THE RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT (Pedagogical-Psychological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), Volume 13 No.1 2018 _ISSN 2588-008X ISSN 2588-0225

Pavel V. Minin - Cadet, Military Educational-Scientific Center of Air Force "Air Force Academy Named After Professor N. E. Zhukovskiy and Y. A. Gagarin", House 54A, , Starykh Bolshevikv str., Voronezh, 394064, Russia, E-mail: divers9505@gmail.com

For citations: Shebeshtin O.E., Minin P.V. The peculiarities of hand-to-hand fighters' state of psychic competitive activity readiness formation, The Russian Journal of Physical Education and Sport (Pedagogico-Phycological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), 2018, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 110-115. DOI 10/14526/01_2018_293

DOI 10/14526/01_2018_294

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MAXIMUM CONSUMPTION OF OXYGEN AND THE EFFICACY OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OF THE HALF-LONG-DISTANCE

RUNNERS (800 METERS)

Charbi Belkacem - Dr., Teacher and Lecturer, Class A, Director of the Laboratory of the Sport

System in Algeria

Institute of Physical and Sports Sciences and Techniques, University Zian Achour, Djelfa, Algeria Khader Salih - Dr., Teacher and Lecturer, Class A, Member at the Laboratory of Prevention and

Drug Control Strategies in Algeria Institute of Physical and Sports Sciences and Techniques, University Zian Achour, Djelfa, Algeria

Rahmoun Tahar - PhD., Student Institute of Physical and Sports Sciences and Techniques, University Zian Achour, Djelfa, Algeria

Email: s.khader@mail. univ-djelfa.com Email: khseps2012@gmail.com

Annotation: Field tests are a real and effective way to know the true value of the athlete and the use of appropriate field tests for the diagnosis of appropriate planning, and to identify individual differences as well as follow-up and control of the athlete and hostility The aim of the study: was to compare two field tests, the Vamival Cazorla test and the Brikci test, to determine which tests are best suitable to measure maximum consumption of oxygen and respiratory efficiency Sample of the study: the half-long distances (800 m) in 2017 to identify the individual differences and to prepare the appropriate training and predictability in the future for field follow-up Study Methodology: In our study, we used this experimental approach with a single design Study tool: The tool was found in the Vamival Cazorla and Brikci tests on a sample. Statistical Methods: To obtain the results, the statistical analysis program (SPSS) was used to calculate the mean and standard deviations and to test for measuring individual differences The results of the study: The study of "Vamival Cazorla" is the most suitable for calculating the value of the maximum consumption of oxygen (vo2 max), and the test "Brikci"is the most suitable for the recognition of respiratory efficiency in the half-longdistance sprinters specialty (800 meters) .

Keywords: Maximum consumption of oxygen - Respiratory efficiency - Half-long distances

Urgency: The maximum consumption of oxygen is considered as an important factor in hard sports such as: Half-long races(800 Meters) [1] as we already mentioned before relies on endurance to increase the capacities, and it is linked with physical performance.

The importance in determining the maximum consumption of oxygen is to know the improvement achieved through a specific training and to know the necessary degree (of the maximum consumption of oxygen) for the

training in order to increase respiratory and cardiac efficiency.

Many studies indicated that the maximum consumption of oxygen is an indicator to lungs efficiency [2].

Therefore, determining respiratory fitness is related to measurement and methods that can be applied on field, then judging the physiological fitness level. For this reason, appropriate field tests must be used for proper planning, identifying Individual variances, follow-up and monitoring [3].

The aim the study clarifies the importance of knowing these tests for the maximum consumption of oxygen (vo2 max) and concretize it in the field; this allows the coach to evaluate the performance in the half-long-distance races 800 Meters.

- Truck test Brikci and Dekkar (5 m) is one of the easiest and simple tests; it is a test of prediction.

- Truck test Vamival Cazorla is also one of the easiest and simple tests that contains several levels of gradient in severity until reach of exhaustion

Objectives. 1. Obligation to calculate the value of the maximum consumption of oxygen (vo2 max) which is considered as power production resource.

2. Recognize the efficacy of the respiratory system through the value of the maximum consumption of oxygen.

3. Identify and recognize the level of respiratory fitness based on the variable (vo2 max).

4. Following and controlling this

fitness.

Terminology and concepts : Respiratory efficiency: The efficacy of the respiratory system is expressed by respiratory rate and air size [4].

The maximum consumption of oxygen. Defined as the largest amount of oxygen (maximum) consumed at the level of the in the unit of time during muscle exertion [5].

Truck test Brikci and Dekkar (5 m):

A test similar to 9 and 12 minutes test, running 5 minutes as far as possible at maximum speed [6].

Truck test Vamival Cazorla: A test similar to Boucher-Leger 1980, But the cones are 20 meters, the speed is increasing0.5 KM/H every minute [7].

800 Meters Race: It takes two sessions around the 400 meters stadium, the critical stage in this race lies between 400 meters and 600 meters, where the distribution in the most used effort is in the equality of the parts, the first part 400 meters = the second 400 meters [8].

Materials. Before proceeding on the ultimate application search tools and valuing the research problem, the researcher made the following steps:

- Determining the tests, the researcher chose the tests that are going to be on the study sample in order to identify, implement them, and the ability of runners to do it.

- The researcher has identified and agreed with the runners.

- To stand on the field and the means that the researcher has to use in his search to carry out the tests, as well as choosing the most appropriate time to do them.

Community study and Research sample. In this part, we find everything that concerns the research sample; the researcher chose the specimen that is composed of three runners specialized in the 800 meters.

Test Tools. A 5 minutes test. This is predictive test to the value of maximum consumption of oxygen for the runners. It is similar to 12 minutes test (Cooper) and 9 minutes test (AAHPER).

Organization and completion of the test. After a warm-up, that takes about 10 to 20 minutes, the runner runs as far as possible for five minutes. Calculating the distance is multiplying the length of the track by the number of cycles performed by the runner and increases the number of meters in the last lap

as mentioned in the next equation [9]:_

Vo2 max=8.67* v (km/h)-113

Track test Vamival Cazorla: This test is to run at a gradual increasing rhythm every 0.5 Km/H in all minutes, each racer takes a start in front of the funnel and tries to adjust his rhythm until it matches the image

of the declared signal and specified to the desired rhythm of the traffic cassette racer in front of the funnel while signaling it.

Organization and completion of the test: The test start from a weak to a medium rhythm which is considered as a warm-up then the rhythm increases by 0.5KM/H all the minutes , the aim is to reach the maximum of weak to medium rhythm until the highest limits of his abilities ,and when he can't keep up due to the audio rhythm imposed from one level to the other ,He has to stop, so if he is Research results and their discussion.

twice as far back as the rhythm control within 20 meters, he has to stop because he couldn't keep up with the sound signals. This test is gradually continuing to the fullest extent possible, and it depends on the abilities of the runners. The final result represents at the level that the runners have reached and we can identify the maximum consumption of oxygen as well as the maximum air speed as mentioned in the next equation [10]:_

Vo2 max = 305* v

Weight Lenght

65 178 Runner 1

65 179 Runner 2

66 179 Runner 3

65.33 178.66 Arithmetic Average

0.57 0.70 Standard deviation

Chart № (1): represents the anthropic properties

Through this chart, we notice that the Arithmetic Average for 178.66 length and the Standard Deviation is0.70, whereas the Arithmetic Average for weight is 65.33 and Standard Deviation 0.57.

800 meters specialty: The next chart clarifies the statistical parameters of the differences between the arithmetic averages of the track test (Brikci- Dekkar) and truck

test (Vamival Cazorla) in 800 meters in the maximum consumption of oxygen:

Test Arith-metic Average Stand-ard deviati-on The calcula-ted « T» Value Degree -of freedom

5 M Track test 64.66 2.88 3.00 2

Track test Vamival. C 67.66 2.51

Chart № (2): The following chart illustrates Statistical parameters of the median differences for each of the track test (Brick & Dekkar) and track test (VameVal Cazorla) in the 800 meters for

maximum oxygen consumption Information received from the SPSS minute run on the average arithmetic (Brikci programme and shown through the Chart № 2 & Dekkar) 64.66 and Standard Deviation for independent tests to determine the 2.88, while the track test (Vamival Cazorla), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 MAX) the average arithmetic 67.66 and Standard in 800 meters. The runners got in a five- Deviation 2.51. The calculate T value is 3.00;

the value T scheduled 2.92 at a significant level 0.05 and degree of freedom 2.

The calculated T value is bigger than the scheduled T value, so we conclude that there are no statistically significant differences and back to the difference between the two arithmetic averages for each of the tests, we notice that it is for the track test (VameVal Cazorla).

Discussion of the First Hypothesis: Checking the hypothesis that said, a constant continuous track test (VameVal Cazorla). reveals the value of the oxygen consumption in half-long-distance runners (800 Meters). We used test« T »to check the difference between the two independent tests on the group, the results obtained shows that there is a moral difference for the (VameVal Cazorla) shown in the table.

As mentioned the maximum

important factors for the intermediates runners 800 meters, as indicated by (Mercier Leger 1989) that the value of (Vo2 max) is for half-long-distance runners a good factor for performance [11].

Analysis of the second hypothesis.

Checking the hypothesis that said, a constant continuous track test reveals the efficacy of respiratory system in half-long-distance runners (800 Meters). Tests were conducted for each group and then the value« T» was calculated for the two independent tests on both groups, illustrated in the following charts:

800 meters specialty: The following chart illustrates Statistical parameters of the median differences for each of the track test (Brikci & Dekkar) and track test (VamiVal Cazorla) in the 800 meters for maximum airspeed.

consumption of oxygen is one of the

TEST Arithmetic Average Standard deviation The calculated T Value Degree of Freedom

5 Minutes Track test 19.66 0.57 1.73 2

Track test Vameval, c 18.66 1.54

Chart № 3 represents: Statistical parameters (Brikci & Dekkar) and track test (VamiVal Information received from the SPSS programme and shown through the Chart № 3 for independent tests to determine the maximum airspeed estimate (V.M.A) in 800 meters, the runners got in a five-minute run on the average arithmetic (Brikci & Dekkar) 19.66 and Standard Deviation 0.57, while the track test (VamiVal Cazorla), the average arithmetic 18.66 and Standard Deviation 1.54. The calculate T value is 1.73; the value T scheduled 2.92 at a significant level 0.05 and degree of freedom 2.

of the median differences for each of the track test Cazorla) in the 800 meters for maximum airspeed.

The calculated T value is smaller than the scheduled T value, so we conclude that there are no statistically significant differences and back to the difference between the two arithmetic averages for each of the tests, we notice that it is almost equal.

Estimate of the air threshold and non-air threshold: The air threshold: The following table illustrates the value of speed in the air threshold in 800 meters.

V.S.A Air threshold Standard V.M.A V.M.A

0.43 14.75 0.57 19.66 800 Meters

Chart № 4 represents the value of V.M.A and the speed in Air threshold for 800 meters

From the chart, we notice that in 800 meters, average airspeed is 15.25 and standard Deviation is 0.43.

The non-air threshold: The following table illustrates the value of speed in the non-air threshold in 1500 meters.

Specialty Arithmetic Average V.M.A Standard deviation V.M.a Average speed of non-air threshold Standard deviation V.S.An

800 Meters 19.66 0.57 16.17 0.49

Chart № 5 represents the value of V.M.A and the speed in non-Air threshold for 1500 meters From the chart, we notice that in 1500 meters, average airspeed is 20.33 and standard Deviation is 0.57. The speed in the non-air threshold and standard deviation 0.49.

Discussion of the second Hypothesis:

Checking the hypothesis that said, a constant continuous track test (Brikci & Dekkar) reveals the efficacy of respiratory system in half-long-distance runners (800 Meters). We used test« T »to check the difference between the two independent tests on the group, the results obtained shows that there is a moral difference, but close to the two Tests.

(Jackson, Coleman) indicate the evaluation of the respiratory system endurance; this can be shown by running as long as possible using a muscular effort [12].

Since the track test (Brikci & Dekkar) is similar to 12 Minutes test for Cooper and 9 minutes for (AAHER),the 5 minutes track test is a limited duration of (5 M) so it is close to the maximum air capacity as indicated by (Billat), the maximum airspeed can be estimated from 5 -7 minutes and according to (Billat) , we can evaluate the threshold and non-air threshold speed based on maximum airspeed percentage V.M.A %. (Jürgen Weinek)indicates That the greater the value mmol/I 4 a high speed compatibility, the higher the air capacity, and hence the efficiency of the respiratory system. All this supports the hypothesis suggested by the researcher [13].

Conclusion. The subject matter in this search is the problem of determining the appropriate field tests in estimating the maximum consumption of oxygen to follow and monitor the respiratory fitness for medium-distance runners 800 meters. The researcher tried a detailed analysis of the tests results carried out and the collected data

through the bibliographic readings, and the empirical study reached the following results.

- The need to estimate maximum consumption of oxygen by testing either in the field or laboratory for intermediate races 800meters

- The benefit of estimating the (vo2 max) is that the maximum consumption of oxygen is the best source for information on the air system to produce energy.

- Estimating (vo2 max) is necessary for the intermediate races 800 meters. Predictability for those with great values to direct them to the long or long half distances.

References

1. Bastoise Ahmed: Foundations and theories of sports training, Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi, Cairo. 1999, p. 27.

2. Ahmed Nasr El-Din El Sayed: Physiology of Sport, Arab Thought House, Cairo. 2003, p. 14.

3. Ibrahim Shehata: Fundamentals of Training, the Egyptian Library, Alexandria. 2006, p. 14.

4. Abu Alaa Ahmed Abdel Fattah: Biology of Sports, Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi, Cairo. 2008, p. 17.

5. Bahaa El Din Ibrahim Salama: Physiology of Physical Effort, Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi, Cairo. 2009, p. 19.

*i*Не можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

6. Brikci A, Hanifi. H. Dekkar: Technique d'évaluation physiologique, Comité olympique, Alger. 1998, p. 42.

7. Veronique Billat: l'entrainement en plain nature, Edition de beack, Bruxelles. 2005, p. 68.

8. Osama Riyad: Sports Medicine and Athletics, Dar Al-Hilal, Riyadh. 1987, p. 60.

9 Brikci .A, Hanifi.H, Dekkar: Technique d'evaluation physiologique, Comité olympique, Alger. 1998, p. 66.

10 Véronique Billat : Physiologie et Méthodologie de l'entrainement, Edition de boeck, Bruxelles. 2003, p. 124.

11. William McARDLE , et all :Physiologie l'activité physique, Édition Maloine, Paris. 2001, p. 38.

12. Basati God's Order: Rules and Foundations of Mathematical Training and its Applications, Dar Al Ma'aref, Alexandria. 1998, p. 118.

13. Life of Sudan Ibrahim: physiology of member functions, University Youth Foundation, Alexandria. 2009, p. 55.

14. Kuznetsova Z., Kuznetsov A., Mutaeva I., Khalikov G., Zakharova A., 2015. Athletes preparation based on a complex assessment of functional state. In

Submitted: 02.02.2018 Received: 05.02.2018

Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology support. SCITEPRESS. P. 156-160 (Scopus).

15. Kuznetsov A., Mutaeva I., Kuznetsova Z., 2017. Diagnostics of Functional State and Recerve Capacity of young Athletes' Organizm. In Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology support. SCITEPRESS. P. 111-115 (Scopus).

Author's information:

Charbi Belkacem - Dr., Teacher and Lecturer, Class A, Institute of Physical and Sports Sciences and Techniques, University Zian Achour, Djelfa, Algeria, Director of the Laboratory of the Sport System in Algeria, e-mail: s.khader@mail.univ-dielfa.com

Khader Salih - Dr., Teacher and Lecturer, Class A, Institute of Physical and Sports Sciences and Techniques, Member at the Laboratory of Prevention and Drug Control Strategies in Algeria, University Zian Achour, Djelfa, Algeria

Rahmoun Tahar - PhD., Student, Institute of Physical and Sports Sciences and Techniques, University Zian Achour, Djelfa, Algeria, e-mail: khseps2012@,gmail.com

For citations: Charbi Belkacem, Khader Salih, Rahmoun Tahar. Comparative study of maximum consumption of oxygen and the efficacy of the respiratory system of the half-long-distance runners (800 meters), The Russian Journal of Physical Education and Sport (Pedagogico-Phycological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), 2018, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 115-120. DOI 10/14526/01 2018 294

DOI 10/14526/01_2018_295

CRYO-MASSAGE IN REHABILITATION OF SPORTSMEN AFTER OPERATIVE THERAPY OF LUMBAR SPINE INJURIES

Ruslan R. Vadutov — Postgraduate Evgeniy V. Bykov - Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Olga I. Kolomiets - Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor "UralState University of Physical Culture", House 1, Ordzhonikidze Str., Chelyabinsk, 454091, Russia

E-mail: 2677489@mail.ru

Annotation. The number of lumbar spine injuries among sportsmen increases and very often it is surgical indication. The main objectives of rehabilitation during postsurgical period are not only invalidization prevention or decrease, but also rehabilitation processes acceleration, which is very important for sportsmen. The standard of rehabilitation after surgical fixation of the lumbar spine (LS) includes therapeutic exercises, massage and physiotherapy, which during postsurgical period of rehabilitation cause timely pain and edema increase. Such kind of symptoms can be leveled with the help of cryo-massage. Materials. 30 patients-sportsmen in neuro-surgical department of Sverdlovsk regional clinical hospital (16 men and 14 women at the age of 24±4,2 years old) after

120