Научная статья на тему 'CURRENT PROBLEMS OF INCREASING MUDFLOWS IN CENTRAL ASIA'

CURRENT PROBLEMS OF INCREASING MUDFLOWS IN CENTRAL ASIA Текст научной статьи по специальности «Строительство и архитектура»

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Ключевые слова
Central Asia / mudflows / landslides / climate change.

Аннотация научной статьи по строительству и архитектуре, автор научной работы — Vodyanov Alexey Vladimirovich

the article analyzes climate change in the Central Asian region, which demonstrates a trend towards an increase in the number of mudflows. A classification of landslides and mudflows is given, methods of dealing with mudflows are evaluated. The relevance of developing a set of measures aimed at protecting against mudflows and landslides is emphasized.

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Текст научной работы на тему «CURRENT PROBLEMS OF INCREASING MUDFLOWS IN CENTRAL ASIA»

CURRENT PROBLEMS OF INCREASING MUDFLOWS IN CENTRAL ASIA

Vodyanov A.V.

Vodyanov Alexey Vladimirovich - Student, FACULTY OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION, KAZAKH AUTOMOBILE AND ROAD INSTITUTE, ALMATY, REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

Abstract: the article analyzes climate change in the Central Asian region, which demonstrates a trend towards an increase in the number of mudflows. A classification of landslides and mudflows is given, methods of dealing with mudflows are evaluated. The relevance of developing a set of measures aimed at protecting against mudflows and landslides is emphasized.

Keywords: Central Asia, mudflows, landslides, climate change.

At present, in Central Asia, the number of settlements located in river basins, which are in the zone of constant mudflow hazard, is increasing every year. At the same time, a significant part of the territory of Central Asia is located in a high-mountain zone, where a sufficient amount of precipitation falls, which makes it possible to predict an increase in mudflow hazard [1]. Therefore, the study of mudflow phenomena, their impact on the environment and methods of dealing with them is of great practical importance.

Mudflows are a dangerous process that can lead to catastrophic consequences for the population and infrastructure. In the conditions of the mountainous terrain of Central Asia, mudflows are one of the main threats to the life of the population. Seismically active regions located in the basins of the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers are prone to frequent landslides and landslides. Every year in these areas there are from 10 to 20 strong mudflows with an intensity of up to 10 meters per second.

A mudflow is a mud-stone stream (or mud stream) that occurs in the channels of mountain rivers as a result of heavy rains or heavy snowmelt. In terms of power, mud-stone flows are estimated at 100-300 m3 / s, and in terms of length, several kilometers. In some years, mudflows and mudflows can reach enormous sizes.

In recent years, due to a sharp change in the climate on the planet, there has been a tendency to increase the number of mudflows. For example, during the period from 2001 to 2010 their number increased by 9%. In 2011, 843 villages were registered in Central Asia, in 2012 - 727, in 2013 - 742, in 2014 - 825, in 2015 - 776, in 2016 -786 [2]. Avalanche landslides, mudflows and avalanches occur on slopes with a steepness of more than 20°, in karst zones, on terraces, in areas composed of loose rocks, etc.

Thus, as a result of the research, it was found that over the past few years in Central Asia there has been a tendency to increase the number of mudflows in Central Asia. This is due to the fact that high seismicity is observed today in mountainous areas, which is accompanied by frequent earthquakes, as well as the presence of a large number of large and small mudflow sources, which can cause mudflows [3].

Also, mudflows and landslides in the mountainous regions of Central Asia, as a rule, have a shower character and are confined to seasonal precipitation.

Landslides can be classified according to the following criteria:

1. For reasons of occurrence:

a) tectonic;

b) engineering-geological;

c) meteorological;

d) natural;

e) anthropogenic.

2. By the speed of development:

a) avalanche;

b) passive;

c) active.

3. According to the degree of danger: A B C.

4. By location:

a - landslides on the slopes;

b - landslide processes in channels.

Currently, in Central Asia, surface methods of dealing with mudflows are mainly used [4]. At the same time, their cyclicity and periodicity are not taken into account. In addition, the issues of organizing and conducting preventive measures have not been sufficiently developed. As a result, there is a massive destruction of roads, bridges, dams, dams, as well as infrastructure.

In order to prevent mudflows, it is necessary to timely and efficiently carry out a set of measures aimed at protecting the population and economic facilities from the negative impact of water.

References

1. Туляганов А.Х., Салимова Б.Д. Автомобиль йулларидаги сув утказувчи иншоотларни лойи^алашда сув ва сел тош^инларининг тавсифларини ^исоблаш // Тошкент. «Iqtisod-Moliya», 2016. Т. 156.

2. Saidl R.S. Dark clouds over the Silk Road: environmental problems arising in the mountainous regions of Central Asia. [Electronic Resource]. URL: http://ekois.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/UCA-MSRI-ResearchPaper-8-Rus.pdf/ (date of access: 15.06.2022).

3. Umarov H.U., Mukhabbatov H.M. Natural disasters in Central Asia and their consequences // Qölleri özle§dirmegin problemalary Problems of desert development Problems of desert development, 2012. P. 3.

4. Tulyaganov A.X., Salimova B.D. Calculation of water and flood characteristics in the design of drainage structures on highways // Tashkent. «Economy-Finance», 2016.

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