Научная статья на тему 'Cultural Imperialism through Hollywood Cinematic Media on Pakistani Youth'

Cultural Imperialism through Hollywood Cinematic Media on Pakistani Youth Текст научной статьи по специальности «СМИ (медиа) и массовые коммуникации»

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Ключевые слова
cinematic media / cultural imperialism / Pakistani youth

Аннотация научной статьи по СМИ (медиа) и массовым коммуникациям, автор научной работы — Tamsila Naeem, Mohsin Hassan Khan, Faiqa Abdul Khaliq

Cinematic media is a very powerful tool, used by developed countries in the modern world, with a deliberate purpose to transmit their cultural legacy by projecting a variety of attractive features to influence the minds of youth. This study aims to scrutinize the impact of Hollywood cinematic media on Pakistani youth. The theoretical framework applied in this study is based on the Theory of Cultural Imperialism, propounded by Her Herbert Schiller in 1973. The theory postulates that the Western media has a strong effect on the Third World countries by imposing on them Western cultural standards and hence are destroying their own cultures. The study is quantitative based on a mixed survey, which consists of close-ended questions along with the opinions of the respondents. SPSS is used to compute the obtained data. The findings demonstrate that the Hollywood movies leave a significant impact on Pakistani youth, since they are prominently engrossed to the lifestyle of American culture. The study suggests that it is responsibility of Pakistani people and media authorities to pay serious heed to control such movies, which prove to be serious threat to their own cultural values.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Cultural Imperialism through Hollywood Cinematic Media on Pakistani Youth»

Copyright © 2020 by Academic Publishing House Researcher s.r.o.



Published in the Slovak Republic

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy

Has been issued since 2016.

E-ISSN: 2500-106X

2020, 5(1): 90-102

DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2020.1.90 www.ejournal46.com

Cultural Imperialism through Hollywood Cinematic Media on Pakistani Youth

Tamsila Naeem a, Mohsin Hassan Khan b > *, Faiqa Abdul Khaliq a

a Department of Linguistics and Communications, Institute of Liberal Arts,University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

b Department of Media and Communication Studies, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Cinematic media is a very powerful tool, used by developed countries in the modern world, with a deliberate purpose to transmit their cultural legacy by projecting a variety of attractive features to influence the minds of youth. This study aims to scrutinize the impact of Hollywood cinematic media on Pakistani youth. The theoretical framework applied in this study is based on the Theory of Cultural Imperialism, propounded by Her Herbert Schiller in 1973. The theory postulates that the Western media has a strong effect on the Third World countries by imposing on them Western cultural standards and hence are destroying their own cultures. The study is quantitative based on a mixed survey, which consists of close-ended questions along with the opinions of the respondents. SPSS is used to compute the obtained data. The findings demonstrate that the Hollywood movies leave a significant impact on Pakistani youth, since they are prominently engrossed to the lifestyle of American culture. The study suggests that it is responsibility of Pakistani people and media authorities to pay serious heed to control such movies, which prove to be serious threat to their own cultural values.

Keywords: cinematic media, cultural imperialism, Pakistani youth.

1. Introduction

Cinematic media is one of the most popular visual rhetoric used in the modern world to persuade people for different purposes. The Hollywood movies, people, especially our youth watches on silver screens, implant their effects on their unsophisticated minds. The knowledge of the inherent inclination of these people to adopt American aesthetics enables the Americans to use cinematic rhetoric, making their movies more appealing in order to play with the psyche of the target audience. The purported glimpses of civilization represented on the silver screen add salt to injury to the feelings of the deprived world of the people of the developing countries such as Pakistan. It is observed that our Youth gets refuge in the world of movies from tormenting realities in their life.

2. Discussion

This study aims to scrutinize the impact of Hollywood cinematic media on Pakistani Youth under the Theory of Cultural Imperialism, propounded by Herbert Schiller in 1973. The Theory

* Corresponding author

E-mail addresses: mohsin18516@gmail.com (M.H Khan)

postulates that the Western media has a strong effect on the Third World countries by imposing on them western cultural standards and hence destroying their own cultures. In the 1970s, this Theory became prominent. According to Roach (Roach, 1997: 47), the Theory produced "a host of supporters including Antonio Psquali (Psquali, 1963), Luis Ramro Beltran (Ramro Beltran, 1976), Fernandez Reyes Matta (Fernandez Reyes Matta , 1977) and Mario Laplun (Laplun, 1973)".

The Theory further provided one of the significant theoretical drives behind the association for a New World Information and Communication Order, encompassing international administrations such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and hence, concerning the stream of information among different countries of the world. At that time, many intellectuals anticipated assemblage the several fluxes of critical research on transnational communication under the caption "media imperialism." Among them a worth mentioning name is British scholar J. Oliver Boyd-Barrett who described media imperialism as "the practice whereby the proprietorship, configuration, dissemination, or content of the media in any country are individually or together focus to considerable peripheral pressures from the media benefits of any other country or countries, without proportional correspondence of effect by the country so affected"(Boyd-Barrett, 1977: 117). However, many critics manipulated that Boyd-Barrett's definition was much too constricted to account for the multiplicity of forms taken by power relations among different cultures in the world.

Taylor (Taylor, 2004) described culture as that multifaceted whole which comprises knowledge, faith, conviction, art, ethical standards, and law, etc., which is assimilated, shared and practiced by man as a member of that society. In other words, culture is learned, transmitted and transferred to the upcoming generations through several ways. One of the most powerful tools spreading cultural values from one set of people to other communities is mass media and this is where cinematic media play their role in cultural transitions. According to Shaibu and Puke (Shaibu, Puke, 2001), "culture is the complete body of knowledge, which includes morality, norms, values, habits and many other capabilities acquired by an individual as a member of a social group. The acquired capabilities refer to all the behavior adjustments of an individual to its social group" (Shaibu, Puke, 2001: 147). Along similar lines, Mkpa states that culture is the totality of people's ways of life (Shaibu, Puke, 2001: 112). The cinematic media influences the minds of the Youth of the developing countries in such a manner that they tend to discard their own beliefs and cultural norms (Aneto et al., 2008). Along similar lines R. Acholonu (Acholonu, 2011) presented the Dependency theory, which claimed that people depend upon media to satisfy a variety of needs such as to upgrade their lifestyle, to get social acceptance and to dominate others around them in different ways. R. Rabaka (Rabaka, 2014) quotes Amilcar Cabral, who outlines Cultural Imperialism as a "situation where foreign culture dominates a local one in such a manner that the natives find their own cultural values inferior to the foreign one" (1976).

Best and Kombol (Best, Kombol, 2009) regard Cultural Imperialism as a progression that brings developing societies into modern systems". He further explains that in this mechanism, a dominant culture exerts pressure and force on other cultures, which are considered to be of less significance even by the members of the native culture.

The personality building of children has been the subject of serious concern for many decades. Media develops the perception of children in many aspects. The early adulthood has more chances of being formed into a precise frame of insight. Hollywood movies have strong implications in the incorporation of their cultural values and standards into the viewers own culture. According to Brent Bozel (Brent Bozel et al, 2006), the movies which prove to be serious threat to the viewers native culture are as, 'wolves in sheep's clothing'. Toni Morrison (1931-2019) once commented, 'Whoever controls the media controls the mind' (1988). The Pakistani Youth is getting away from their religious, cultural and traditional values day by day. Among several other factors, the role of media cannot be ignored.

Pakistan was established as an independent state on the basis of Two Nation Theory proposed by Allama Iqbal (Wynbrandt, 2009). The Theory propounded that the sub-continent consisted of two different leading religious groups, mainly Hindus and Muslims (Louis et al., 2001). Later, the religious ideology became the agenda behind the freedom movement in 1940s ultimately resulting in the creation of India and Pakistan on the map of the world. Tudor (Tudor, 2013) puts forward that the creation of Pakistan on the basis of religion proves that religion is a

bigger entity as compared to culture. The creation of Pakistan on the basis of religion proves that it can be a unifying factor as well (Louis et al., 2001). The newly formed country had cultural and linguistic diversity. Soon after establishment, Pakistan started to face internal and external crisis as one part of Pakistan named as East Pakistan was 1100 miles away from West Pakistan (Talbot, Sing, 2009). Both East and West Pakistan shared the same religious identity but had severe linguistic and cultural differences. In 1971, both parts became independent countries termed as Pakistan and Bangladesh when East Pakistan was deprived of its linguistic rights. This situation leads to the formation of new constitution of Pakistan in 1973. Urdu and English languages both declared as official whereas English language serves as the language of military, judiciary and higher education (Khaliq, Garcia, 2019). Ali (Ali, 1993) puts forward that English language entered in subcontinent through British colonial powers and the English language sustained the status of official language in both India and Pakistan. This whole situation made English language a superior and prestigious language in Pakistan (Mansoor, 2005). With language comes the culture. Language is the most important tool to connect people and to spread culture.

Hollywood movies reflect the culture, norms and values of the relevant country where they are originally produced but when they are imported in countries like Pakistan, where these values are not compatible with the local culture it becomes cultural invasion as well as a serious threat to their own standards of living. The frustrated feelings of Pakistani Youth get ignited by the cinematic rhetoric used through Hollywood films which not only promote American culture but also manipulate it over the deprived communities. People of the developing countries like Pakistan take pleasure in watching the civilized world of the Americans and get fascinated as well as depressed.

This cultural attack which is being challenged by Pakistan is not a new example. The same exercise has been witnessed in numerous European countries such as France. There has been confrontation against the adoption of English words in French language through Hollywood movies. French Culture Minister, Jack Lang prophesied the dangers of the "Coca Colonisation of the minds." The tradition of exclusion French language is deep-rooted, as an official authority, in 1635, The French Academy, started refinement of French language. The French linguists have given task, instead of using English terms, to coin French words for smooth communication. To make their efforts successful, the French government has limited the use of English on French electronic media. In the same manner, in Germany, Spain and Russia, some non-government organizations launched movements to purify their respective national languages from the impact of English words.

Hollywood has been successful in promoting American culture worldwide. Hollywood is a district in Los Angeles, situated in an American state California. It has been producing American films since a very long time. To the people of underdeveloped countries, America seems to be a land that is devoid of any error. Many scholars observed the effects of glamorous projection of American values and culture. According to Maisuwong (Maisuwong, 2012), the audience of Hollywood movies become consumers of American brands, products and various commodities of everyday life. For instance, KFC, Macdonald's, Pizza Hutt, Ritz, SUBWAY and Energy drinks, etc. have become favourite of almost all our Pakistani Youth. Under the impact of the movies they watch, they change their dressing, eating habits and taste, hairstyles in such a manner that our Youth is getting away from their own cultural norms day by day. According to (Weinberg, 2006), there is economic exploitation at international level in Americans' efforts to promote their entertainment products by presenting a glamorous picture through their cinematic media. In an article, How the Global Box Office is Changing Hollywood, Tom Brook (Brook, 2014) compared Hollywood with an octopus, which with its tentacles extends across the globe. On the grounds of the popularity of Hollywood cinematic media, Burrows (Burrows, 2011) acclaimed the rhetorical approach of Hollywood that these moviemakers are not only good at movie-making but more significantly, they are really good at selling them.

This research is going to highlight the problem of cultural imperialism on Pakistani Youth through Hollywood cinematic media due to which they are discarding their own cultural standards day by day. Furthermore, the study will help people understanding behavior issues of the Youth and maladjustments by providing a background on the basis of deviation from their own culture.

2. Materials and methods

Research objectives:

• To explore how watching Hollywood cinema affects cultural values of Pakistani Youth.

• To examine how Pakistani Youth is adopting consciously as well as unconsciously the cultural values of the dominant culture.

• To examine that how Pakistani Youth is attracted to the lifestyle, they watch in Hollywood movies.


• H1. Hollywood cinematic media has strong cultural impact on Pakistani Youth.

• H2. Pakistani Youth is attracted to Hollywood movies.

• H3. Pakistani Youth consciously or unconsciously tries to adopt American cultural standards as they are reflected in Hollywood movies.

• H4. Pakistani Youth takes pride and delight in eating American branded food, adopting Hollywood actors' hairstyles, wearing American branded garments, and living according to their lifestyle.

Theoretical Framework

The Theory of Cultural Imperialism serves the framework of this study. The Theory signifies that the dimensions of the process go far beyond economic exploitations and even military attack. Third world countries carry cultural values of the stronger nations such as America and England, since there is an underline message that America and the Western counties are superior to the Third world countries. By applying this Theory, this study traces effects of Hollywood cinematic media on Pakistani Youth. The questionnaire was designed in consideration with the Cultural Imperialism Theory, presented by Sciller in 1973. Some key constructs of the Theory, which were used in framing of the questions included different cultural values such as attraction of Pakistani students towards dominant culture as is shown in Hollywood movies, their attraction to American food, their attraction to American living style, American architecture and interior decoration and celebration of marriage ceremonies following American trends, etc.

Fig. 1. Theoretical Framework of the study Materials and methods

This study is quantitative in which; the researchers used a survey method by using a questionnaire, which comprised both close-ended and open-ended questions. The purpose of this survey research was to identify the impact of Hollywood movies on Pakistani Youth that how these movies are converting their cultural norms. A quantitative data collection method was used to

explore the problem through numerical data. Data were collected through a survey to get quantifiable information from the members of the population. To collect responses against the set of questions, a questionnaire was formed, which was given to the target population of this study, consisting of 101 male and female students of the University of Management and Technology, Lahore. These students were selected through a random sampling technique. As for as the marital status of these selected students is concerned, few of them were married, some were single and some of them were engaged. The close ended section of the questionnaire carried 22 questions with three options of agreeing to neutral, and the open ended section was elicitation of the selected students to express their opinions to justify their responses. The selected students filled the questionnaire individually and responsively.

The collected data were analyzed through descriptive statistics by using SPSS software. The data for this study was collected in October, 2019. The size of sample population was 101 students studying at University of Management and Technology, Lahore. These students were selected randomly from different departments such as Health Sciences, Mass Communications, Linguistics and Communications, Computer Science, Architecture, Education, Electrical Engineering and Business Studies, etc. All of the selected students filled the questionnaire and replied to the questions asked in the interview process. The following table presents Statistical frequency of the participants.

Data Analysis

The statistical analysis were examined with the help of computer operating Statistical Package Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. The very first step regarding analysis of the responses from the target population was to convert the data numerical form. The second step was to try precise inclination and statistical techniques are minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation descriptive statistics. When nominal data are analyzed the suitable mode of tendency is Mean. The Mean is the most commonly used measurement of central tendency, and it is the arithmetic average of the scores. The formula of the mean is the sum of all scores divided by the total number of scores. Firstly the mean score of the questionnaire is calculated, and then the mean score is accumulated. The data were analyzed by applying descriptive statistics formula from Data Analysis tool to calculate the Mean, standard deviation, and alpha (Confidence interval).

3. Results Table 1. No. of the Participants


No of Respondents Status

N Valid 101 101

Missing 0 0

Frequency Table 1: This table shows that there were 101 males and females University students who had filled the questionnaire.

In this research 42 female students and 59 male students presented their views in filling up of the questionnaire and in the interview process. It is observed that females are less in number than the males in number in watching and supporting Hollywood movies. Females are actually supporting Hollywood movies in greater number. 52 % of students agree upon watching Hollywood movies, 22 % disagree with watching Hollywood movies and 27 % are neutral.

Table 2. Gender Description


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Female 42 41.6 41.6 41.6

Valid Male 59 58.4 58.4 100.0

Total 101 100.0 100.0

Frequency Table 2: This table displays that 41.6 % of the selected students are females and 58.4 % of the selected students are males.

The age level of the sample population ranged between 18-42 years. The following graph presents age group 18-42 of the individuals who gave their views regarding Hollywood movies.

Table 3. Age Level of the Participants

Age level in years Participant's Age

18-22 59

23-27 23

28-32 12

33-37 4

38-42 3

Total 101

Among the respondents, there were 80 single, 10 married and 11 engaged. The following table shows the marital status of the students. It also the percentage shows that 79.2 % of students are single, 9.9 % are married and 10.9 % students are engaged.

Table 4. Marital Status of the Participants

Marital Status

Frequency Percent Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage

Single 80 79.2 79.2 79.2

Valid Married 10 9.9 9.9 89.1

Engaged 11 10.9 10.9 100.0

Total 101 100.0 100.0

Frequency Table 4: This table presents the marital status of the sample population. The following table displays the statistical values based on the obtained data collected from the participants by using the questionnaire.

Table 5. Statistical Description of the obtained data

Agree Disagree Neutral

Watch 72 15 14

Hollywood Cinematic Attraction 69 10 22

Hollywood Actors' Outfits Inspiration 71 22 8

Hair style 68 17 16

Inspiration 73 22 6

Food Items 68 16 17

Food Attraction 73 15 13

Food Items Interest 75 17 9

Food Recipes 70 13 28

Dining Environment 84 7 10

American Life Style Attraction 68 11 22

Adopting American Life style 71 20 10

Learning Moral Values 65 28 15

American Family System Inspiration 77 15 9

American Architecture Inspiration 69 19 12

American Styled Houses 74 14 13

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American Styled Interior 70 15 16

American Furniture Fascination 69 22 10

American Marriage Style 55 30 16

Cutting cake Adoption 78 10 13

Dance Music 67 25 9

American Marriage ceremonial Inspiration 57 28 16

Agree Disagree Neutral

Mean 70.13636364 17.77272727 13.81818182

Standard Error 1.32947839 1.337005471 1.11974866 5

Median 70 16.5 13

Mode 69 15 16

Standard Deviation 6.235806394 6.27111153 5.252086784

Sample Variance 38.88528139 39.32683983 27.58441558

Kurtosis 1.846014987 0.538411368 1.248197763

Skewness 0.4823993865 0.3887525 705 1.02613683 3

Range 29 23 22

Minimum 55 7 6

Maximum 84 30 28

Sum 1543 391 304

Count 22 22 22

(Alpha) Confidence Level (95.0 %) 2.7648017 2.7804551 2.3286448

Graphical Representation of the Data Hollywood

The following figure represents quantitative analysis of the data collected on Hollywood cinematic attraction of the selected students, who get inspired by the Hollywood actors and actresses and adopt their hair style and other features.

Fig. 1. The Quantitative analysis of Hollywood cinematic Attraction

The quantitative description of the data is given below:

72 % of the selected students agreed that they are fond of watching Hollywood movies and they frequently watch these movies, 15 % disagreed upon it, and 14 % students did not give their opinion.

69 % of the selected students agreed that Hollywood movies attract them, 10 % disagreed upon the attraction towards Hollywood movies and 25 % students remained neutral.

71 % of the selected students agreed upon wearing outfits like famous Hollywood actors and actresses wear, 22 % disagree with this and 8 % student stayed neutral.

68 % of the selected students agreed on making their hairstyles like Hollywood film actors and actresses while 17 % disagreed upon that and 16 % were neutral.

73 % of the sample population got inspired by the manners of Hollywood film actors, 22 % have disagreed and 6 % are neutral.

Fig. 2. The Quantitative Analysis: American Food Attraction

68 % of the selected students got interested in the food items and eating style of Hollywood movie actors and actresses while 16 % students disagree about their food stuff and their eating style and 17 % stayed neutral regarding eating style of them.

73 % of the selected students agreed that they are crazy after American food items, 15% are disagreed upon having any attraction towards food items and 13 % students showed no interest and remained neutral.

75 % of students agreed that they like to go to Macdonald's, KFC and Pizza Hutt with their friends for recreation and enjoyment, 17 % of students disagreed upon that and 9 % of them remained neutral.

70 % of students, especially the girls got interested in looking for recipe of American food, 13 % especially male students in this regard disagreed and 28 % of students stayed neutral.

84 % of students like an environment just like American dining and prefer to go such restaurants, which copy American styles, 7 % of students disagreed and 10 % of students showed no interest in having to an environment just like American dining.

68 % of the participants agreed that they are attracted towards the living style of Americans as it is reflected in their Hollywood movies, 11 % of students did not like it, since they find no attraction towards their living style and 22 % students showed no interest in this aspect.

71 % of students showed their craziness for the living style of Americans as they find it in their Hollywood movies, 20% refused to have any inclination towards their culture and life style, and 10 % students remained neutral.

65 % of the sample population agreed upon that Hollywood movies are inculcating the moral values in Pakistani Youth, 28 % students of the students disagreed upon following the moral values projected in Hollywood movies and 15 % students remained neutral.

77 % of the selected agreed that they are impressed by The American family system and style, 15 % were not agreed upon that and 9% students remained neutral upon this.



0 0) S

1 то


fn «О

American Life Style Attraction Adoting American Life style Learning Moral Values American Family System Inspiration

Neutral 22 10 21 9

—•— Disagree 11 20 28 IS

—•— Agree 68 71 65 77

Название оси

• Agree —»—Disagree —»—Neutral

Fig. 3. The quantitative Analysis: Attraction for American Living Style

69 % of the selected students agreed that they are much inspired by American architecture, 19 % of the students disagreed on this point, and 12 % showed could not decide and remained neutral.

74 % of the sample population agreed upon that they like American styled houses, 14 % disagreed upon that and 13 % remained neutral.

70 % of the selected students agreed upon copying American homestead interior, 15 % of students disagreed upon feeling any kind of desirability towards American homestead interior and 16 % students stayed neutral.

69 % of the students agreed upon bringing a modification in their furniture style imitating it from Hollywood movies, 22 % of students disagreed towards this interest and 10 % of students stayed neutral regarding American home enterprises.


M ra








Fig. 4. The Quantitative Analysis: Inspiration for American Architecture and Interior






Fig. 5. The Quantitative analysis: American Marriage Ceremonies, Dance Music and Cake cutting Adoption

55 % of the participants agreed that American marriages are affecting the University students, 30 % of students disagreed regarding the influence of American marriages over University students and 16 % students remained neutral.

78 % of the participants agreed that University students have adopted innumerable American traditions, cultural norms and values such as cutting of cake on different occasions, 10 % students did not agree upon embracing American culture and 13 % students remained neutral.

67 % of the selected students agreed that most of the University students like to listen to American songs and like to dance in functions after getting inspired by Hollywood movies, 25 % of the students disagreed upon adopting American singing and dancing culture and 9 % students remained neutral.

57 % of the selected students like Pakistani marriages to be held like American marriages, especially in case of dress and wedding costumes, 28 % preferred Pakistani marriages traditions upon American and 16 % remained neutral.

4. Conclusion

The findings of the study reflect that the level of emotive immersion of Pakistani Youth with Hollywood films affect different aspects of their psychosocial transformations of perceiving different realities around them. In Pakistan the situation appears to be quite alarming, when these film considerably influence attitudes and moral values of them to a considerable level, since there is promotion of American and Western cultural ideals in Pakistani society. Most of the selected students agreed to the fact that they are attracted to Hollywood films and are inspired by the culture shown in them. They mentioned the names of actors such as Keanu Reeves, Samara Weaving, Emma Watson, Tom Hady and Gal Gadot, etc. The boys try to copy different styles of Tom Cruise, Tom Holland and Keanu Reeves, on the other hand the girls mentioned Angelina Jolie, Julia Roberts and Alicia Vikander, etc. They are inspired by their life style, their manners, their actions, their hair style and the brands of clothing they use.

The students commented that they like to eat food at McDonald's, KFC and Pizza Hutt. Some told to the researchers that it has become a norm that they go to these places with their friends whenever they find opportunity. They further added that they feel proud when they use American products and eat American branded food items. The girl students in order to address a statement in the questionnaire told that they try to learn recipes of American fried chicken and burger to make it at homes. Some of them told that they are more inclined towards using Pakistani food because they believe that it contains rich nutritious values and is tasty. Some students get inspiration of using American branded food, when they find Hollywood movie stars using these brands in movies. Along these lines, John Tomlinson commented that the dominant countries try to make money by spreading different cultural elements in the Third world countries (2001).

In response to a question regarding American lifestyle, the students commented that our rich people are following blindly American life style because it has become a status symbol to wear American branded outfits, use American branded shirts and wear jeans. Some student, who disagreed in adoption of American lifestyle commented that American culture promotes free mixing of boys and girls, wearing unsophisticated attires for girls, dating, etc., which cannot be tolerated by our cultural values. They said that as for as American interior and Architecture are concerned they can be adopted, since there is no objection to adopt modern styled buildings, but a blind following of such manners, which are considered to be a serious moral threat to our values, such things should be prohibited. There are students, who are forgetting their own cultural values in a blind pursuit of being modern like Americans. They also highlighted that parents should take serious action to control their children from watching Hollywood movies, since most of them exhibit violence, sex, drinking alcohol and different crimes.

In response to the questions related with celebration of marriage ceremonies, cake cutting adoption and use of wedding costumes following American style. The students, who agreed commented that such practices have become a mark of superiority. People around them consider them up-to-date, cultured, sophisticated, and advanced, etc. These student like to listen to Hollywood music in their automobiles, since Hollywood movies they watch influence their mind. They mentioned a few Hollywood singers, who are very popular among these students. These are Charlie Puth, Lady Gaga, Selena Gomez, Drake, Katty Perry, Tyga and Justin Biber, etc. on the other hand the students, who disagreed listening to Hollywood songs told that they like Pakistani singers.

It can be concluded that cultural imperialism establishes connections between super powers and developing countries and tries to influence the developing countries by projecting a very attractive self-image on silver screen. It has both positive and negative effects on Pakistani Youth. If Hollywood movies promote good social and moral values among our students such as promotion of equal rights, liberalism, and values of morality then there is no threat to our culture, since there will be promotion of a homogeneous universal culture, which is demand of the hour. On the other hand if Hollywood movie makers have an agenda in their minds that they have to expand their economic market and deprive the viewers of their own cultural values, then it should be noticed by PEMRA (Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority). PEMRA should take a serious action against such Hollywood movies, which can prove to be a serious threat to cultural and moral values

of Pakistani Youth. Furthermore, Pakistani society, itself should feel its responsibility that its Youth should not follow the foreign values blindly in order to be considered modern.


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Name (optional):_. Gender_. Age:_. Marital Status_

The Questionnaire

1. Do you see Hollywood movies recurrently? (Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

2. Do you feel that Hollywood movies attract you? (Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

3. Do you want to wear same outfits as the Hollywood movie stars wear? (Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

4. Do you like to have your hairstyle adoption from Hollywood stars? (Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

5. Do you get inspired by the manners of movie stars after watching Hollywood movies? (Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

6. Are you inclined towards liking American food stuff as you watch it in Hollywood movies? (Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

7. Do you feel craziness about American branded food items? (Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

8. Do you like to enjoy with your friends by going to American food brands such as Macdonald's, KFC and Pizza Hutt, and Subway?

(Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

9. Do you like to get recipe of American foods, which may help you to prepare such food at home?

(Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

10. Do you like American dinning environment after being inspired by their movies? (Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

11. Are you attracted towards American lifestyle? (Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

12. Are you crazy for adopting American lifestyle? (Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

13. Are you inspired by the moral values of American as are shown in their films? Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

14. Do you like American family system? (Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

15. Are you impressed by American architecture? (Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

16. Do you like to decorate your home interior by imitating American home interior, reflected in their movies?

(Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

17. Do you like American style furniture? (Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

18. Do you think that American marriages style is affecting our generation in such a manner that they plan to organize their marriage ceremonies by imitating them.

(Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

19. Do you celebrate your happy occasions on grounds of American culture? (Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

20. Do you adopt cake cutting culture under inspiration of American culture? (Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

21. Do you like to enjoy listening to Hollywood songs? (Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

22. Do you like to design your wedding dresses to be designed copying American wedding costumes and outfits?

(Agree. Disagree. Neutral). Comment:

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