Научная статья на тему 'Comparative characteristic of cardiovascular system State among people going in for competitive and health-improving body-building'

Comparative characteristic of cardiovascular system State among people going in for competitive and health-improving body-building Текст научной статьи по специальности «Фундаментальная медицина»

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Ключевые слова
competitive body-building / cardiovascular system / functional reserves

Аннотация научной статьи по фундаментальной медицине, автор научной работы — Marina A. Chichkova, Anastasiya A. Svetlichkina, Alexsandr V. Dorontsev

The article presents results of electrcardiographic research among 12 men, who go in for competitive body-building and 14 men, who go in for health-improving body-building (age range 25-32 years old). The research works showed that changes of pre-pathologic character in cardiovascular system are more often met among sportsmen, who go in for competitive body-building (42% of cases). The offered methods of cardiological control help to define reserve capacities of cardiovascular system, recommend individual volume of physical load, define structural algorithm of educational-training lessons in a yearly cycle of training sportsmen and decrease the risk of cardiovascular system pathological changes development. Research material. The article presents cardiovascular system dynamics study in yearly training cycle of sportsmen, who go in for competitive and health-improving body-building. Research methods: scientific literature analysis and summarizing, clinical evidence analysis, anamnesis, indices of electrocardiography and standard functional tests. Results. The research results show that morphofunctional changes of cardiovascular system can be considered as the variant of adaptation to the loads of power character, but sportsmen with these changes need planned and pre-competitive instrumental control. The revealed pathological changes of cardiovascular system demand suspending from educational-training lessons and orientation of sportsmen to additional profile medical examination. Conclusion. The held research will help to decrease the risks of cardiovascular system pathological changes development and also correct timely the volume and intensity of physical loads in a yearly cycle of training sportsmen.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Comparative characteristic of cardiovascular system State among people going in for competitive and health-improving body-building»

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Submitted: 24.01.2018 Received: 27.01.2018

6. Kuznetsova Z., Kuznetsov A., Mutaeva I., Khalikov G., Zakharova A., 2015. Athletes training based on a complex assessment of functional state. In

Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology support. SCITEPRESS. P. 156-160 (Scopus).

7. Kuznetsov A., Mutaeva I., Kuznetsova Z., 2017. Diagnostics of Functional State and Reserve Capacity of young Athletes' Organism. In Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology support. SCITEPRESS. P. 111-115 (Scopus).

Evgenya A. Raspopova - Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport, Youth and Tourism, House 4, Sirenevyi Boulevard, Moscow, 105122, Russia, E-mail: raspopova48@mail.ru

Olga A. Khorosheva - Post-graduate Student Moscow Municipal Pedagogical University, House 4, Block 1, the 2nd Selskokhozyaistvennyi Passage, Moscow, 129226, Russia, E-mail: rcchinamar@rambler.ru

For citations: Raspopova E.A., Khorosheva O.A. Health state estimation of simmers-veterans before the important start, The Russian Journal of Physical Education and Sport (Pedagogico-Pshycological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), 2018, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 145-148. DOI 10/14526/01_2018_299

DOI 10/14526/01_2018_300

COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM STATE AMONG PEOPLE GOING IN FOR COMPETITIVE AND HEALTH-IMPROVING BODYBUILDING

Marina A. Chichkova - Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Astrakhan State Medical University, House 121, Bakinskaya str., Astrakhan, Russia, 414000 E-mail: m.chichkova@mail.ru

Anastasiya A. Svetlichkina - Assistant Astrakhan State Medical University, House 121, Bakinskaya str., Astrakhan, Russia, 414000 E-mail: doronceva@rambler.ru

Alexsandr V. Dorontsev - Candidate of Pedagogics, Associate Professor Astrakhan State Medical University, House 121, Bakinskaya str., Astrakhan, Russia, 414000 E-mail: aleksandr.doroncev@rambler.ru

THE RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT (Pedagogical-Psychological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), Volume 13 No.1 2018 _ISSN 2588-008X ISSN 2588-0225

Annotation. The article presents results of electrcardiographic research among 12 men, who go in for competitive body-building and 14 men, who go in for health-improving body-building (age range 25-32 years old). The research works showed that changes of pre-pathologic character in cardiovascular system are more often met among sportsmen, who go in for competitive bodybuilding (42% of cases). The offered methods of cardiological control help to define reserve capacities of cardiovascular system, recommend individual volume of physical load, define structural algorithm of educational-training lessons in a yearly cycle of training sportsmen and decrease the risk of cardiovascular system pathological changes development. Research material. The article presents cardiovascular system dynamics study in yearly training cycle of sportsmen, who go in for competitive and health-improving body-building. Research methods: scientific literature analysis and summarizing, clinical evidence analysis, anamnesis, indices of electrocardiography and standard functional tests. Results. The research results show that morphofunctional changes of cardiovascular system can be considered as the variant of adaptation to the loads of power character, but sportsmen with these changes need planned and pre-competitive instrumental control. The revealed pathological changes of cardiovascular system demand suspending from educational-training lessons and orientation of sportsmen to additional profile medical examination. Conclusion. The held research will help to decrease the risks of cardiovascular system pathological changes development and also correct timely the volume and intensity of physical loads in a yearly cycle of training sportsmen. Keywords: competitive body-building, cardiovascular system, functional reserves.

Introduction. Competitive bodybuilding is one of strength sports the aim of which is maximum development of all groups of muscles and an athlete's etalon body proportions creation by means of training at power training simulators and with free weight [2]. Short-term sharp static loads, connected with the exercises with a barbell and dumbbells, compulsory and optional programs fulfillment lead to strong physical and emotional tension, which can cause some negative changes in functional systems of homeostatic level [3]. Very often athletes have to use forced weight reduction in competitive cycle, have diet, at the same time, trainings intensity remains at a high level [4]. All this leads to energy and compensation abilities of an organism decrease, which is sometimes the reason for cardiovascular system diseases development [1,5]. Irrational structuring of educational-training lessons can decompensate regulatory-adaptive status of an organism, predicting present and future way of adaptation [7]. Timely revelation of pathological changes in cardiovascular system will help to correct the structure of strength sports training or set metabolic therapy with further cardiologic control [6]. In this connection we held a comparative study of cardiovascular system dynamic indices

among people, who go in for competitive and health-improving body-building.

Materials. We studied 12 men, who go in for competitive body-building, the volume of training lessons was from 4 to 6 trainings a week, yearly cycle of training included two competitive periods (spring and autumn) of 2-3 weeks- selected group and 14 men, who go in for health-improving bodybuilding, the volume of trainings 2 times a week without competitive cycles- the group of comparison. All respondents had regular medical check-up in terms of clinical examination and therapist allowed them to go in for physical culture and sport. Clinical information and electrocardiography indices were analyzed. The research work was held using the following means: electrocardiograph CardiovitAT-101 3-channel («Schiller», Switzerland), program for the work with electronic tables MicrosoftExcel 2007 with macros-supplement XLSTAT-Pro (Microsoft, the USA), software package for statistic analysis Statistical (StatSoftInc, the USA). The research was held on the basis of Astrakhan State Medical University.

Research results. According to the research data the following results were received: in the selected group and

comparison group respondents subjectively felt well, there were no complaints during check-up, respondents anamnestically neglected the experienced diseases during previous 6 months, physical data showed normal bounds of deep cardiac dullness, auscultatory lungs picture without pathology, pathological accents and cardiac murmurs over the heart area were not revealed, valval heart apparatus in norm.

The selected and comparison groups were validly identical according to the following laboratory research methods: general blood analysis and biochemical blood analysis. According to potassium and calcium content in blood groups were identical. The average level of potassium content in blood of the respondents was the following: in the selected group - 4,5±0,5 mmol/L and in comparison group - 4,6±0,7 mmol/L; the level of calcium- 2,2±0,3 mmol/L and 2,3±0,4 mmol/L. During echocardiography no heart changes were registered.

The average frequency of heart rate (HR) at rest in the group of people, who go in for competitive body-building was 75±5 beats per minute, arterial pressure indices are the following: 135/75±10/5 millimeters of mercury.

During electrocardiogram (ECG) study we defined the position of electrical axis of heart, calculating angle a. Among the respondents of both groups electrical axis of heart was situated mainly horizontally (angle a from +0° till +30°).

In the structure of changes at ECG the respondents, who go in for competitive bodybuilding very often had sinus tachycardia (41,6%), sinus arrhythmia (25%), sinus bradyarrhythmia (16,7%) and bradycardia (16,7%). The syndrome of early ventricles repolarization was registered among 16,7% of sportsmen with sinus bradyarrhythmia, which is connected with the increased tonus of vagus nerve. Sinus bradycardia is one of the training

level indices, the syndrome of "sports heart". Single supraventricular extrasystole was among 25% of sportsmen in terms of sinus tachycardia. 16,7% of men had the processes disorder of myocardium repolarization in inferior wall. Sinus tachycardia, extrasystole and the processes disorder of myocardium repolarization are considered the indices of sportsmen's cardiovascular system detraining and the features of stress cardiomyopathy, which demands physical loads decrease.

It is necessary to exclude the following exercises from the complex of training lessons: squattings with a barbell, deadlift, different splits, elements of circuit training. It is necessary to substitute them for the exercises at training simulators with small intensity in terms of compensatory zone of the load, heart rate - till 130 beats per minute, with corresponding breaks for heart rate recovery till the initial indices. If the indices of cardiovascular system detraining preserve sportsmen should be not allowed to train, should have additional check-up, in particular daily ECG monitoring, if it is necessary metabolic support should be provided.

Because of left ventricle myocardium mass increase in terms of systematic bodybuilding trainings, with the intensive increase of physical loads during pre-competitive period, 50% of the examined sportsmen had left ventricular hypertrophy.

In the group of sportsmen, who go in for health-improving body-building, sinus arrhythmia was among 28,6% cases, sinus bradycardia-14,2%, sinus bradyarrhythmia -7,1%, syndrome of early ventricles repolarization-7,1% of cases. There were no cases of sinus tachycardia, extrasystole and the processes disorder of left ventricle myocardium repolarization in the group of comparison. All changes of electrocardiogram among sportsmen in this group show good training level of cardiovascular system and an adequate physical loads dosing.

Diagram 1 - Electrocardiogram indices among sportsmen, who go in for competitive and health-

improving body-building

Нарушения процессов реполяризации

СРРЖ Экстрасистолия Синусовая брадикардия Синусовая брадиаритмия Синусовая тахикардия Синусовая аритмия

Оздоровительный бодибилдинг Соревновательный бодибилдинг

0 10 20 30 40 50

Thus, the held research works show, that changes in cardiovascular system (sinus arrhythmia, sinus bradycardia, syndrome of early ventricles repolarization) among people, who go in for health-improving and competitive body-building, are considered by us as the variant of adaptation to power physical loads. Left ventricular hypertrophy is also connected with regular sports trainings, but demands control with the help of ultrasonic impulse cardioscope.

Revealed sinus tachycardia, upraventricular extrasystole and the processes disorder of myocardium repolarization are the indices of cardiovascular system detraining and demand physical loads intensity decrease or their complete exclusion, additional profile check-up and in some cases metabolic therapy.

Conclusion

1. Cardiovascular system study among people, who go in for competitive body-building, reflects predicted

morphofunctional changes of cardiovascular system and helps to correct the volume and intensity of physical loads in a constant schedule of trainings and also during competitive period.

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2. Frequency analysis of the registered pre-pathological changes of cardiovascular system on the basis of ECG results shows, that educational-training load in yearly cycle of training should be regulated, taking into account morphofunctional changes of sportsmen's cardiovascular system and also the initial data of cardiologic control.

3. Timely differentiation of cardiovascular system pathological changes will help to suspend sportsmen from trainings, prescribe rehabilitation means and provide necessary structural corrections in educational-training process, decreasing the risk of cardiovascular system diseases development.

References

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Marina A. Chichkova - Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Astrakhan State Medical University, House 121, Bakinskaya str., Astrakhan, Russia, 414000, E-mail: m.chichkova@mail.ru Anastasiya A. Svetlichkina - Assistant Astrakhan State Medical University, House 121, Bakinskaya str., Astrakhan, Russia, 414000, E-mail: doronceva@rambler.ru

Alexsandr V. Dorontsev - Candidate of Pedagogics, Associate Professor Astrakhan State Medical University, House 121, Bakinskaya str., Astrakhan, Russia, 414000, E-mail: aleksandr.doroncev@rambler.ru

For citations: Chichkova M.A., Svetlichkina A.A., Dorontsev A.V. Comparative characteristic of cardiovascular system state among people going in for competitive and health-improving bodybuilding, The Russian Journal of Physical Education and Sport (Pedagogico-Pshycological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), 2018, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 148-152. DOI 10/14526/01 2018 300

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