, numbers" 21,7 54,4 23,9*

"Postman" 13,2 41,3 45,5*

Note: *npu p<0.05.

Statistical processing of the data presented in the table showed that between the groups of students who solved all six problems (1-6) in the task "Letters, numbers" - when possible changes in the location of objects are not clearly presented (23.9%), and the task "Postman" - when possible changes in the location of objects (ie, the movement of an imaginary character when relying on actually presented lines) can be correlated with the corresponding images (43.5%), there are significant differences (p <0.05).

Analysis of the data obtained as a result of solving the tasks of the tasks "Letters, numbers" and "Postman" by children allows us to draw the following conclusion: in order to more fully characterize the formation of cognitive competence associated with planning in solving problems (in particular, to single out children with different the formation of this competence), it is advisable to offer children to solve problems with different rules: in one case, possible changes in the location of objects are not clearly presented, in the other case they are presented visually, i.e. these changes can be correlated with the corresponding images.

4. Conclusion

Thus, the data obtained in both series of experiments with second-grade students allow us to note that the use of two tasks to diagnose the formation of the cognitive metasubject competence associated with the ability to plan the solution of problems makes it possible to take into account children with different degrees of development of this competence.

In particular, the use of two tasks, in one of which it is proposed to solve more complex problems than in the other, creates conditions for the selection of children with a greater formation of the ability to plan, children with a less developed ability to plan, and children in whom this competence is not formed.

At the same time, it is important that the tasks differ in the complexity of the tasks presented in them. In this case, this difference is manifested in the fact that the search for a solution in the problems of different tasks ("Letters - numbers" and "Postman") is associated with the complexity of orientation in the conditions of problems dictated by formal rules, in accordance with which it is necessary to act in solving these problems.

This approach has certain advantages in diagnosing the cognitive competence in question. So, if diagnostics are carried out on the material of problems of only one task, then (if the tasks are relatively difficult)

it will be possible to distinguish only two groups of children: those who cope, and those who do not cope with the proposed tasks and, therefore, who have this competence formed and in whom it is not formed.

In this case, children who successfully cope with simpler (than proposed) tasks, the solution of which is associated with the implementation of this competence, will not be taken into account.

If we carry out diagnostics on the material of one task, but built on the material of relatively simple tasks, then it will also be possible to single out only the same two groups of children: those who cope with, and those who do not cope with the proposed tasks. But in this case, children who successfully cope with more complex (than proposed) tasks, the solution of which is associated with the implementation of this competence, will no longer be taken into account.

In general, thus, the study showed the following: if it is necessary to obtain more specific, accurate and complete knowledge about the formation of second-graders' metasubject cognitive competence associated with mastering the ability to plan the solution of problems, it is advisable to carry out diagnostics by offering children two tasks so that the tasks one assignment was more difficult than the other assignment.

References

1. Age and educational psychology / ed. A. V. Pe-trovsky. Moscow: Education, 1979. 287 p. [in Russian].

2. Davydov V.V. Theory of developing education. Moscow: Intor, 1996. 476 p. [in Russian].

3. Zak A. Z. How to determine the level of development of a student's thinking. Moscow: Knowledge, 1982. 96 p. [in Russian].

4. Zak A. Z. Development of theoretical thinking in younger students. Moscow: Pedagogika, 1984. 241 p. [in Russian].

5. Zak A. Z. Development of mental abilities of younger students. Moscow: Vlados - Education, 1994. 316 p. [in Russian].

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6. Zak A. Z. Diagnosis of differences in the thinking of younger students. Moscow: Genesis, 2007. 158 p. [in Russian].

7. Rubinstein S. L. Fundamentals of General Psychology. St. Petersburg: Peter, 2015. 705 p. [in Russian].

8. Federal state educational standard of primary general education / Bulletin of education

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