Научная статья на тему 'Conceptual and value -based archetypes of “having ” and “being” in self-regulation of advertising'

Conceptual and value -based archetypes of “having ” and “being” in self-regulation of advertising Текст научной статьи по специальности «СМИ (медиа) и массовые коммуникации»

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Ключевые слова
advertising / values / archetypes / self-regulation of advertising / реклама / цінності / архетипи / саморегулювання в реклам- ній сфері

Аннотация научной статьи по СМИ (медиа) и массовым коммуникациям, автор научной работы — Serdechna Liudmyla Vasylіvna

The publication is devoted to actual problems of theory and practice of self-regulation in the process of formation and implementation of state policy in the field of advertising, which, as part of the information space and mass culture in many countries, influences the formation of value orientations of society. The problem of conceptual bases of management and regulation of the advertising sphere, the correlation of state regulation and self-regulation continues to be relevant for many countries, including European countries. The article deals with the social aspects of self-regulation in the context of the value-semantic archetypes of “having” and “being” from the point of view of the social concept of E. Fromm. Are generalized the particular methods and forms of effective selfregulation in European states, the experience of “having” and “being”, which affect both the functioning and development of self-regulation, and the level of corporate social responsibility of the advertising business, is substantiated. It is shown that the achievement of harmonization of relations between the advertising business, society and the state requires the transformation of the priorities of advertising self-government from the protection of corporate interests to cooperation with society. Some methods and forms of effective self-regulation in European states are generalized, the experience of which can become reference points for both the European advertising community and the global advertising industry. The author substantiates the conclusion that creative possession, when the subjects of advertising self-government have an active motivation of “being”, which supplements and does not exclude the corporate interests of “having”, influences the formation of effective self-regulation in the sphere of advertising.

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ЦІННІСНО-СМИСЛОВІ АРХЕТИПИ “ВОЛОДІННЯ” ТА “БУТТЯ” В РЕКЛАМНОМУ САМОРЕГУЛЮВАННІ

Розглянуто актуальні проблеми теорії і практики саморегулювання в процесі формування та реалізації державної політики у сфері реклами. При цьому реклама розглядається як складова інформаційного простору і масової культури, що впливає на формування ціннісних орієнтацій суспільства в багатьох країнах. Рекламна діяльність в умовах сучасного світу є однією з причин загострення соціальних суперечностей, що обертається проблемами для самої рекламної індустрії у вигляді посилення регулювання. Проблема концептуальних основ управління і регулювання рекламної сфери, співвідношення державного регулювання і саморегулювання продовжує залишатися актуальною для багатьох країн. У статті розглянуті соціальні аспекти саморегулювання в контексті ціннісно-смислових архетипів “володіння” і “буття” з позиції соціальної концепції Е. Фромма. Обґрунтовано необхідність вироблення парадигми регулювання реклами на основі ціннісних установок “володіння” і “буття”, які впливають як на функціонування і розвиток саморегулювання, так і на рівень корпоративної соціальної відповідальності рекламного бізнесу. Показано, що досягнення гармонізації відносин рекламного бізнесу, суспільства і держави вимагає трансформації пріоритетів рекламного самоврядування щодо захисту корпоративних інтересів до співпраці з суспільством. Узагальнено окремі методи і форми ефективного саморегулювання в європейських державах, досвід яких може стати орієнтирами як для європейського рекламного співтовариства, так і для світової рекламної індустрії. Обґрунтовано, що творче володіння, коли суб'єкти рекламного самоврядування мають діючу мотивацію “буття”, яка доповнює, а не виключає корпоративні інтереси “володіння”, впливає на формування ефективного саморегулювання у сфері реклами.

Текст научной работы на тему «Conceptual and value -based archetypes of “having ” and “being” in self-regulation of advertising»

UDC: 351.82:659.1]-027.21/.22

Serdechna Liudmyla Vasylivna,

Candidate of sciences in public administration, doctoral candidate, National Academy for Public Administration under the President of Ukraine, 03057, Kyiv, Str. Antona Tsedika, 20, tel.: +38 (095) 551 78 85, e-mail: lvserdechna@gmail.com

ORCID: 0000-0002-4311-3596

Сердечна Людмила BacuMieHa,

кандидат наук з державного управлтня, докторант, Нацюнальна aкaдемiя державного управлтня при Президентовi Украти, 03057, м. Кшв, вул. Антона Це-дка, 20, тел.: +38 (095) 551 78 85, e-mail: lvserdechna@gmail.com

ORCID: 0000-0002-4311-3596

Сердечная Людмила Васильевна,

кандидат наук по государственному управлению, докторант, Национальная академия государственного управления при Президенте Украины, 03057, г. Киев, ул. Антона Цедика, 20, тел.: +38 (095)5517885, e-mail: lvserdechna@gmail.com

ORCID: 0000-0002-4311-3596 DOI https://doi.org/10.31618/vadnd.v1i14.119

conceptual and value-based archetypes

of "having" and "being"

in self-regulation of advertising

Abstract. The publication is devoted to actual problems of theory and practice of self-regulation in the process of formation and implementation of state policy in the field of advertising, which, as part of the information space and mass culture in many countries, influences the formation of value orientations of society. The problem of conceptual bases of management and regulation of the advertising sphere, the correlation of state regulation and self-regulation continues to be relevant for many countries, including European countries. The article deals with the social aspects of self-regulation in the context of the value-semantic archetypes of "having" and "being" from the point of view of the social concept of E. Fromm. Are generalized the particular methods and forms of effective self-regulation in European states, the experience of "having" and "being", which affect both the functioning and development of self-regulation, and the level of

corporate social responsibility of the advertising business, is substantiated. It is shown that the achievement of harmonization of relations between the advertising business, society and the state requires the transformation of the priorities of advertising self-government from the protection of corporate interests to cooperation with society. Some methods and forms of effective self-regulation in European states are generalized, the experience of which can become reference points for both the European advertising community and the global advertising industry. The author substantiates the conclusion that creative possession, when the subjects of advertising self-government have an active motivation of "being", which supplements and does not exclude the corporate interests of "having", influences the formation of effective self-regulation in the sphere of advertising.

Keywords: advertising, values, archetypes, self-regulation of advertising.

Ц1НН1СНО-СМИСЛОВ1 АРХЕТИПИ "ВОЛОД1ННЯ" ТА "БУТТЯ" В РЕКЛАМНОМУ САМОРЕГУЛЮВАНН1

Анотащя. Розглянуто актуальш проблеми теорп i практики саморегу-лювання в процес формування та реалiзащ! державно! пол^ики у сферi реклами. При цьому реклама розглядаеться як складова шформацшного простору i масово! культури, що впливае на формування щншсних ор^ ентацш сусшльства в багатьох кра!нах. Рекламна дiяльнiсть в умовах су-часного св^у е одшею з причин загострення сощальних суперечностей, що обертаеться проблемами для само! рекламно! шдустри у виглядi посилення регулювання. Проблема концептуальних основ управлшня i регулювання рекламно! сфери, стввщношення державного регулювання i саморегу-лювання продовжуе залишатися актуальною для багатьох кра!н. У статтi розглянуп соцiальнi аспекти саморегулювання в контекст щншсно-смис-лових архетипiв "володшня" i "буття" з позицГ! соцiально! концепцп Е. Фромма. Обгрунтовано необхiднiсть вироблення парадигми регулювання реклами на основi щншсних установок "володшня" i "буття", якi впли-вають як на функщонування i розвиток саморегулювання, так i на рiвень корпоративно! сощально! вiдповiдальностi рекламного бiзнесу. Показано, що досягнення гармошзаци вiдносин рекламного бiзнесу, суспiльства i дер-жави вимагае трансформацп прiоритетiв рекламного самоврядування щодо захисту корпоративних iнтересiв до сшвпращ з суспiльством. Узагальнено окремi методи i форми ефективного саморегулювання в европейських державах, досввд яких може стати орiентирами як для европейського рекламного сшвтовариства, так i для свiтово! рекламно! шдустрп. Обгрунтовано, що творче володшня, коли суб'екти рекламного самоврядування мають д^ ючу мотиващю "буття", яка доповнюе, а не виключае корпоративш штере-си "володiння", впливае на формування ефективного саморегулювання у сферi реклами.

K^40Bi слова: реклама, цшносл, архетипи, саморегулювання в реклам-нш сферi.

ЦЕННОСТНО-СМЫСЛОВЫЕ АРХЕТИПЫ "ОБЛАДАНИЕ" И "БЫТИЕ" В РЕКЛАМНОМ САМОРЕГУЛИРОВАНИИ

Аннотация. Рассмотрены актуальные проблемы теории и практики саморегулирования в процессе формирования и реализации государственной политики в сфере рекламы. При этом, реклама рассматривалась как часть информационного пространства и массовой культуры во многих странах, оказывая влияние на формирование ценностных ориентаций общества. Рекламная деятельность в условиях современного мира является одной из причин обострения социальных противоречий, что оборачивается проблемами для самой рекламной индустрии в виде ужесточения регулирования. Проблема концептуальных основ управления и регулирования рекламной сферы, соотношения государственного регулирования и саморегулирования продолжает оставаться актуальной для многих стран. В статье рассмотрены социальные аспекты саморегулирования в контексте ценностно-смысловых архетипов "обладания" и "бытия" с позиции социальной концепции Э. Фромма. Обоснована необходимость выработки парадигмы регулирования рекламы на основе ценностных установок "обладания" и "бытия", которые оказывают влияние как на функционирование и развитие саморегулирования, так и на уровень корпоративной социальной ответственности рекламного бизнеса. Показано, что достижение гармонизации отношений рекламного бизнеса, общества и государства требует трансформации приоритетов рекламного самоуправления по защите корпоративных интересов к сотрудничеству с обществом. Обобщены отдельные методы и формы эффективного саморегулирования в европейских государствах, опыт которых может стать ориентирами и для европейского рекламного сообщества, и для мировой рекламной индустрии. Обоснован вывод, что созидательное обладание, когда субъекты рекламного самоуправления имеют действующую мотивацию "бытия", которая дополняет, а не исключает корпоративные интересы "обладания", влияет на формирование эффективного саморегулирования в сфере рекламы.

Ключевые слова: реклама, ценности, архетипы, саморегулирование в рекламной сфере.

Target setting. The problem of improving and maintaining the system of social values is relevant for the sphere of advertising, which today is a powerful means of shaping the social values. Regulation of such a sphere is a matter that without exaggeration determines the state of society.

A supermarket society or a society of free citizens, who have individual

freedom, the will of which does not depend on things and brands? The questions stated by E. Fromm in the article "To be or to have?" are relevant for the advertising sphere. This is not so much in the context of expanding the list of restrictions on advertising activities or tightening requirements for content, but rather in developing a regulatory paradigm that can balance the

interests of business and society. This is not about expanding and improving external control, but about changing the role of self-regulation. Transformation of the priorities of advertising self-government from the protection of corporate interests to cooperation with society, as well as the interaction of self-regulation with legislative mechanisms can effectively promote the formation of harmonious relations between advertisers, society and the state.

The purpose of the article is to study the social aspects of self-regulation in the advertising field and the social responsibility of advertising activities in the context of the value-based semantic archetypes of "possession" and "being".

Analysis of recent research and publications. Numerous scientific researches and publications are devoted to the issues of advertising research. Modern advertising is studied by sociologists and managers, psychologists and philologists, cultural specialists and linguists, its influence on man has become the subject of study even in medicine.

Among research in the field of advertising, a significant proportion of publications devoted to problems and aspects of advertising as a form of mass communication. In particular, the questions of the theory and real-life experience of advertising communication are reflected in the works of Tim Ambler, John Burnett, Vernon Fryburger, Philip Kotler, Jean-Jacques Lambin, Sandra Moriarty, David Ogilvy, Kim Rotzoll, Charles Sandage, Jacques Seguela, Jack Trouts, William Wells, in the scientific research of Ukrainian scientists Heo-rhii Pocheptsov, Yevhenii Romat, and others. As a theoretical basis of this

research, scientific works were used, in which issues of social responsibility of advertising are raised, in particular, Jean Baudrillard, Erich Fromm, Gilles Lipovetsky.

The statement of basic materials. The problem of the modern materialistic society, raised by Erich Fromm in the work "To have or to be?" [1], in fact, is the articulation of the problem of conceptual bases of management and regulation of the advertising sphere. Advertising, while being a part of the information space and mass culture, influences the formation of social values. At the same time, the main criterion for measuring the effectiveness of advertising for the subjects of the advertising market is, in the final analysis, profit, achieved through increased sales. To achieve this goal, advertising seeks not only to meet the needs and desires of consumers, but to a large extent to form them. Advertising activity makes its "contribution" to the aggravation of social contradictions, which turns into problems for the advertising industry itself in the form of tightening regulation, reducing consumer confidence. At the same time, the achievement of a balanced relationship with society and consumer confidence is in the long-term interests of all subjects of the advertising market.

To have and to be, possession and being, are two basic ways or modes of human existence. According to the theoretical conclusions of Erich Fromm, the predominance of one of them determines the differences in the individual characteristics of people and types of social character. In a somewhat simplistic way, these two ways of human existence can be characterized by two

fundamental variants of the direction of personality: selfishness and altruism. Moreover, according to Fromm, consumption is one of their forms of possession, which in modern conditions of "overproduction" becomes the main form of possession [1, p.242].

Further in this paper, the use of the term "being" provides for such a way of existence of a person when he does not crave to have anything, but uses his abilities productively. It is such a way inherent in the understanding that not everything that contributes to the growth of certain system (corporation, industry) serves the human good. While possession is "individual egoistic aspirations", when the meaning of life consists in pursuing the satisfaction of one's desires, and the attitude toward the world is expressed in the desire to make it an object of possession and possession. In this mode there is a desire for profit, an exaggeration of the importance of competition and the role of market mechanisms. It is the desire for possession, according to Fromm, the main feature of the modern "society of acquirers" [1, p. 284].

In this study, we will try to answer the question of the correlation of social values in the sphere of advertising - an integral part of the social and economic life of society, and also to understand whether self-management can hamper the expansion of advertising, overcome negative phenomena and contribute to positive changes. Social values affect the formation of goals of self-government and self-regulation, determines the direction of their development. In particular, values (archetypes) of "possession" and "being" influence not only the functioning and development of

self-government and self-regulation, but largely the level of corporate social responsibility of the advertising business.

The problem of conceptual bases of management and regulation of the advertising sphere, the correlation of state regulation and self-regulation continues to be relevant for many countries. Today, it is acute even in conditions of developed market relations, adequate legislation, civil society and the development of decentralization, as well as organized self-regulation. There are many examples to support this thesis.

For example, in Germany, where the law on advertising was passed in 1886, self-regulation of advertising took shape by 1956, and since 1973 a code of professional ethics has been in effect, advertising still creates problems in society from time to time. So in April 2016 Der Spiegel reported that German Minister of Justice proposed to ban advertising in which women and men are portrayed as sexual objects. The Minister proposes to eliminate such advertising and introduce appropriate amendments to the law against unfair competition [2].

In European countries today act as national codes, and the International Code of Advertising Activities. It was adopted by the International Chamber of Commerce in 1937 and today is the basis for self-regulation of the advertising market in most EU member countries. At the same time, negative phenomena related to advertising remain a problem for society. So the World Health Organization (WHO) in a special study on obesity in Europe singled out advertising among its causes. It is about advertising harmful products for

health, promoting unhealthy lifestyles, stimulating inefficient demand and consumption of food products. WHO also recognized the significant role of advertising food products aimed at children in the emergence and development of this problem among children [3, p. 132-164].

Advertising today has become an integral part of the space of a modern European city, and it filled not only the urban landscape, but all the segments of the information space available. It is an integral part of social and political life, mass culture, education.

On the influence of advertising on education in his time, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry noted: "Pedagogy was added to conventional pedagogy, which operates indisputably, and surprisingly effectively, and this is advertising. The industry, subject to the laws of profit, tries to produce people for chewing gum with the help of appropriate education, and not chewing gum for people" [4, p. 140].

Erich Fromm in his work "To have or to be?" gives a very tough assessment of the social role of advertising and its impact on society. Advertising with its purely suggestive methods, in his opinion, "persecutes a person everywhere, without giving him a respite either day or night, immersing him in an atmosphere of half-loss and loss of a sense of reality". He is convinced that "it is necessary to ban any methods of" brainwashing "in commercial advertising and political propaganda" [1, p. 413].

Jean Baudrillard , investigating the crisis phenomena in the culture of the twentieth century, noted that in the consumer society the task of advertis-

ing is reduced to the interpretation of desires. The desire materializes in things, and things personify desire and materialize certain functions of the social order. Advertising creates a world in which social problems are decided not by people, but by things: "Any tension, any individual or collective conflict can be solved with the help of some thing" [5, p. 105].

In the study of Gilles Lipovecki notes that the postmodern state of European culture was the result of processes encouraged, including mass consumption and the media [6, p. 44]. He calls the modern era "the epoch of mass consumption" [6, p. 17].

Not only scientists, but also experts in the advertising industry, too, adequately assess its role and influence on society. Vyacheslav Chernyahovskij, the head of the Association of Communication Agencies of Russia, expressed the opinion that "the advertising market is a kind of branch of power that manages entire groups of people. Today it will be appropriate to say that representatives of marketing and advertising specialties are the fifth power which, expanding the scale of its influence, already controls the whole mankind" [7].

Several in another context, but also confirmed the real possibilities of the influence of advertising on the society French political communications specialist Jacques Séguéla: "Films, serials, entertainment programs are all a fake life, a fiction. But advertising is a reality, even when it is made with a big share of imagination" [8, p. 6].

Marketing theorists define the goal of advertising and communications as a whole to achieve commercial goals. That is, profits. A well-known Euro-

pean marketer, Professor Jean-Jacques Lambin remarked that "the logic of marketing lies at the heart of effective advertising", which consists in managing consumer demand using all modern technical means. This is the logic of a market economy [9, p. 511].

Tim Ambler, a leading researcher at the London School of Business, author of "Practical Marketing. Brand equity, marketing wars, positioning, the paradoxes of Zen Buddhism", with pure English humor, presents in his work "the science of surviving in the market". In war, as in war, where not only "guerrilla marketing", but advertising also becomes a "weapon" for the accumulation of "branded capital". However, according to Tim Ambler, in the confrontation between the advertising industry and society, "the truth is that each side is in its own right". And although the interest is in the marketer and the consumer, but "both sides will be satisfied only if they strive to fulfill each other's wishes" [10, p. 39].

In such conditions, in addition to the development of legislation and external control, efficient self-management and self-regulation can help solve the problem. It is self-regulation that can become the answer to the question of "to have or to be", or rather, to put it in another way "to have and to be". Erich Fromm in his work introduces the concept of "existential possession", defined as rationally conditioned desire for self-preservation and not contradicting the nature of "being" existence. One of the directions of this principle creative possession can be the basis of the value orientation of self-regulation. And even though in general business activity is less typical of the predominance of the

mode of "being", nevertheless, the motivation for self-regulation may be quite necessary.

The real-life experience of self-regulation shows that it is able to ensure the existence of harmonious relations between advertisers, society and the state quickly, flexibly and without extra costs.

"The principles of self-regulation are always the same", declares the main international document on self-regulation in Europe "EASA Guide to Self-Regulation" (EASA — European Alliance for Standards in Advertising). "Advertising should be legal, decent, honest and truthful, made with a sense of civic responsibility to the consumer and society and with the appropriate respect for fair competition rules. This is achieved through the rules and principles of the best advertising practices, which the advertising industry "binds" itself. The rules are applied by self-regulatory organizations created for this purpose and founded by the advertising industry itself. The goal is to ensure high standards in advertising, consumer confidence and confidence for the benefit of all who are interested in it" [11].

However, again, as practice shows and the examples given above, the adoption in the advertising communities of the declared norms and rules does not yet guarantee their total observance. The industry that claims the right to regulate itself, still faces the question "to have" or "to be".

Some experts and advertising researchers believe that self-regulation is "a reaction of the industry to economic downturns, criticism from the public [...]. Although the altruistic motive for

consumer protection is undoubtedly present to some extent, the main motive force for self-regulation is, apparently, the foreseeable concern for personal gain" [12, p. 564].

As with society as a whole, there are no unambiguous recommendations and solutions today, how to save it from problems and help it prosper. So with respect to the advertising industry, today there is no "formula of happiness", which will bring absolute harmony in its relations with society. However, in the experience accumulated over several decades, there are already examples that can become reference points both for the European advertising community and for the global advertising industry.

The experience of regulating advertising content in France deserves attention. The most important organ of the French system of self-regulation in advertising is the Autorité de régulation professionnelle de la publicité (ARPP), which is an independent organization and covers three-quarters of the country's advertisers. It should be noted that the system of self-regulation in France is one of the oldest in Europe, it was founded in 1935, and today it is one of the most effective. The ARPP's activities are based on common ethical norms, as well as recommendations developed for individual goods and industries, on the basis of which preliminary examination is carried out. It is the procedure of preliminary examination that largely determines the effectiveness of self-regulation. Advertising materials are advertised by volunteers, ARPP carries out testing of advertising before its placement. It should be noted that a significant part of advertising messages

are rejected by experts, including for ethical reasons. This order became possible, because the rules established by ARPP are shared by all members of the advertising market [13].

The British experience is interesting and unique in that in the self-regulation, which is quite effective in the UK, the government body — the British regulator in the communications sphere — The Office of Communications (Ofcom) plays an active role. Ofcom together with the national self-regulatory body for standards in advertising The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) represents a single effective regulator. In the British model, advertising is regulated by codes of practice designed to protect consumers and create equal conditions for advertisers. Today's head of the ASA Council describes his work as follows: "Our goals remain simple: that marketers advertise responsibly, and consumers have the information they need" [14].

Responsibility of experts of the advertising industry is formed not only by ethical codes. Therefore, an important condition for raising its level is improving the education of advertisers. An analysis of the current situation shows that in the process of training specialists in the advertising industry, it is necessary to pay attention to the formation of their respective values and social responsibility. As noted by the Russian theorist and advertising expert Alek-sandr Rep'ev: "So what should remain after a few years in the head of a certified advertiser? Clearly, this should be the most fundamental principles, patterns and ethical norms" [15].

The reasoning about the "driving forces" of improving self-regulation in

modern advertising is to be ended with a quotation of Jacques Seguela about something that does not directly relate to the problem under investigation, but reflects some general trends that are typical for the discussed issue. Speaking about the features of political advertising in the late twentieth century, and its social perception, he particularly notes: "Along with the fact that people of politics are gradually becoming more and more different from others, in some countries there are politicians who are more pure, innocent, unclouded, carriers of positive values" [16]. It should be noted that the trend noted by Jacques Seguela, is typical not only for the policy sphere, but also for the advertising industry itself. Today in many countries in the advertising field self-government and self-regulation play an increasing role. At the same time, more "bearers of positive values" appear within the industry itself, which understand that with the people (the term "people" here is more appropriate than "consumers") they are brought together by common values. Therefore, today there are more and more public associations of advertisers, corporate codes are being developed and adopted, which are sometimes directly called moral.

Conclusions. Given the scale of the advertising industry, its role and opportunities to influence society, even the most sophisticated legislation and an effective system of external control cannot eliminate all the contradictions that are associated with it. In conditions of interaction with legislative mechanisms, state and public systems of external control, self-regulation is able to ensure the existence of harmo-

nious relations between advertisers, society and the state.

The question of the values "to have" or "to be" in self-regulation of advertising, from the point of view of Erich Fromm's social concept, should not be set as an alternative choice. It's about the possibility of achieving an optimal balance between the material interests of business and the intangible social values in regulating the advertising sphere, in particular, in improving the effectiveness of self-regulation. The correlation of value-semantic archetypes of "possession" and "being" is important. The most acceptable form of this is a creative possession, when the subjects of self-government of advertising have a motivation for "being", which supplements, rather than excludes, the corporate interests of "possession".

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