Научная статья на тему 'Competence contextual model of teaching and fostering at a general Academic school as an innovaton'

Competence contextual model of teaching and fostering at a general Academic school as an innovaton Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Ключевые слова
непрерывное образование / компетентностно-контекстная модель обучения и воспитания / continuous education / competence-contextual model / teaching and upbringing

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Baklanova Natalya Ivanovna, Muzalevskaya Tatyana Vitalyevna

This article considers the special features of the competence-contextual model of teaching and fostering as innovation implementing the ideas of continuous education.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Competence contextual model of teaching and fostering at a general Academic school as an innovaton»

COMPETENCE CONTEXTUAL MODEL OF TEACHING AND FOSTERING AT A GENERAL ACADEMIC SCHOOL AS AN INNOVATON

N. I. Baklanova T. V. Muzalevskaya

This article considers the special features of the competence-contextual model of teaching and fostering as innovation implementing the ideas of continuous education.

В статье рассматриваются особенности компетентностно-контекстной модели обучения и воспитания как инновации, обеспечивающей реализацию идей непрерывного образования.

Key words: continuous education, competence-contextual model, teaching and upbringing.

Ключевые слова: непрерывное образование, компетентностно-контекстная модель обучения и воспитания.

The idea of continuous education is not new for world and Russian education. Back in March 1989, the State Committee of the USSR for Public Education and the All-Union Council for Public Education approved the "Concept of Continuous Education" at a joint meeting. However, the implementation of the ideas of continuous education is impossible within the framework of the classic model of teaching that provided students with some amount of knowledge "for a lifetime". It is necessary to search the techniques (forms, methods and means) that would be adequate for the idea of continuous education and ensuring the conditions for self-realization of a personality "throughout their lifetime". Thus, the idea of continuous education presupposes changes in the axiological and goal-oriented components of education: from shaping knowledge to mastering the ability of solving the tasks and problems of one's life, to practical and professional activities based on knowledge.

The competence-contextual model of teaching and fostering [2] can be regarded as a non-classic model of teaching, responding to the challenges of continuous education. It has become widespread at the stage of vocational and supplementary education, and at present it is being tested at general educational schools, including ours. Let us cite a few arguments that confirm its innovativeness and reflect its potential of implementation of the idea of continuous education.

1. The principal goal of the competence-contextual model of teaching and fostering is "to ensure the pedagogical and psychological conditions for the shaping of competence in secondary school students' learning activities as an invariant result of education ensuring the development of a student as a subject of activity in the process of continuous education" [4, p. 210]. A competence "is an integral totality, as a matter of fact, a system of cognitive, social and reflexive experience, ensuring a person's ability for the conscious transformation of reality on the basis of the skill of establishing links between knowledge and the situation of the person's practical actions and deeds' [3, p. 258].

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2. Achieving an invariant result whose components remain unchanged in the process of a person's movement within the system of continuous education and are provided by a system of learning principles that are different from the principles of the classic model of learning. Among these principles are the principles for vocational education formulated by A.A. Verbitsky [1, pp. 130-131] and interpreted in the terms of general education: (a) the psychological and pedagogical assurance of personal and notional involvement of a student into the learning activity; (b) consistent modeling of independent activities aimed at problem and task solving in the students' learning activities; (c) problematic nature of the learning content and the process of its development in the educational process; (d) adequacy of the forms of organization of secondary school students' learning activity, to the goals and content of education; (e) the leading role of joint activity, interpersonal interaction and dialogic communication of the educational process subjects (teacher-to-student and student-to-student); (f) a pedagogically substantiated combination of new and traditional pedagogical technologies; (g) openness, such as the utilization of any pedagogical technologies proposed within the framework of other theories and approaches for attaining specific goals of teaching and fostering in a context-type educational process; (h) unity of teaching and character fostering; (i) taking account of individual psychological peculiarities and cross-cultural (family, national, religious, geographical) contexts of each student. We should add to them two principles reflecting the continuity of the education process that were formulated by A.A. Verbitsky and N.A. Rybakina [2]: the systematic and systemic nature of teaching, the organization of cognitive activity "from the general to the particular" that ensures receipt of notions about the phenomenon under study in the context of its use; the availability of an invariant result of education allowing a student to develop as a subject of activity in the process of continuous education, and mastering educational programs of various levels with the help of various forms, methods and facilities.

3. A new objective and an innovative system of the principles of the competence-contextual model of teaching and fostering, which ensure the involvement of students in new types of learning activities. In this model of teaching and fostering, learning activities are a totality of subject-specific, social and reflexive components of learning and cognitive activities, comprising the context-type educational space that brings secondary school students beyond the framework of subject unidimensionality. Thus, students' mastering of social experiences is effected not just through transmission of information, but in the process of the organization of contextual type learning and cognitive activity, ensuring the triunity of its subjective, social and reflexive components.

The contextual type learning and cognitive activities are implemented in three basic forms [5]. Academic type activity presupposes a student's familiarity with the structure of the phenomenon under study (an object, a process) and the scope of tasks and problems such knowledge allows the student to solve. For example, the student gets an opportunity to obtain a holistic idea of the object under study in the context of its utilization. Quasi-independent learning activities allow students to master, in joint activity with the teacher, the mechanisms of using new knowledge for the solution of learning, cognitive learning, and practical tasks. Independent learning activity allows students to get from their collective activity, an

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experience of solving tasks and problems in a wide context of using new knowledge, inter alia for the problems for which there is no known algorithm of actions. This allows students to get a social and reflexive experience of activity, as well as the cognitive one.

4. Changing the goals and principles of teaching and the type of educational activity inevitably requires changing the units of educational content and the teacher's and the student's activity. In the competence-contextual model of teaching and fostering, a problematic situation acts as a unit of content, whereupon it is active methods and not knowledge that are made problematic. An act is the unit of students' activity [2]. A student's activity is viewed as an activity aimed at ensuring a new type of secondary school learning activity, requiring the teacher to have new skills: tutoring, support and facilitation.

The introduction of the competence-contextual model in education means a change in all the pedagogical system of general education and vocational school, and a transition to a new type of teaching and fostering that is suitable for the idea of continuous education.

Bibliography

1. Вербицкий, А. А. Личностный и компетентностный подходы в образовании: проблемы интеграции / А. А. Вербицкий, О. Г. Ларионова. - М.: Логос, 2009. - 336 с.

2. Вербицкий, А. А. Методологические основы реализации новой образовательной парадигмы / А. А. Вербицкий, Н. А. Рыбакина // Педагогика. - 2014. - №2. - С. 3-14.

3. Рыбакина, Н.А. Инвариант результата непрерывного образования / Н. А. Рыбакина // Технологии построения систем образования с заданными свойствами: материалы V Международной научно-практической конференции. - М.: РИЦ МГГУ им. М. А. Шолохова, 2014. - С. 255-260.

4. Рыбакина Н.А. Интеграция идей компетентностного подхода и теории контекстного обучения как условие становления и развития непрерывного образования/ Н. А. Рыбакина // Вестник Воронежского государственного технического университета. -2014. - № 3.2. - Т. 10. - С. 208-211.

5. Рыбакина, Н.А. Теория контекстного обучения как концептуальная основа реализации компетентностного подхода в общеобразовательной школе / Н. А. Рыбакина // Технологии построения систем образования с заданными свойствами: материалы IV Международной научно-практической конференции 21-22 ноября 2013 г. - М.: РИЦ МгГу им. М. А. Шолохова, 2013. - С. 217-223.

Translated from Russian by Znanije Central Translastions Bureas

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