Научная статья на тему 'Criteria of biological security of a growing organism and mature athletes'

Criteria of biological security of a growing organism and mature athletes Текст научной статьи по специальности «Фундаментальная медицина»

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Ключевые слова
biological security / heart activity / athletes / growing organism / the range of effective increase

Аннотация научной статьи по фундаментальной медицине, автор научной работы — Yurij S. Vanyushin, Nikolay A. Fedorov, Guliya K. Khuzina, Аhmet G. Yarullin

Motor activity is one of the conditions for biological security of organism functional systems study. The limiting element in this case is heart activity. Materials. The criteria determination, according to which we can judge biological security of a growing organism and mature athletes. 9-10 year-old boys, 8-16 year-old schoolchildren and adults athletes were examined. The range of these indices effective increase was revealed as the difference in physical load conditions and the state of rest. Research methods. Information sources analysis and summarizing, the method of tetrapolar chest rheography according to Kubicek (1970) in modification of Yu.S. Vanyushin (2016), heart rate, maximum oxygen consumption (MOC), impact blood volume (IBV) determination, method of mathematical statistics. Conclusion. We revealed that the criteria of biological security of a growing organism and mature athletes include heart rate (HR), IBV, maximum oxygen consumption (MOC). At the same time, heartbeat and cardiac output are determined during maximum power loads and impact ejection is determined during the load, when chronotropic reaction is no more than 150 beats/min.It is reasonable to use heart activity indices for control in educational-training process of children and adults athletes.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Criteria of biological security of a growing organism and mature athletes»

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DOI: 10.14526/2070-4798-2019-14-2-97-102

Criteria of biological security of a growing organism and mature

athletes

Yurij S. Vanyushin*, Nikolay A. Fedorov, Guliya K. Khuzina, Ahmet G. Yarullin

Kazan State Agrarian University Kazan, Russia ORCID: 0000-0003-2667-6124, kaf.fv.kgau@mail.ru*

ORCID: 0000-0002-6515-0451, nik-f-84@mail.ru ORCID: 0000-0003-1672-1980, kaf.fv.kgau@mail.ru ORCID: 0000-0002-1232-4550, nik-f-84@mail.ru

Abstract: Motor activity is one of the conditions for biological security of organism functional systems study. The limiting element in this case is heart activity. Materials. The criteria determination, according to which we can judge biological security of a growing organism and mature athletes. 9-10 year-old boys, 8-16 year-old schoolchildren and adults athletes were examined. The range of these indices effective increase was revealed as the difference in physical load conditions and the state of rest. Research methods. Information sources analysis and summarizing, the method of tetrapolar chest rheography according to Kubicek (1970) in modification of Yu.S. Vanyushin (2016), heart rate, maximum oxygen consumption (MOC), impact blood volume (IBV) determination, method of mathematical statistics. Conclusion. We revealed that the criteria of biological security of a growing organism and mature athletes include heart rate (HR), IBV, maximum oxygen consumption (MOC). At the same time, heartbeat and cardiac output are determined during maximum power loads and impact ejection is determined during the load, when chronotropic reaction is no more than 150 beats/min.It is reasonable to use heart activity indices for control in educational-training process of children and adults athletes. Keywords: biological security, heart activity, athletes, growing organism, the range of effective increase.

For citation: Yurij S. Vanyushin, Nikolay A. Fedorov, Guliya K. Khuzina, Аhmet G. Yarullin. Criteria of biological security of a growing organism and mature athletes. The Russian Journal of Physical Education and Sport. 2019; 14(2): 82-86. DOI: 10.14526/2070-4798-2019-14-2-97-102

Introduction

In the 70-s of the 20th century [4] there was the conception about biological security as one of the postnatal ontogenesis factors. It was based on the results, which proved that functional systems security increased in terms of organism maturation. It was proved by the results of the research works concerning the system of blood clotting, immunity, functional brain organization development.

Biological security is considered as the definite level of physiological process regulation and physiological process of elements ratio, as a result of which the process itself is provided with its reserve capacities, with the elements interchangeability, with the returning to the initial state, with lability and plasticity, which provides quick adaptation and transformation. Biological security means reliability and normal functioning provision in different conditions. Taking this into consideration we come to the conclusion that motor activity is one

of the conditions for biological security of functional organism systems study [3]. And the system, which limits adaptive reactions development during different effects, is cardiovascular system and first of all heart. The activity of it is the main and all mentioned features are demonstrated in ontogenesis of this organ functioning [2, 5].

The aim of the research was to define the criteria, which can help to judge biological security of the growing organism and mature athletes.

Materials and methods

We examined 9-10 year-old boys, who go in for cross-country skiing, (24 people) and 30 people, who don't go in for sports. During two years we registered their ECG in Nehb lead. Their ECG helped to define heart rate. 8-16 year-old schoolchildren (232 people) fulfilled increasing power loads at cycle ergometer and their impact stroke volume and cardiac output were determined by means of

tetrapolar chest rheography method according to Kubicek (1970), in modification of Yu.S. Vanyushin (2016). Among 108 athletes, who were distributed according to the types of cardiorespiratory system adaptation [1], we revealed the range of effective impact ejection increase. It was defined by the difference between the impact ejection in terms of 200 W load and heart activity in the initial state. Physical load was the work at cycle ergometer of the increasing power from 50 to 200 W. The duration of each step was 4 minutes.

Results and Discussion

Age related development of biological security is a purposeful process. It is revealed at the level of the developing organism. The received numerical values of heart rate in terms of relative rest and during maximum power load among 9-10 year-old skiers in dynamics of two years of observations can be used while judging the security of cardiovascular system (table 1). For this purpose we used the range of effective heart rate increase. It was determined as the difference between heart rate increase during the load till maximum values at cycle ergometer and at rest. In the group of young skiers this index increased each year and it characterizes security increase of heart propulsive function among young athletes and is seen in great amount of its functional abilities stability. Among the boys, who don't go in for sports, the range of effective heart rate increase stayed unchanged and it proves constancy of heart adaptive functions at this age. It demonstrates reserve capacities of heart adaptive functions increase among boys, who go in for sports. It can be considered as security of cardiovascular system regulation increase at this age.

Another index of biological security process of a growing organism is minute blood volume. It characterizes an adequate tissues provision with oxygen. In order to judge heart functional abilities widening among 8-16 year-old schoolchildren, we defined cardiac output increase during 1.5 W/kg load, corresponded with the initial state (table 2). As the research results showed this index increased with ages regardless of gender differences and it shows age-related biological security increase of cardiovascular system. The loads of lower power

0.5 and 1.0 W/kg didn't reveal the same regularity. In order to come to the conclusion concerning biological security of physiological systems of an organism, sufficiently intensive load is necessary. It causes the definite shifts in homeostasis. It means that the mechanism of biological security is demonstrated in extreme situations.

Another index of heart activity, which, in our opinion, helps to define the security of cardiovascular system, is impact ejection. During increasing power load heart reacts with IBV increase and then this reaction changes for high heart rate indices [8, 10]. Our research works [2,6] showed that impact ejection increases till the definite heart rate. It means that in order to make a supposition about biological system security the load shouldn't be led to individual limit. Taking this into consideration we offered the work of incrementally increasing power till 200W in the groups of athletes, distributed according to the types of cardiovascular system adaptation. At the same time, we revealed the range of an effective impact ejection increase. It was determined by the difference between an impact ejection during 200W load and heart activity in the initial state (table 3).

The greatest values we received in an inotropic group. It shows high retraction ability of a myocardium owing to cardiac stroke volume. So the productivity of heart increases, as maximum oxygen consumption is restricted by the capacities of a cardiac system to provide muscles with oxygen [7] and the range of its functional capacities broadens. It means that the volume of an impact ejection can be used as the criterion of cardiovascular system biological security during the loads of the increasing power. At the same time maximum IBV values are received during the loads, when heart chronotropic reaction in no more than 150 beats/min.

Conclusion

Thus, we revealed that the criteria of biological security of a growing organism and mature athletes include heart rate (HR), impact and cardiac blood ejection. They are determined according to the range of these indices effective increase. At the same time, heart beat and cardiac output are determined during maximum power loads. Impact ejection is determined during the load, when chronotropic

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reaction is no more than 150 beats/min.

Table 1 - HR among 9-12 year-old boys, who go in for sports and those, who don't go in for sports at rest and during maximum load

Conditions Skiers Not going in for sports

9-10 years-old 10-11 years-old 11-12 years-old 9-10 years-old 10-11 years-old 11-12 years-old

At rest 74,16±1,65 67,99±1,11 65,03±1,38 76,53±1,67 75,02*2,00 74,24*1,73

Maximum load 190,18±1,67 188,78*1,40 187,77*1,18 191,78*1,78 189,79*1,53 190,13*1,52

Table 2 - The range of effective IBV increase in groups of 8-16 year-old schoolchildren during 1,5 W/kg load

Age Gender IBV

Before the load 1,5 W/kg load Dynamics of increase

8years-old M 38,76±0,57 44,11*8,95 5,35

F 34,63±1,72 26,68±3,03 7,77

9years-old M 39,59*1,78 36,84±2,6I 2,75

F 35,49±0,95 38,68±8,30 3,19

10years-old M 46,I8±4,00 41,30*2,34 4,88

F 41,47*2,14 49,04±6,28 7,93

11years-old M 48,58*2,14 55,23*2,59 6,65

F 46,29±2,8I 52,79±5,6I 6,50

12years-old M 43,49±2,63 64,95±7,50 21,46

F 50,78*3,35 54,28±I6,78 3,50

13years-old M 48,16±3,37 44,78*4,78 3,38

F 51,41±2,6I 56,82±3,98 5,41

14years-old M 57,11*2,70 68,09±4,32 10,98

F 54,89±2,46 59,12*3,92 4,23

15years-old M 57,26±4,6I 72,14*9,91 14,88

F 64,26±3,56 71,22*3,17 6,96

i6years-old M 68,32±2,77 82,27*4,50 13,95

F 55,59*2,27 54,49±11,61 1,10

Table 3 - The range of effective IBV (ml) increase in groups of athletes, distributed according to the types of adaptation during the increasing power load

Type of adaptation Load

50 W 100 W 150 W 200 W

Inotropic 32,37 51,95 62,17 67,72

Chronotropic 21,27 30,35 31,79 27,67

Respiratory 25,59 35,77 38,06 38,30

Chronotropic -respiratory (HR-MVB) 22,03 36,33 39,33 32,83

Inotropic -

respiratory (IBV 17,09 35,08 46,60 56,16

-MVB)

REFERENCES

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Submitted: 01.04.2019 Author's information:

Yurij S. Vanyushin - Doctor of Pedagogics, Professor, Kazan State Agrarian University, 420133, Russia, Kazan, Yamasheva str., House 98 kv. 93, e-mail: kaffv.kgau@maiLru

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Nikolay A. Fedorov - Candidate of Biological Sciences, Kazan State Agrarian University, 420133, Russia, Kazan, Yamasheva str., House 98 kv. 93, e-mail: nik-f-84@mail.ru

Gulina K. Khuzina - Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Kazan State Agrarian University, 420133, Russia, Kazan, Yamasheva str., House 98 kv. 93, e-mail: kafjv.kgau@maiLru

Ahmet G. Yarullin - Senior Lecturer, Kazan State Agrarian University, 420133, Russia, Kazan, Yamasheva str., House 98 kv. 93, e-mail: nik-f-84@mail.ru

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