Научная статья на тему 'DIAGNOSTICS OF MENTAL ACTIONS IN FIRST-GRADERS'

DIAGNOSTICS OF MENTAL ACTIONS IN FIRST-GRADERS Текст научной статьи по специальности «Фундаментальная медицина»

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Ключевые слова
first graders / ability to act "in the mind" / method "Butterfly flights" / method "Rooster steps".

Аннотация научной статьи по фундаментальной медицине, автор научной работы — Zak A.

The article presents the content of a study devoted to determining the formation of the ability to act "in the mind" of first graders. The activity of a psychologist (teacher) during the diagnostics of this ability on the basis of the material of the tasks "Flights of a butterfly" and "Steps of a rooster" is characterized. The features of each of the seven levels of formation of the ability to act "in the mind" when solving the problems of the marked tasks are described. The nature of the distribution of these levels among schoolchildren at the beginning of education in the first grade has been established.

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Текст научной работы на тему «DIAGNOSTICS OF MENTAL ACTIONS IN FIRST-GRADERS»

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCES

DIAGNOSTICS OF MENTAL ACTIONS IN FIRST-GRADERS

Zak A.

Leading Researcher, Psychological Institute RAE, Moscow, Russia

Abstract

The article presents the content of a study devoted to determining the formation of the ability to act "in the mind" of first graders. The activity of a psychologist (teacher) during the diagnostics of this ability on the basis of the material of the tasks "Flights of a butterfly" and "Steps of a rooster" is characterized. The features of each of the seven levels of formation of the ability to act "in the mind" when solving the problems of the marked tasks are described. The nature of the distribution of these levels among schoolchildren at the beginning of education in the first grade has been established.

Keywords: first graders, ability to act "in the mind", method "Butterfly flights", method "Rooster steps".

1. Introduction

Achieving goals that prevent academic failure and school maladjustment in primary grades, as well as helping to identify those children who are ahead of their peers in the development of intelligence, requires diagnostics of the mental development of children 6-7 years old before enrolling in the first grade or at the very beginning of education.

Voluntary regulation of behavior and the ability to act "in the mind" are often identified as important subjects of this diagnosis. Considering arbitrariness, it should be noted that, as studies in developmental psychology have shown (see, for example [ 2 ]), the level of a child's voluntary regulation of his behavior increases as he gains experience of successful participation in games with rules, where he is forced to control himself, orienting himself restrictions on their actions, prescribed by the proposed requirements.

A high level of voluntariness manifests itself in a child in various aspects:

- in a decrease in the number of impulsive reactions and an increase in the length of time during which an insufficiently interesting task is performed;

- in controlling the child's attention when working with a sample;

- in the conscious submission of their actions to the rule and given requirements;

- in control of their behavior at the time of receiving tasks, as well as in the process of their implementation and after completion of work;

- in composure and focus on solving the problem to keep attention on the desired one and withstand the effects of distracting circumstances;

- in the full assimilation of the rule allowing and prohibiting certain actions, and its exact application in the execution of the assignment.

In developmental psychology (see, for example, [9]), when characterizing the ability to act "in the mind", it is usually indicated that it manifests itself in the ability of children to operate with substitutes for specific material objects (images, schemes, symbols), and to perform actions with them not in external, objectified form, and in the internal, subjectified form.

In preschool childhood, thanks to the development of different types of games, from role-playing games to

games with rules, the child gradually moves from performing external, real actions with real objects first to internal, mental actions with visual support on real objects and their images. Then he proceeds to mental actions with images of objects and speech symbols denoting them without visual support. Thus, with age in children, external actions with real objects are joined by internal actions with their substitutes.

It should be noted that the ability to act "in the mind" is an important condition for the child's self-control when performing a task, when building an image of a goal and keeping it. This ability is a necessary basis for the assimilation of the new problem-solving rule and its use, orientation in the conditions of problems and the consideration of different options for the sequence of actions when planning the course of solving problems.

Thus, the ability to act "in the mind", as its brief consideration shows, is a necessary condition for voluntary behavior and, consequently, for successful learning at school, where a child needs to control himself, his activities and his mental processes, not only with the independent assimilation of new knowledge, but also in joint work with other children, which complicates the achievement of the desired result.

In general, the ability to act "in the mind", as shown by the studies of Ya.A. Ponomarev [10], V.V. Davydov [1] and ours [3], is a necessary condition for successful education in primary school.

Our research was aimed at determining the formation of the ability to act "in the mind" in children at the very beginning of the first grade.

2. Materials and research methods

To diagnose the level of formation of voluntary regulation of behavior and the ability to act "in the mind" in preschoolers, the method "Butterfly flights" was developed on the basis of labyrinth problems "with rules". The successful assimilation of new rules and their use to solve the problems of the named methodology presupposes that children have the ability to consciously control their actions and effectively operate when solving these problems with images of objects (and not with the objects themselves), i.e. assumes they have the ability to act "in the mind."

2.1. Conducting a lesson on the material of the playing field with graphic images

(1). It is easy to prepare the playing field for conducting a diagnostic lesson on your own.

To do this, a square of 25 cells is depicted on a sheet of paper, in which graphic images are placed, for example, one cross, two crosses, one stick, two sticks, two ovals, one square, two squares, etc. (see fig. 2).

+ + + 1 1 1 o o

□ □ □ □ □ □ o

• • • o o o -

A A A □ □ 0 -

l 2 M A *

Fig. 1. Playing field

(2). Together with the child, the images in each cell of the playing field are sequentially named, starting from the top line (from left to right): one cross, two crosses, one stick, two sticks, two ovals, one square, two squares, one cylinder, two cylinders, one oval, one point, two points, one circle, two circles, one arrow, one triangle, two triangles, one cube, two cubes, two arrows, number 1, number 2, letter M, letter A, a star.

(3). The child is told the rule of a butterfly's flight over the squares: "Let's agree that a butterfly flies in this alphabet. She can only fly through the cage. "

(4). The child is offered tasks with one flight: "The butterfly sits in a cage with two points. From there it can fly only two crosses, two sticks, two circles, the letter "A" and the number "2". And she cannot fly to any other cage. Do you understand? ... Now tell me, what flights can a butterfly make from a cage, where is one arrow? "

(5). After the child's answers, he is offered a training problem: "Guess what two flights a butterfly can make from a cage, where there is one cross, to a cage, where there are two ovals?"

(6). After the child's answer, he is asked to solve eight main problems

Main goals

1) What 2 flights did the butterfly make from one triangle to two arrows?

2) What 2 flights did the butterfly make from one square to one oval?

3) What 2 flights did crosses to the letter A?

4) What 2 flights did letter M to two ovals?

5) What 3 flights did triangle to one oval?

6) What 3 flights did number 1 to one circle?

7) What 4 flights did number 1 to one cross?

8) What 4 flights did arrow to one point?

the butterfly make from two the butterfly make from the the butterfly make from one the butterfly make from the the butterfly make from the the butterfly make from one

(7). When evaluating the solutions proposed by children, it should be that there are several options for correct answers: in tasks 1 - 4 - two options, in tasks 5 - 8 - according to four options.

2.2. Conducting a lesson on the material of the playing field with graphic images according to the rules of movement of the imaginary character "Rooster"

(1). For lessons with a child, you will need the same playing field as for solving problems on the material of the playing field with graphic images (see Fig. 1).

(2). Together with the child, the images in each cell of the square playing field are named sequentially, starting from the top line (from left to right).

(3). The child is told the rule for moving the rooster: "A magic rooster walks along these cages. He

* * *

makes different steps: one step directly into the neighboring cell, for example, from one square to two squares, or to a cross, or to a point; another step obliquely, for example, from one arrow to two flags or to two hooks. The rooster changes steps all the time: now straight, now obliquely. He does not jump, but only steps and does not enter the same cell twice.

Watch how he walks. For example, at first he was in a cage where there is one point, then he went to where there are two points, then obliquely to one flag, then directly to two flags, then obliquely to one arrow, then directly to two arrows, then obliquely to the letter A, then straight to the letter M ... ".

It should be noted that it is advisable either in this place or in another (sooner or later) to include the child in the description of the movements of the "rooster" along the squares of the square: indicating the type of step ("straight", "obliquely") and the name of the cell where the rooster falls ... The child can be offered: "... and now tell yourself how further the rooster could walk, what steps he took and in what cages ...".

This inclusion of the child is necessary to make sure that he has learned the individual steps of the rooster and the rule of his movements: the sequence of straight and oblique steps, the absence of jumps and repetitions of cells.

(4). After the "rooster's journey" across the playing field, the child is offered a training task: "Tell me, what two steps can a rooster take to get from a cage with two squares into a cage with two circles?" With any answer, the child is asked to tell how else a rooster can get from one cage to another.

(5). The child is asked to solve eight main tasks.

Main goals

1) What 2 steps did the rooster take from one cross to one cylinder?

2) What 2 steps did the rooster take from two cylinders to two arrows?

3) What 2 steps did the rooster take from the number "2" to two triangles?

4) What 2 steps did the rooster take from two points to one circle?

5) What 3 steps did the rooster take from the letter "M" to two triangles?

6) What 3 steps did the rooster take from one circle to one cylinder?

7) What 4 steps did the rooster take from one triangle to one cube?

8) What 4 steps did the rooster take from two sticks to one oval?

* * *

2.3. Processing the results of solving problems

When evaluating the solutions proposed by the

children, it should be (as in evaluating the solutions of the tasks of the Butterfly Flights methodology) that there are several options for correct answers: in tasks 1 and 2 - two options, in tasks 3 - 8 - four options.

2.4. Features of conducting a diagnostic lesson with a child

It is advisable to carry out individual diagnostics of children in order to determine their intellectual and volitional readiness for schooling in April - May.

At the same time, the same diagnostics can be carried out later (in August or even in September) in order to inform the teacher about the child's abilities to master the program material of the first grade.

In any case, it is advisable to invite children to solve labyrinth problems "with rules", where it is required to move imaginary characters in accordance with certain requirements.

It should be borne in mind that for a more accurate and specific assessment of the child's readiness for school, it makes sense to conduct two diagnostic sessions with the child (one method per lesson).

It should also be noted that, according to the conditions of the tasks of these methods, from one point of the playing field to another, you can get for a different number of actions (flights or steps). If a child notices such a feature, indicating that the problem can be solved in fewer actions than is required (and he himself can show such a solution), then this indicates a good development of the ability to act "in the mind." At the same time, he should nevertheless answer that the game consists in being able to solve a problem in both fewer and more actions.

Many problems with moving the marked characters have several solutions for the same number of actions. When solving problems, as could be observed, some children can indicate all possible options, others - some of the options, and still others - only one option. To find out, the child can be asked: "How else can you get to the desired cell in two flights (two steps)?" It is clear that the more options a child finds, the better his ability to act "in the mind" is developed.

When children solve problems, it is also necessary to pay special attention to the fact that the child acts only verbally, i.e. only naming the cells of the playing field along which the imaginary character moves -"Butterfly" or "Rooster".

If the child is not able to solve problems in speech form and he needs to act with his hands in order to find a solution (either only in the air above the playing field, indicating the general direction of movement, or by leading his hand directly over the paper where the playing field is drawn), then this the fact indicates that the child is not intellectually enough ready to study at school.

3. Results

In individual research experiments conducted at the beginning of the school year, 49 people (two classes of first-graders) participated.

Seven groups of children were singled out according to the peculiarities of solving the problems of the methods "Butterfly flights" and "Rooster steps".

The first group consisted of children who could not master the rule of moving an imaginary character ("butterfly" or "rooster"). It is important to note that they could not master the rule not only when showing a single movement in verbal form, but even using object manipulations if they were allowed to move their finger or pencil over the cells of the playing field.

The second group consisted of children who were not able to master the rule of moving an imaginary character ("butterfly" or "rooster") without actions in the form of objects. This was manifested in the fact that

they could not verbally correctly answer the question: "Where can you get in one flight (one step)?" In other words, they could not perform one action according to the proposed rule from a given point of the playing field, operating only with images, i.e. just looking at the playing field.

At the same time, it is important to note that they could still do this, but only in those cases if, firstly, they indicated the starting cell of one movement (flight or step) or were allowed to find it on their own by moving a finger (or a pencil, but without drawing lines) across the playing field and, secondly, suggest after that to show, by moving your finger or pencil across the playing field, what movements are possible if the proposed rule is observed.

The third group consisted of children who did not cope with the training task, i.e. with a two-step task (two flights or two steps), although, unlike the first group, they mastered the rule and successfully completed the one-step task ("Where can you get in one flight?") in verbal form.

The fourth group consisted of children who could not cope with the main tasks in two actions (No. 1 - 4), although, unlike the children of the third group, they successfully solved the training problem.

The fifth group consisted of children who could solve the main tasks in two actions (No. 1 - 4), but did not cope with the main tasks in three actions (No. 5 and 6).

The sixth group consisted of children who could not cope with tasks in four actions (No. 7 and 8), although they successfully solved problems in two and three actions (No. 1 - 6).

The seventh group consisted of children who correctly solved all the main problems (No. 1 - 8).

The table below presents data reflecting the success of the actions of first graders in determining the degree of formation of the ability to act "in the mind" at the beginning of the school year.

Table

The results of solving problems of the methods "Butterfly flights" and "Rooster steps" by 1st grade pupils in

September (in%)

Groups The first The second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh

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Flights "Butterflies" 4,1 8.2 10.2i 20,4 42.9, 10,2 4,1

Steps "Rooster" 2.0 4,1 8.2 16,4 44.8- 14.3? 8,2

The data presented in the table allow us to note the following.

Firstly, when solving problems using each method, the largest number of children was in the fourth and fifth groups: according to the Butterfly Flights method, respectively, 20.4% and 42.9% (that is, in total - 63.3%) , according to the "Rooster steps" methodology - 16.4% and 44.8% (ie, in total - 61.2%. These data indicate that the majority of children coped with the tasks of both methods in two steps

It is important to note that, according to both methods, the fifth group consisted of almost half of the children: 42.9% coped with the main tasks of the Butterfly Flights methodology and 44.8% - with the main tasks of the Rooster Steps methodology. This testifies to the fact that among the noted majority of children, in turn, most of the children coped with four main tasks.

4. Conclusion

So, the conducted research has shown that the majority of children are ready to study in primary school.

However, it is a matter of concern that a significant part of the children (according to the results of solving the problems of the Butterfly Flights methodology - 22.5%, according to the results of solving the problems of the Rooster Steps methodology - 14.3%) did not cope with the tasks in two steps. It should be noted that in the first case, only 10.2% of these children could perform only one action (one flight of a butterfly), and in the second case (where one action consists of one step of a rooster), there were only 8.2% of such children.

It is also important that in the first case (when solving the tasks "Butterfly flights") 12.3% were una-

ble to perform one action "in their minds" (that is, children making up the first and second groups), and in the second case - 6 ,1%.

As the practice of long-term surveys has shown, children who made up the first, second and third groups, when teaching in the first grade, usually poorly, as the teachers testify, assimilated the program material, especially in those cases when it is necessary to understand and apply the rules of mathematics and grammar.

At the same time, it should be noted that the children who made up the fourth and fifth groups usually studied for fours (i.e., those who solved problems in two actions), and for fives, children who made up the sixth and seventh groups (i.e. those who solved problems in three and four steps).

It is interesting to note that according to the results of solving the problems of the "Butterfly flights" methodology, the children of the last two groups (sixth and seventh) are less than children of the first three groups, respectively, 14.3% and 22.5%. According to the results of solving the problems of the "Rooster's steps" method, the picture is different: there are more children of the last two groups (sixth and seventh) than children of the first three groups, respectively, 22.5% and 14.3%.

The noted fact testifies that the tasks of the "Rooster steps" technique are somewhat easier than the tasks of the "Butterfly flights" technique. Therefore, it is advisable to carry out diagnostics of the formation in children of the ability to act "in the mind" not according to one of these methods, but according to both methods.

It is important to note, regarding the procedure for conducting a diagnostic session with a child, that when working with timid and shy children, in order to instill

confidence in them, they should be offered to solve the problems of the "Caterpillar" - or before solving the problems of the main method, in order to remove unnecessary tension and stiffness, or after solving the problems of the main technique to calm and cheer them up.

In such tasks, you can make any movement (along the playing field), since the "Caterpillar" can crawl in any direction (such is its "rule"). This provides the child with unconditional success: you only need to name the cells along which the caterpillar will crawl between the starting and ending points. After such communication, the child will leave satisfied with his actions and with pleasant impressions from an adult who acts for him as a representative of the school.

It is advisable to bring the results of diagnostics of the ability to act "in the mind" to the attention of the teacher and parents. In the latter case, you need to tell how to work with the child before the start of school lessons (if the diagnosis was carried out in April - May or at the beginning of August).

To increase the level of readiness, it makes sense to engage with the child on the material of various games where you need to learn and follow the rules (for example, such well-known board games as checkers, chess, dominoes are suitable). At the same time, for regular classes on the development of the ability to act "in the mind", you can use our developments [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], where it is described in detail and clearly

what and how an adult should do when working with child.

References

1. Davydov V.V. Problems of developing education. Moskow: Academy, 2004. - 432 p.

2. Dontsov D.A., Dontsova M.V. Age psychology and psychology of personality development in the macro-period of childhood, adolescence and youth. Moscow: Flinta, 2018. - 326 p.

3. Zak A.Z. On the development of the ability to act "in the mind" in younger schoolchildren // Questions of psychology, 1981, no. 5. pp. 68 - 77.

4. Zak AZ Tasks for the development of mental actions // Primary school ", 1986, №5. pp. 47 - 61.

5. Zak A.Z Improving cognitive skills in children 5 - 12 years old. Moscow: Prima, 1999. - 210 p.

6. Zak A.Z Learning to think logically. Moscow: Arkti, 2002. - 198 p.

7. Zak A.Z Let's be smart! The development of intellectual abilities in children of five to six years. Moscow: Arkti, 2003. - 164 p.

8. Zak A.Z. Intelligence for preschoolers, parts 1 and 2. Moscow: Intellect Center, 2004. - 112 p.

9. Obukhova, L.F. Age psychology. Moscow: Yurayt Publishing House, 2020. - 460 p.

10. Ponomarev Ya.A. Knowledge, thinking and mental development. Moscow: Prosvechenie, 1967. -276 p.

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ВИР1ШЕННЯ

Несправа М.В.

доктор фшософських наук, професор кафедри мiжнародних eidHocuH. Днтропетровський державний утверситет внутрiшнiх справ,

http://orcid. org/0000-0003-0415-183 7

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Анотащя

У статп розкрито сутнють процесу управлшня педагопчними конфлшгами в освгтшх оргашзащях. Наголошено, що процеси сучасного розвитку обумовлюють динамiчнiсть i неоднозначшсть обсягу, змюту i характеру освгтшх шновацш, ввдповвдно виникають певш протирiччя, яш i ускладнюють подальший ро-звиток освгтньо1 оргашзацп загалом. Описана сукупшсть психолого-педагопчних умов, необхвдних для ефективного попередження та виршення конфлжпв у освггаш оргашзацп. Охарактеризовано специфiч-ний суперечливий характер конфлшлв мiж педагогами i батьками, проблеми взаемоввдносин педагопв i батьшв. Щдсумовано, що значну частину конфлжпв можливо ефективно виршити, налагодивши попере-джувальш заходи для швидкого розв'язання конфлжтно1 ситуаци. Однак тривалi нерозв'язаш конфлшти здатш дуже негативно впливати на мiжособистiснi стосунки, соцiально-психологiчний клiмат у колектив^ емоцiйнi стани i настро1 загалом. Запропоновано сценарй' попередження та виршення конфлiктiв. Зазна-чено, що таш напрацювання в перспективi можуть теоретичним пiдrрунтям для формування внутрiшньо-шституцшшх нормативних документiв.

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