Научная статья на тему 'Development of psychological media competence'

Development of psychological media competence Текст научной статьи по специальности «СМИ (медиа) и массовые коммуникации»

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Ключевые слова
MEDIA / COMPETENCE / PSYCHOLOGICAL / MEDIA TEXT / CARTOON / ADVERTISING / EXPERIENCE / UNDERSTANDING / EXPERIMENT

Аннотация научной статьи по СМИ (медиа) и массовым коммуникациям, автор научной работы — Kyshtymova I.M., Skorova L.V., Medvedeva T.A

Under consideration is the notion of a 'Psychological Media competence', its significance for the development of personality under the conditions of contemporary media environment is justified. Levels of psychological media competence and its essential components are described. The authors explain psychological mechanism for the development of psychological media competence in association with actualization of the processes of relations, experience and comprehension. A program for the development of psychological media competence in teenagers is put forth. Research results whose purpose was shaping of psychological media competence in schoolchildren in the process of implementation of experimental developing programs, were shown. A total of 65 persons took part in the research: 57 teenagers and 8 experts; 22

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Текст научной работы на тему «Development of psychological media competence»

Copyright © 2018 by Academic Publishing House Researcher s.r.o.

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Published in the Slovak Republic

Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie)

Has been issued since 2005

ISSN 1994-4160

E-ISSN 1994-4195

2018, 58(4): 95-108

DOI: 10.13187/me.2018.4.95 www.ejournal53.com

Development of Psychological Media Competence I.M. Kyshtymova a , *, L.V. Skorova a, T.A. Medvedeva a a Irkutsk State University, Russian Federation

Abstract

Under consideration is the notion of a 'Psychological Media competence', its significance for the development of personality under the conditions of contemporary media environment is justified. Levels of psychological media competence and its essential components are described. The authors explain psychological mechanism for the development of psychological media competence in association with actualization of the processes of relations, experience and comprehension. A program for the development of psychological media competence in teenagers is put forth.

Research results whose purpose was shaping of psychological media competence in schoolchildren in the process of implementation of experimental developing programs, were shown. A total of 65 persons took part in the research: 57 teenagers and 8 experts; 22 schoolchildren took their part in the experiment. Level of maturity of psychological media competence was evaluated using techniques to detect ability of teenagers to determine psychological peculiarities of a media text. The structure of the questionnaire was multi-optioned to match the structure of psychological media competence. The content of questions is variable-based and determined by the specifics of media texts under consideration - those were represented by 'Trolls' cartoon and 'Herbaria' tea advertisement video in the proposed research. Analysis of resulting data was carried out using methods of mathematical statistics: ratings of media text by teenagers and by experts were compared, as well as dynamics of indicators of psychological media competence of the participants of the experiment was determined. Weak manifestations of cognitive and reflexive components of psychological media competence of teenagers were determined. Analysis of experiment results showed that the level of understanding of particularities of media texts that determine their effect on consumers, has credibly increased with the participants of the experimental research.

Keywords: media, competence, psychological, media text, cartoon, advertising, experience, understanding, experiment.

1. Introduction

Contemporary developmental context undergoes transformations associated with the increased numbers of informational messages, added complexity of the forms of their presentation, variety and dynamics - it actively becomes a media environment. Formative potential of media products, however, remains little investigated, and that, together with the ever-increasing rate of

* Corresponding author

E-mail addresses: info@creativity.ru (I.M. Kyshtymova), larisa.skorova@gmail.com (L.V. Skorova), tatalmed@yandex.ru (T.A. Medvedeva)

generating of new formats and ways of media exposure of a consumer to information, would bring the scientific problem of media psychological development and formation of personality to the extreme foreground.

The job before psychology is multidimensional: first, it is associated with by necessity of understanding of mental mechanisms actualizing under the conditions of origination and perception of media products; second - with the importance of the development of algorithms of psychological analysis of media texts, definition of criteria of their developing or destructive potential for different age groups and those differentiated by other criteria: gender related, national, social groups; third, with the need to create methods of diagnostics of peculiarities of the effects of media texts on their consumers; fourth, with the necessity to organize educational work with the participants of learning process: children, their parents and educators - following the issues of provisions for psychological security inside a media environment. Resolution of the problems of psychological accompaniment of the processes of media-communications requires added complexity of the structure of professional competencies of an educational psychologist -inclusion of psychological media competence therein.

We consider psychological media competence as a meta-level education, a derivative from concepts of higher order: 'psychological competence' (Abolina, Ostapchuk, 2011) and 'media competence' (Fedorov, 2017; Fedorov, Levitskaya, 2018), while, on the other hand, designative of the area of their semantic intersection. Psychological media competence is understood as 'psychological knowledge of mass communications, mental processes and ways of their actualization in the processes of communications, about consistent patterns and age peculiarities of personality development within media environment, methods of manipulations by means of media messaging, criteria to determine degrees of psychological security of a media environment, its educational and developmental potential, ways to protect consumers of media information, children, in the first place, from destructive impact of messages communicated via media channels, conditions of psychologically productive communications in a media environment' (Kyshtymova, Skorova, 2018: 82).

Semiotic methodology lies at the basis of our approach to the definition of psychological media competence and conditions for its development, allowing us to carry out a psychological analysis of media products revealing their meaningful (semantic) and formal (syntactic) specifics which determines peculiarities of mental changes of communicators in the process of media-communications and representing cultural and historical psychology of landmark mediation of human mental development.

The structure of psychological media competence, according to its meta-level model (Kyshtymova, Skorova, 2018), is represented by psychological, semiotic and aesthetic components. The psychological component includes understanding of the mechanisms of actualization, by a competent individual, of the process of media communicating of the cognitive, emotional and volitional, axiological, reflective processes and capability of their regulation; the semiotic component is represented by the semantic, syntactic and pragmatic subcomponents and suggests skills to implement psychological analysis of media texts; the aesthetic component is associated with understanding of significant codes in various areas of the arts (music, literature, fine arts, cinematography, narration) used to create media texts under analysis, command of the ways of their artistic organization.

2. Materials and Methods

Master's training of educational psychologists in Irkutsk State University involves implementation of the course 'Psychological Safety of Children in Media Environment' that we developed, which results in, inter alia, their preparedness for action in the development of psychological media competence of children and adolescents. The presented experimental research was carried out within the framework of implementation of those guidelines of the Master's program.

The study involved a total of 65 people: 57 adolescents - senior high students and 8 Masters - psychologists trained in media psychology, who acted as experts; 22 teenagers participated in the pilot program.

In the process of research, - firstly, the level of psychological media competence of adolescents was determined with the help of methodology put together by us to reveal the degree of

understanding of the psychological peculiarities of media texts. Secondly, based on the analysis of the results of comparing completeness of the components of psychological media competence among schoolchildren and Masters, a program for their development in adolescents was put together. Thirdly, a developmental experiment was conducted with a group of teenagers and an analysis of its results was carried out.

Determination of the level of media competence of schoolchildren was carried out in the process of identifying their understanding of media texts: 'Trolls' cartoon by the 20th Century Fox Film Company (Cartoon, 2016) and the commercial for 'Herbaria' tea ('Feel Your Fears') (Promotional video, 2013). The choice of the cartoon was stipulated by its high cultural and semantic richness, age-related togetherness of its protagonists and teenagers, commonality of the things of interest of the main characters and those of the contemporary older adolescents (lifestyle, choice of activities, success, self-realization, friendship, love, hobbies); a wide range of means of exposure of a recipient. The use of a commercial as an incentive was stipulated by the need to identify the ability of adolescents to determine psychological damage in a media text.

To assess the psychological media competence (PMC) we have compiled a survey method, the invariant structure of which corresponds to the structure of the PMC: completeness of the cognitive component of the PMC is determined by questions 6 and 8; the axiological ones: 2, 3 and 4; reflective: 1, 9, 10 and 11; semiotic: 7 and 13; aesthetic - 5 and 12, while the zone of variation is determined by the possibility of formulating questions in accordance with the genre and content peculiarities of a stand-alone evaluated media text (Table 1; Annex 1). The normativity zone was determined using the analysis of assessments of the analyzed text by the Masters: the most frequent responses of Masters (over 60 %) were taken as reference and valued at three points. Variants of answers that have not been selected by experts even once, were valued at one point. The remaining answers (selected by 40 % and less of the experts) were valued at two points.

Table 1. Criteria-Rated Structure of Methodology for Determining Completeness of Psychological Media Competence

Component Sub Component Indicator Criterion

Psychological Cognitive Determination of media text recipient Determines age-related characteristics of the target audience of a media text

Knowledge of communication function Defines the functions of a media product

Axiological Definition of ideas, the main intention of media texts Defines the idea of a media text

Identification of meanings, values transmitted by media texts Defines values broadcast by a media text

The correlation of the values transmitted by media texts with the values of culture, own worldview position Defines the cultural meaning of values transmitted by a media text

Reflective Awareness of psychological changes that occur as a result of perception of media texts Formulates emotional response

Determines personality changes that a media text can trigger when perceived

Determines mentally constructive or destructive potential of a media text

Predicts future behavior as a result of interaction with a media text

Semiotic Understanding the patterns of functioning of sign systems: verbal, figurative-and-visual, musical - by way of which meanings are translated in a media text. Identifies media text narrator (the mouthpiece of transmitted meanings)

Identifies means of affecting an addressee

Aesthetic Definition of artistic figurative and expressive means by which an author produces effect on a recipient Defines endgame

Defines aesthetic categories

An ampliative experiment served as the main research method. The program of the experiment assumed actualization of the components of psychological media-competence, the level of completeness whereof was low during the initial diagnosis of the PMC of schoolchildren, and consisted of 4 sessions, 2 academic hours each (the time for the diagnosis was not taken into account). Target objectives that are implemented in the process of study, are presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Target Objectives of Developing Experiment Classes

Class No. Objective

1, 2 Shaping, in high school students: - conceptualization of functions, the role of media in life, the diversity of types of media texts; the need to obtain special psychological knowledge and skills that modern people need to interact with media texts of different types and genres; - comprehension that media texts have an impacting potential; - understanding the need for critical perception of media texts, the possibility of assessing the potential of a media text in terms of hazard/ safety for a person's psychological well-being.

2 Acquaintance with the mechanisms and techniques by which a media text affects its addressee, and the methods of psychological analysis of a media text (using the example of visual advertising analysis).

3 Acquisition of skills of independent psychological analysis (using the example of an audiovisual media text).

4 Creating own media text; formation of the idea of responsibility of the creators of media texts.

The first class pursued the objective of creating motivation for the development of psychological media competence among senior schoolchildren, whereas, at the preliminary stage of the study, 79 % of students chose 'No, I think that I have enough knowledge and experience to interact productively and safely with media texts' answering the question 'Do you need special knowledge for productive and safe perception of films, commercials, advertising, social networking messages, musical compositions on the Internet or on TV?'

In the second class, in the process of working with advertising videos, tasks of 1) actualization of the reflection of older adolescents, understanding the need for critical perception and assessing the potential impact of a media text, determining its safety for a person's psychological health, 2) teaching the algorithm of psychological analysis of a media text and understanding the mechanisms of its manipulative influence, were solved.

The next lesson was devoted to the analysis of the 'Trolls' cartoon, which students have already became acquainted with during the diagnosis. The lesson assumed joint activity of the teacher with the students in the following sequence: 1) awareness of the impression produced by the media text; 2) formulation of the main idea of the cartoon; 3) determining the means of influence on viewer; 4) definition of the endgame of the cartoon, its purpose; 5) compiling a list of those values that are communicated by that cartoon; 6) correlation of those values with the universal ones; 7) identification of the addressee of the cartoon (gender, age, social group, personal

features, worldview attitudes); 8) identification of the narrator (originator, semantic source) of the cartoon (if possible, determine: gender, age, social status, personal characteristics, worldview attitudes); 9) determining the purpose of that media product; 10) awareness and utterance of psychological changes, in particular, opinions about oneself and other people that occurred as a result of watching the cartoon; 11) determination of behavioral reaction provoked by the cartoon; 12) determination of whether the media text in question has been actualized in a constructive or destructive fashion in the course of its interaction with a consumer.

The objective of the final lesson was to consolidate the acquired knowledge and skills, using those to create own media text. This lesson was also aimed at developing an understanding of the responsibility of the creator of a media text for the content that one intends to broadcast through a media. Schoolchildren were asked to create their own media text, present the 'author' of the media text, who had to choose the means to express the idea of the need for critical perception of media texts, evaluate the resulting media text in terms of its psychological security and developmental potential in accordance with the analytic sequence already known to the schoolchildren.

3. Discussion

In academic literature, research results of psychological peculiarities of media environments, effects of media activity on children and adults and other problems whose understanding and resolution anticipates psychological media competence, are broadly represented. Approaches to the resolution of psychological tasks associated with the transforming effects of media environment on mentality and the methods used in the process of resolution are multiple and often contradictory, same as the findings of researchers in regard of the developing potential and level of psychological security of different species of media content.

Academic texts provide a lot of data about negative correlations between media activity and psychological development and well-being of a media consumer: it is noted that the scope of watching TV is negatively associated with speech development of children (Blankson, Nayena, 2015), news casts causing fear and anxiety in them (Cartoon, 2016; Molen et al, 2002; Kandemir-Ozdinc, Erdur-Baker, 2013); media activity is associated with sleep disorder (Fuller et al., 2017; LeBourgeois et al., 2017; Aishworiya, Kiing, 2018; Jiang et al., 2015) and negative changes to interfamilial relations (Skaug et al., 2018). Hence psychological peculiarities of media content that, by the conclusion of the authors, are the cause of negative consequences, are presented undifferentiated or their analysis is only carried out from the standpoint of peculiarities of the content of information communicated: for example, researchers register that violence on screen may provoke aggressive behavior (Dillon, Bushman, 2017, Wilson, 2008), or that watching educational telecasts is associated with an escalation of the value of achieving success for schoolchildren (Anderson, Daniel, 2001). Insufficient persuasiveness of that reasoning stems from the absence of psychological analysis of specific media texts: 'Aggressive' or 'Educational', in the authors' opinion - whereabout their findings are formulated.

We believe that the task of determination of the level of psychological security of a mediacontent, same as its developing potential cannot be resolved without development of theoretically substantiated algorithms of psychological analysis of different species of media products, stringent methods of their psychological evaluation.

According to our assumption, identification of syntactic (formal) features definable according to the laws of a sign system (verbal, visual, musical, etc.) used to design a text shall serve as the basis for analysis of media texts. The combination of signs within a specific text system, by defining its code, is isomorphic to the system of displayed meanings. Semantic peculiarities of a text are the derivatives from the formal ones, and should to be determined only at the next stage of analysis. Pragmatics corresponds to the third level of derivation (Kyshtymova, 2018). Such model of analysis is offered by us to students in the course of their preparing to expert work with media texts.

An important argumentative issue associated with the definition of mechanisms and ways of development of psychological media competence is the one of targeted objectives. The objective of development of psychological competence in a media domain, on the one hand, is production of media content capable to attract attention of its consumers and to shape pragmatically significant targets that serve the interests of the ordering customer of that content: consumer, political, economic or social. Such target orientation is implemented, in particular, in the course of preparing specialists in the domain of content production: advertising, public relations, journalism, blogging

- psychological knowledge is used to produce emotional effect, affect actions and behavior of consumers (Nahai, 2017; Felser, 2009) that gains important implications under the conditions of lack of options in the processes of cultural commoditization (Hesmondhalgh, 2006; 2018).

On the other hand, psychological media competence for consumers of media content complies with the target objective of protection from its destructive effect, is important as the foundation of reflexive and critical attitude in the course of perception of media information. Psychological media competence possesses social and personal significance for children, their parents, educators and psychologists, defining their ability to protect themselves from manipulative effects of media texts, their negative influences on processes of making personality and its actualization, as well as the use of their positive potential for productive development and self-expression.

Development of psychological media competence of pragmatically oriented specialists within the prevailing system of their training is, above all, targeted at formation of skills to control audiences with the purpose of receiving commercial or power-related dividends, while for those professionals as teachers and psychologists, - on the protection of people from of those effects.

Development of psychological media competence gains special value for practical activities of psychologists in education, whose efficiency under the conditions of 'low security level of information environment for children and teenagers' (Concept: 10), 'availability of Internet resulting in hazards of selecting antisocial role models, escapism, departure from real communicating into the virtual space' (Concept: 11) and other risks for mental development under the conditions of media realities suggests an understanding, by a psychologist, of the mechanisms of personality formation of students under new conditions, capability to use positive potential of media texts and make protection of children from their negative effects actual.

The importance of the role of educational institutions in the formation of immunity against manipulative effects of media had already been realized at the early stages of academic research of media. McLuhan delegated function of people defense from mass media negative manifestations impacts to education (McLuhan, 2002; 2015). He considered enlightenment to be an ideal tool of ensuring the person psychological security in the media communications conditions (McLuhan, 2017: 220). Emphasis on education value is made in contemporary academic work: 'Media are omnipotent in situations of delusiveness and unrecognizable character of their work, and weak in situations of exposure, demythologization of those... Transparency is achieved by way of elimination of media illiteracy, by teaching the basics of media analysis' (Savchuk, 2014: 43) and regulatory documents defining activity of educational psychologists.

Resolution of tasks standing before an educational psychologist requires changes in the system of professional training from the point of view of targeting towards formation of readiness to explain the mechanisms of media texts effects on mental development of students, compilation of guidelines on media communications for different age groups, corrections of mental development disorders related to media addiction, use of positive potential of media texts for actualization of creative capacity of their consumers.

In the view of importance of resolution of those tasks, available academic literature does not provide either programs for the development of psychological media competence of media content consumers or revelation of psychological mechanisms of their formation. That fact stipulates relevance of the present research.

Theoretical Foundation for the Approach to the Development of Psychological Media Competence

A number of levels in the development of psychological media competence may be isolated. Originally, psychological media literacy is formed, mastering of skills of understanding of media information on its basis follows, as well as critical analysis of media texts, along with flexible variance of algorithms of psychological analysis of media products dependent on their genre and substantive peculiarities. The highest level is represented by capability to teach communicators skills of constructive interactions within a media environment and critical analysis of media information (Kyshtymova, Skorova, 2018).

The development of psychological media competence begins at early age in the family and then continues in educational institutions (kindergarten, school, establishments of additional and vocational education).

The first institution where media mediation of child development occurs is the family. Psychological media competence of parents is a factor that determines the time and nature of a child interaction with cartoons, musical and verbal texts, video games that parents select for their child, as well as peculiarities of the 'background' media content not characteristic of children's age.

Academic literature presents studies addressed to the role of parents in the formation and change of media preferences of children and adolescents (Valkenburg, Piotrowski, 2017; Parkhomenko, Golubeva, 2011), parental functions as intermediaries in children's use of the Internet (Livingstone, Haddon, 2009), the importance of parental mediation in online victimization (Navarro et al., 2013), the role of the family in changing the negative effects of media exposure on children (Gentile et al, 2012). It has been established that joint viewing of television programs, films, shared video games testify of the highest level of interfamilial ties and relations, and vice versa, - participation in social networks is associated with low level of family ties (Padilla-Walker, Laura, 2012; Anderson, Daniel, 2001).

Another developmental environment where further development or transformation of the skills of interaction of children with media texts takes place are educational institutions. General and psychological media competence of teachers and psychologists will largely determine the quality of those processes.

The mechanism for the development of psychological media competence implies actualization of such basic psychological background as attitudes towards media, media experience, understanding of media-communications and personal constitution: ability to self-development and responsibility.

Relationships in psychology are understood as conscious, selective, experience-based psychological relations of a person with various aspects of objective reality, the world around and self, affecting personal qualities and realized in activities (Myasishchev, 2011).

Researchers identify 15 types of relationships: to things, nature and animals, individuals, social group, family, state, work, material wealth and property, external standards of living, morality, worldview and religion, knowledge and science, art and self (Bazikov et al., 2013). We consider it important to supplement that classification with the attitudes towards media readiness to evaluate media messages and definitive action towards those (acceptance, ignoring, rejection). In the structure of media relations, reflection, emotional experiences and creative transformation of media texts can be distinguished.

By placing emphasis on media experience as the basis of psychological media-competence, we proceeded from the fact that the same media information may generate different actions and experiences caused by the frequency of interaction with media texts.

Experience is understood as a means of learning reality, based on its direct, sensual practical assimilation (Petrovsky, 1998: 237); as a complex fusion of knowledge, experiences, values, meanings (Znakov, 2011: 16). Psychological media experience is a process of perception, evaluation of media products in accordance with individual psychological characteristics (peculiarities of cognitive functions, personal features) of the person perceiving a media text.

An important psychological component actualized in the process of the formation of psychological media competence is comprehension of media communications, which is achieved with the help of knowledge and skills acquired from past experience.

We have included the following components into the structure of understanding mediamessages: 1) cognitive: motivation, desire to understand the meanings of media messages of different genres and determine the peculiarities of their effect on different groups of consumers; critical thinking; 2) axiological (value orientations, on the basis of which opinion and assessment of media communications is shaped); 3) communicative (readiness to discuss content; friendly dialogue) (Skorova, 2017).

The ability of psychological analysis of media messages results from comprehension of, -firstly, the thing being reported, secondly, the way artistic means are used for the purpose; thirdly, what are the age and psychological characteristics of perceivers, fourthly, the nature of the emotional impact of a media text on its consumer.

4. Results

At the initial stage of the study, diagnostics of the completeness of PMC indicators in adolescents and experts was carried out using the methodology for assessing psychological media

competence, while the 'Trolls' cartoon (Annex 1) served as a stimulus for the study of understanding of a media text. When comparing collective indicators, which was carried out using the Mann-Whitney statistical test for independent samples, significant differences in the responses of schoolchildren and experts to 12 questions out of 13 (Table 3), were found. Teens demonstrated low level of psychological understanding of the cartoon following every diagnostic criterion. Statistical differences in the answers of schoolchildren and experts were not found by the criterion of reflection only, the values of which were determined by analyzing the answer to the question 'Did your opinion of yourself and others change after watching a cartoon?', while the frequency of 'no' answers to that question by the experts made 75 %, among schoolchildren - 41 %.

Table 3. Accuracy of Differences in the Completeness of PMC of Adolescents and Experts at the First Stage of the Study

Question No. Criterion p-value*: significant differences noted

1 Formulates emotional response 0.000*

2 Defines the idea of a media text 0.000*

3 Defines values broadcast by a media text 0.000*

4 Defines values of tuning-fork culture communicated by a media text 0.031*

5 Defines endgame 0.003*

6 Identifies age category of the recipient of a media text 0.001*

7 Identifies narrator of a media text 0.000*

8 Defines functions of a media product 0.006*

9 Identifies personality changes that occurred as a result of interaction with a media text 0.320

10 Determines destructive/constructive potential of a media text 0.000*

11 Predicts future behavior as a result of interaction with a media text 0.007*

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12 Defines aesthetic categories 0.016*

13 Identifies means of affecting an addressee 0.001*

Note:* - reliability of statistical differences

To determine the structure of psychological media competence in older adolescents, group metrics for PMC were determined for each of its components (Pic. 1). The least represented in the structure of the psychological media competence of older adolescents is the psychological component, the aesthetic one gained significantly greater importance, which can be explained by the familiarity of students with the basics of determining aesthetic features of texts provided for in the school literature curriculum.

Analysis of the values of subcomponents of the psychological component of the PMC showed that the axiological one (1.62) was expressed to a greater extent than the reflexive (1.42) and cognitive (1.5).

The revealed structure of psychological media competence of adolescents was the basis for determining the content of the program of the formative experiment, which was conducted in March 2018 on the basis of the Khomutovo secondary school in Irkutsk District.

To assess the effectiveness of the experiment, we used the method of determining psychological media competence, whose invariant reflects the structure of the PMC, where the 'Herbaria' tea commercial served as a stimulus. Reference answers were determined on the basis of expert evaluation of that media text (Kyshtymova, 2017). The standard answers were awarded 3 points, partially correct ones - 2 points, incorrect - 1 point. Schoolchildren answered questions immediately after viewing the media text.

Fig. 1. Psychological media competence components value

To determine the dynamics of indicators of psychological media competence of schoolchildren, the Wilcoxon statistical criterion for related samples was used. Significant differences in the completeness of PMC in schoolchildren at the beginning of the experiment and at the end of it were found in 11 meaningful categories out of 13: 'formulates an emotional response' (1.18 - 2.27 with p=0.049); 'defines the idea of a media text' (1.41 - 2.18 at p=0.007); 'determines the values of tuning-fork culture transmitted by a media text' (1.36 - 2.05 at p=0.000); 'defines endgame' (1.5 - 2.27 at p=0.003); 'determines age category of the recipient of a media text' (1.14 -

2.41 at p=0.025); 'determines the functions of a media product' (1.86 - 2.36 at p=0.000); 'determines personal changes that occurred as a result of interaction with a media text' (2.0 - 2.73 at p=0.000); 'determines destructive/constructive potential of a media text' (1.27 - 2.27 at p=0.033); 'predicts his further behavior as a result of interaction with a media text' (1.82 - 2.45 at p=0.000); 'determines the vehicles of influence on a recipient' (1.86 - 2.45 at p=0.000); 'defines aesthetic categories' (1.7 - 2.27 at p=0.000).

No significant change in the criteria was found: 'defines values transmitted by a media text' (p=0.06) and 'defines a media text narrator' (p=o.18o). Formation of readiness for the definition of values transmitted by a media text, as well as the definition of its narrator (semantic source, organizer of media narrative) is one of the most difficult tasks requiring deep knowledge in the field of organization of literary text and psychology of influence, which determines difficulty of its formation among schoolchildren and the need to develop special methods that authors identify as their future objective.

Analysis of the results of the experiment showed that the structure of psychological media competence of older adolescents has changed - the scope of values of the components and subcomponents of the PMC has increased: the values of the psychological (2.1) and semiotic (2.1) components were equal, the aesthetic component (2.5) was somewhat more pronounced - their scopes tend to be equivalent (Pic. 2), as in the reference structure.

The values of completeness of subcomponents of a psychological component of the PMC also significantly increased during the experiment: cognitive: 2.5 - 2.4; axiological: 1.62-2; reflective:

1.42 - 2,9.

Summarizing the results of the analysis of the resulting data, one can conclude that the approach implemented in the process of creating and accomplishment of the development program of the PMC revealed its efficiency.

Aesthetic

Semiotic

Psychological

Components value before experiment

Components value after experiment

0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3

Fig. 2. Psychological media competence components value before and after experiment

4. Conclusion

In the process of integrated research, an approach to the development of psychological media competence as psychological knowledge of the psychological mechanisms of media communication, conditions of its psychological security, ability to determine the potential of media products that transforms the state of mind, was developed. A model of the development of psychological media competence was theoretically substantiated, on the basis of which a program of developmental experiment for adolescents was created. The process of its implementation in working with schoolchildren was described, the results of which led to the conclusion that the difficult job of preparing a consumer of media information for its critical perception from the standpoint of psychological security and the ability to consciously choose content that is productive for psychological development is manageable in the process of purposeful, psychologically based activity.

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Annex

Dear Respondent, The Department of Psychology of Education and Personal Development of Irkutsk State University conducts research of the peculiarities of perception of films and cartoons by senior school students. The questions refer to the 'Trolls' cartoon (2016), which you have watched. Please answer the proposed questions and select those answers that correspond to your opinion or the ones you agree with.

1. Did you like the cartoon?

A. Yes

B. No

C. I do not know

D. Your answer: ________________________________________

2. The main idea of the cartoon:

A. Good conquers evil.

B. Happiness is to sing, dance and love.

C. Happiness is friendship.

D. Happiness is pleasure

E. One must go to the goal at any cost.

F. Happiness is love.

G. Your answer: _________________ .

3 Mark the values that this cartoon asserts

A. The most important thing in life is to live life for fun and adventure.

B. To live is to work.

C. We need to teach other people how to live right, even if they don't want to.

D. We must respect the right of other people to live as they see it right, and not impose their point of view on them

E. Love is primarily a hug and joy.

F. To love is, first of all, to sacrifice.

G. To have assistants in the case, you have to negotiate with them or manipulate them.

H. To have like-minded people, they must be convinced.

I. Parents should always be treated with respect.

J. With parents, you can behave as you please; they are just parents to take care of, to love and to forgive.

K. Own answer: _________________________________

4. Mark statements that embody universal human values, cultural values of your people.

A. The most important thing in life is to live life for fun and adventure.

B. To live is to work.

C. We need to teach other people how to live right, even if they don't want to.

D. We must respect the right of other people to live as they see it right, and not impose their point of view on them

E. Love is primarily a hug and joy.

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F. To love is, first of all, to sacrifice.

G. To have assistants in the case, you have to negotiate with them or manipulate them.

H. To have like-minded people, they must be convinced.

I. Parents should always be treated with respect.

J. With parents, you can behave as you please; they are just parents to take care of, to love and to forgive.

K. Own answer:_

5. What episode of the cartoon is conceived as the moment of the highest tension of emotions and maximum experiences for the viewer?

A. An episode in which the trolls were waiting for their king to leave the caves where they ran away from the Bergens

B. Episode, when Cook attacked the trolls and caught them, in order to give them to be eaten by the Bergens.

C. Episode 'The Way of the Rose to Bergentown.

D. Episode of meeting all the trolls in a cage before eating them in the castle near the Bergen.

E. Episode, when the Rose, after her salvation, returned to the castle of the Bergens, in order to explain to them what happiness is

F. Own answer:_

6. Who would you recommend watching this cartoon?

A. children of any age

B. children from 6 years

C. children from 12 years

D. Children from 16 years

E. Adults

F. No one

7. Mark the characteristics that you think the author (the narrator of this story) has of the cartoon:

A. He likes to live in his pleasure, having fun.

B. He is constantly working.

C. He does not consider the opinions of other people.

D. He respects other people.

E. He is stupid.

F. He is smart.

G. He is cunning

H. He is very open and sincere.

I. He is selfish.

J. He lives for others.

K. Own answer:_

8. What do you think, why the author of the cartoon (storyteller) created it and offered the audience:

A. To express yourself in this way and tell about your idea of happiness, love, life, the structure of society.

B. To earn at the box office.

C. Just entertain the audience.

D. To impose on the audience your ideas about how people should live and think.

E. To offer viewers their point of view on the main values of life and so that viewers think about them.

F. Own answer: _________________________________

9. Think about whether your opinion of yourself and others changed after watching a cartoon?

A. No

B. Yes

C. I do not know

D. If changed, write how

10. What did the viewing of this cartoon give you?

A. Increased my intellectual and cultural level

B. Gave an opportunity to reflect on certain topics, issues

C. Gave the opportunity to compare their thoughts and values with the thoughts of the author of the cartoon

D. He questioned my life values (attitudes)

E. Nothing

F. Just entertained me

G. Own answer: _________________________________

11. What kind of cartoon character would you like to be like:

A. On the Rose

B. On Svetlana

C. On the Brook

D. On the prince of the trolls

E. No one

F. Own answer: _________________________________

12. What aesthetic characteristics prevail in the cartoon:

A. Fine

B. Ugly

C. Heroic

D. Lowly

E. Sublime

F. Harmonious

G. Disharmonious

H. Own answer: _________________________________

13. What techniques, in your opinion, are used in the cartoon to influence your emotions as much as possible:

A. The color scheme of the cartoon.

B. Quick change of personnel, statements of heroes.

C. Musical accompaniment.

D. Unusual appearance of characters.

E. None of the above.

F. Other (write): ___________________________________________________ .

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