Научная статья на тему 'CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF FARMLAND AMELIORATION IN REGIONS OF EAST GEORGIA'

CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF FARMLAND AMELIORATION IN REGIONS OF EAST GEORGIA Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки о Земле и смежные экологические науки»

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Ключевые слова
AMELIORATION / IRRIGATION / FARMLAND / CHANNEL / SURFACE IRRIGATION / SPRINKLE IRRIGATION / DRIP IRRIGATION

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам о Земле и смежным экологическим наукам, автор научной работы — Lomsadze Z., Makharadze K., Pirtskhalava R.

Among different types of agricultural land amelioration irrigation is one of the most important. The essential factor having impact on soil productivity is regulation of soil wetness regime. Therefore, it is very important to pay regular attention to amelioration measures and to support a productive, economically beneficial use of farmlands and nature resources, creating a safe living environment for people and ensuring the necessary water regime by building new irrigation systems and restoring the existing ones. In the Soviet period local governments paid regular attention to building new and maintaining existing irrigation systems that facilitated soil amelioration and increment of agricultural production. But after breakup of the Soviet system in chaotic periods of 1990-2005 the situation deteriorated greatly. The most part of irrigation channels have been clogged or destroyed and need rehabilitation. The country doesn’t have enough financial resources to rehabilitate all irrigation system quickly, so the situation is improving slowly. At the same time without sufficient system of irrigation it won’t be possible to increase agricultural production in the country. These problems and challenges are discussed in the paper and appropriate scientific recommendations are given for improvement of the situation.

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Текст научной работы на тему «CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF FARMLAND AMELIORATION IN REGIONS OF EAST GEORGIA»

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF FARMLAND AMELIORATION IN REGIONS OF EAST

GEORGIA

Lomsadze Z., Makharadze K., Pirtskhalava R.

Technical University of Georgia, Center Studying Productive Forces and Natural Resources of Georgia

ABSTRACT

Among different types of agricultural land amelioration irrigation is one of the most important. The essential factor having impact on soil productivity is regulation of soil wetness regime. Therefore, it is very important to pay regular attention to amelioration measures and to support a productive, economically beneficial use of farmlands and nature resources, creating a safe living environment for people and ensuring the necessary water regime by building new irrigation systems and restoring the existing ones. In the Soviet period local governments paid regular attention to building new and maintaining existing irrigation systems that facilitated soil amelioration and increment of agricultural production. But after breakup of the Soviet system in chaotic periods of 1990-2005 the situation deteriorated greatly. The most part of irrigation channels have been clogged or destroyed and need rehabilitation. The country doesn't have enough financial resources to rehabilitate all irrigation system quickly, so the situation is improving slowly. At the same time without sufficient system of irrigation it won't be possible to increase agricultural production in the country. These problems and challenges are discussed in the paper and appropriate scientific recommendations are given for improvement of the situation.

Keywords: Amelioration, Irrigation, farmland, Channel, Surface irrigation. Drip irrigation, Sprinkle irrigation.

1. INTRODUCTION

The main problem of agriculture today in the world is to increase the agricultural production and at the same time avoid negative environmental consequences. This goal can be achieved only by implementing sustainable methods and solutions in agriculture.

Sustainable agriculture includes systems and practices that improve production of agriculture without adverse effects on environment and facilitate natural agricultural resources necessary for insurance of adequate high quality foodstuffs. It cannot be done without amelioration of farmlands [1].

One of the major components of amelioration is irrigation. Effective irrigation can be achieved by optimum water amount and by determining the correct irrigation time with climate weather forecasts. Effective and economical irrigation can be provided by protecting the limited water resources and avoiding environmental and agricultural negative effects such as: leaching, salination of soils and fungal diseases caused by excess amount of water [2].

The most important means of ensuring growth of plants is sufficient amount of moisture in the roots area of soil during plants growing. The natural source of this moisture is rainfall. But if rainfall water is not enough it should be given by irrigation water. Irrigation must be avoided in the middle of the daytime and in windy weather. Better to be done at night and by drip irritation method. Water sources and channels should be avoided of contamination. For reduction of water-caused erosion infiltration of water to soil should be ensured.

The ineffective use of water (excessive watering) wastes the resource that could be used for other purposes and help to avoid environmental impacts, like downsteams and also causes deterioration through sat-

uration, salination and leaching and reduces the productivity of crops. Therefore the optimization of water use should be the major concern of irrigation system. Modern irrigation methods are efficient enough to supply the entire field uniformly with water so that each plant has the amount of water it needs [3].

The successful agriculture is dependent upon sufficient irrigation systems and access to water sources. Arid regions frequently suffer from physical water scarcity [4]. It also occurs when there is undeveloped hydraulic infrastructure for irrigation. Irrigation has always been a central feature of agriculture for centuries and is the product of many cultures of the world. It has always been the basis of economies across the globe.

2. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

2.1 BRIEF HYSTORY OF IRRIGATION IN GEORGIA

The irrigation of farmlands has ancient tradition in Georgia. The first notes about irrigation are dated by the first century B.C. The outstanding Greek geographer and traveler Strabo [5] in the first century A.D. wrote that Georgia's farmlands are irrigated from rivers and other water sources much more than in Babylon and Egypt themselves. This idea is supported and strengthened by well-known Georgian geographer, historian and cartographer Vakhushti Bagrationi [6,7]. Another well-known Georgian historian and archeolo-gist E.Takaishvili [8] wrote that construction of big irrigation channels took place in Georgia in the second part of the first millennium. In the 12th century during reign of queen Tamar, from river Aragvi was built a channel of 20 km. that was called „Channel of Tamar''. It started from village Jhinvali and reached village Gar-dabani fields. By waters of this channel was irrigated the left side of river Aragvi, the fields of Saguramo, Avchala and upper fields of Tbilisi. By order of queen

Tamar was also built the Alazani channel of 119 km. length. The fragments of this channel remain until our days.

2.2 GEOGRAPHICAL SPECIFICITY OF EAST GEORGIA AND BRIEF CLIMATE CHARACTERISTICS

The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range plays extremely important role in moderating Georgia's climate and protects the country's territory from penetrating cold air masses from north. The lesser Caucasus Mountains partially protect the region from influence of dry and hot air masses from south. Such natural geographical protection has favorable climatic influence on local climate. Eastern Georgia has transitional climate from humid subtropical to continental. The region's weather patterns are influenced by dry Caspian air masses from east and humid Black Sea air masses from west. Penetration of humid air masses from the Black Sea is partially blocked by mountain ranges of Likhi and Mes-kheti, which separate eastern and western parts of the country.

Annual precipitation is considerably less here than in western part of Georgia and ranges from 400 to 1,600mm. The wettest periods generally occur during spring and autumn, while winter and summer tend to be the driest. Major part of eastern Georgia experiences hot summers (especially in low-land areas) and relatively cold winters. Climatic conditions above 1,500metres are considerably colder than in low-land areas. The regions located above 2,000 meters frequently experience frost even in summer time.

2.3 THE PRESENT CONDITION OF IRRIGATION AND ITS SUFFICIENCY IN EAST GEORGIA

The east territory of Georgia is characterized by asymmetric relationship between water demand and natural flood of water [9, 10]. There are 7,951 river in east Georgia. Their local flood is 12, 64 km3. From the neighboring territories come 2, 07 km3. The total resource of water is 14, 71 km3. The major sources of irrigation are rivers: Mtkvari, Alazani, Iori, Khrami and their tributaries. The average annual flood of these rivers and the data of their use are presented in table 2.3.1

Table 2.3.1

The average^ annual flood of rivers of east Georgia and their use (2000y.) ml.m3.

Rivers Average annual flood Among them are used Return back After use Flow out of Borders

On irrigation In industry

Mtkvari with tributaries 5,530 1,075 2,242 2,512 4,727

Khrami with tributaries 1,748 283 68 213 1,610

Alazani with tributaries 2,623 698 67 385 2,243

Iori with tributaries 530 367 27 170 90

East Georgia Total 10,431 2,423 2,404 3,280 8,670

As we see from table 2.3.1 on irrigation it was stent 2,423 km3 that is 23.22% of total flood of these rivers

River Mtkvari with tributaries satisfies Samtskhe-Djavakheti, Shida Kartli and Kvemo Kartli irrigation system. River khrami and its tributaries satisfies Kvemo Katrli system. River Alazani is the main source of Kakheti lowlands' irrigation and River Iori is the only source of Gare kakheti irrigation. Water-take from rivers are the following : from Alazani 85.6 % of the year flood; from river Khrami 68. 2 %; from river Iori water take is spent totally and the deficit reach 30 % of year flood [12].

The total water resource in east Georgia is 28,827 km3. The main components of this amount are given in

The module of flood of the rivers Mtkvari, Alazani and khrami is changed from 5 to 50 l/sec.km2. Especially dry territory is between rivers Mtkvari and Alazani the module of which is diminished to 1 l/sec.km.2 It is obvious that production of agriculture in these conditions is impossible without irrigation.

One of the main components of hydro amelioration is reservoirs. In east Georgia there are 34 reservoirs for irrigation. Essential parts of hydro systems are

channels. In 1980s by means of lower Alazani irrigation system was irrigated 47 thousand ha. and in 2000 -32,6 thousand. ha. The length of Lower Alazani channel is 91,2 km. It takes water from headwork of river Alazani at village Kondol. The channel crosses Telavi, Gurjaani, Sighnaghi and Dedoflistskaro municipalities.

The main parts of Samgori irrigation system are Tbilisi and Sioni reservoirs with 308 ml.m3 and 325 ml.m3 of water accordingly. The length of Samgori channel is 39 km. It begins at 2km. from village Paldo. The length of lower Samgori channel is 53 km. It is supplied from Tbilisi Sea waters.

The upper Alazani irrigation system comes across the Alazani low-land and continues on Iori Plateau and connects with river Iori at Eldari. Its total length is about 214 km. with water transmission capacity of 24m3sec.The total length of irrigation system is 2,420km. and it irrigates 108,4 thousand ha. area. Lake waters for irrigation is used from Kartsakhi lake that located in south-west of Akhalkalaki municipality and Red Icon lake that located in river Ksani basin and so on [13].

Due to the crisis of country's economy in 19911995 financing of maintenance and exploitation of irrigation systems decreased considerably that deteriorated much the irrigation systems capability on 35 thousand

ha. The irrigated area decreased from 410 thousand ha. to 308 thousand ha. In 1996-2001 was irrigated only 220 thousand ha. territory. About 100 thousand land remained without water supply. On the 40 thousand ha territory began the secondary salination. Irrigation was done by reduced norms of water supply that caused of 170-200 ml. loss of agricultural products. The most part of pump-stations became out of order and the remained pump-stations upkeep became impossible due to lack of finances. These adverse processes caused the extraction of 70-80 thousand ha. agricultural lands from irrigation lands. From 1992 reconstruction of the old amelioration objects and building 70 new once was stopped due to lack of finances. In 2002 the situation improved a little and about 248,969 ha. was supplied by irrigation. Water take for irrigation was 966,176 m3 and irrigated territory- 187,198 ha. Water supply on one ha was 1,433 m3 [14].

Water consumption on the east Georgia's lands is 3,53 km3. The index of water used for irrigation is 0.2. The same index for use of water of all Georgia is 0.4. It shows that there are sufficient water resources in east, as well as in the whole Georgia for irrigation. The dynamic of lands that are irrigated and lands that need irrigation are given in table 2.3.2 and in figures 2.3.2 and 2.3.3 [15].

Table 2.3.2

Dynamic of irrigated and need irrigation farmlands in 1990-2017 by regions (thousand ha)

Year

Region/ land status 1990 2001 2013 2017 Difference 1990 to 2017

Kvemo Kartli

Lands that need irrigation 111,729 58,72 83,62 83,62 -28,1

Lands that are Irrigated 16,0 29,3 17,83 21,92 +5,9

Shida Kartli

Lands that need irrigation 97,6 96.16 71,83 71,83 -25,77

Lands that are Irrigated 62,0 56,88 9,5 12,14 -49,86

Samtskhe-Javakheti Lands that need irrigation 36,13 33,38 14,98 14,98 -21,15

Lands that are Irrigated 28,83 12,142 0,127 0,802 -27,928

Mtskheta-Mtianeti

Lands that need irrigation - 16,94 16,58 16,58 -0,36

Lands that are Irrigated - 8,54 I,29 1,48 -7,06

Kakheti

Lands that need irrigation 169,9 137,44 92,77 92,77 -77,13

Lands that are Irrigated 141,29 36,68 5,015 10,49 -130,8

East Georeia.Total

Lands that need irrigation 423,3 342,94 279,81 279,81 -143,5

Lands that are Irrigated 248,12 143,63 33,7 46,87 -201,25

Among the regions of east Georgia in the period of 1990-2017 irrigation of farmlands most of all decreased in Shida Kartli on 49,86 thousand ha, Samtskhe-Javakheti on 27,928 and Kakheti on 130,8 thousand ha, In 1990s in east Georgia was irrigated altogether 317,8 thousand ha, in 2001- 143,63 and in

2017-46,87 thousand ha farmlands. Totally in Georgia the according data is: 1990s-378,0 , 2001-187,2 and in 2017-47,47. In period of 1990-2017 the irrigated farmlands decreased in Georgia on 330,53 thousand ha.

%

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

■ Need irrigation fj Are irrigated

Fig. 2.3.2 Correlation of irrigated and need irrigation farmlands of east Georgian regions in 1990-2017 (%)

450

o

§ 400

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

Need irrigation 1 Are irrigated 2

1990 2000 2010 2020

Fig.2.3.3 Dynamic of irrigated and need irrigation farmlands of east Georgia in 1990-2017

After analysis of present condition of lands that are irrigated and lands that need irrigation farmlands of east Georgia we can distinguish the following priorities for the regions of: Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Shida Kartli, Samtskhe-Javakheti and Kakheti.

Kvemo Kartli: periodical inventory of farmlands; reconstruction of irrigating systems; enlargement of water take; inculcation of water-preserving methods of irrigation like drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation and others; prioritized use of Tsalka reservoir for irrigation; purification of Mashavera and Debeda rivers' water from contaminants; rehabilitation of existing irrigating systems [16].

Samtskhe-Javakheti: as inflow waters into rivers and irrigation cannels are not purified it is necessary to build sewerage and purification systems; introducing effective methods of control on water purification; as the irrigation systems have been out of exploitation for long period the technical equipment got out of order and without proper rehabilitation they cannot be activated. As the cattle-breeding is the leading branch of

agriculture in the region irrigation of pastures is the priority; used waters of cattle-breeding must be purified before flowing into rivers and irrigating channels [17].

Shida Kartli: Presently in the region they use surface irrigation. To avoid adverse effects of water erosion caused by excess water supply and economic use of water it is necessary to inculcate progressive methods of irrigation ( micro-sprinkler irrigation, drip irrigation, airdrop etc.); as the most of the irrigative channels are not faced high per cent of water infiltration is observed that cause low efficiency of irrigation; rehabilitation of pumping stations and reconstruction of irrigation systems is necessary[18].

Mtskheta-Mtianeti. The regions' irrigation systems need renovation and reconstruction according to modern technologies; water-economy methods of irrigation must be inculcated, (drip irrigation. Sprinkler irrigation etc.); channels of irrigation systems and water reservoir must be protected from contaminated inflow waters; financing of main irrigation channels must be increased; new water purification constructions must be built and their proper functioning be maintained [19].

i

2

Kakheti. The main problem of the region is inventory-making and rehabilitation of irrigation systems. operating conditions of irrigation doesn't coincide with water flow of rivers; for the region it is very important to introduce progressive, economic methods of irrigation as. drip irrigation. sprinkler irrigation, underground drainage. airdrop etc.; these economic methods of irrigation will reduce wasted expense of water per soil unit Г20-221.

CONCLUSIONS

East part of Georgia is characterized by transitional climate moving from east to west. The east part regions like Shida Kartli. Mtskheta-Mtianeti and Samtskhe-Javakheti are characterized by more continental climate excluding maybe Tbilisi with suburbs where the climate is close to dry subtropical. But the climate of western regions of east Georgia-Kvemo Kartli and especially Kakheti are close to humid subtropical climate. Such climatic characteristics influence on the profiles of the agriculture in these regions. In regions by continental climate are practiced mainly horticulture and plant-growing. In regions by Subtropical-like climate as Kvemo Kartli and especially Kakheti besides horticulture and plant-growing. they practice viticulture. grain farming. leguminous plants. tobacco-growing etc.

All these fields of agriculture need sufficient amount of water for growing and giving good harvest. In the regions where precipitations are no more than 400-600 mm an year and in western parts of east Georgia. especially in Shiraqi Velly. the temperature highs in July-August to 35-40° and sometimes higher. It indicates that without irrigation it's impossible to get good harvest.

In the Soviet period was built some irrigation systems that helped to increase agricultural production. But after breakup of the Soviet system the situation in the country worsened and it influenced on all branches of economy including agriculture. Many irrigation channels was broken. others were clogged and became unusable. In last decades the country's government began the process of rehabilitation of irrigating systems. but due to lack of finances the tempos are not enough.

For proper functioning of irrigation systems in future it is necessary to undertake the following measures: As the major part of irrigation channels are not faced infiltration of water takes place that cause loss of water. as well as provoke swamping and salination; to avoid these adverse effects it is necessary to inculcate the progressive methods of irrigation like. micro-irrigation and underground drainage. etc.; These methods are water-saving. they can be used on hilly terrain. offer full coverage and distribution of water very smoothly; facing of irrigating channels is also necessary for reducing water infiltration and prevent excessive loss of water; It is necessary to clean irrigating channels periodically to avoid clogging and malfunction of them. All these problems are necessary to solve to improve farmlands irrigation sufficiency of east Georgia.

References

1. Oikarinen M. 1996. Biological soil amelioration as the basis of sustainable agriculture and forestry. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 22,342-344 pp.

2. Maslov B. S. 2009. Agricultural land improvement: Amelioration and Reclamation. vol.11. 284pp.

3. Ritsema C. J., Dekker I.W. 2003. Soil water repelling: occurrence, consequences and amelioration. Elsevier. 352 pp.

4. Draft Termination and Amelioration (NOAA) 2013. National Centers for Environmental Information. https:/www.noaa.gov

5. Strabo. 1917. Geography. vol. VIII, book XVII, pp.95.

6. Bagrationi Vakhushti. 1997. Geography of Georgia (in Georgian)

7. Bagrationi Vakhushti.1941. Description of Georgian Kingdom (Geography of Georgia) 348pp. (in Georgian).

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8. Takaishvili E. 2017. Selected works. 440pp. (in Georgian).

9. Geography of Georgia. Part 1. Physical Geography. 2000. pp.198-293 (in Georgian)

10. Geography of Georgia. 2013. pp. 324. (in Georgian)

11. Iordanishvili I., Iordanishvili K. 2008. The peculiarities of east Georgia's natural waters major stock and water resources formation and utilization. 2008. pp.144 (in Georgian).

12. Jzordania Ir. et.al. Natural Resources of Georgia. in 2 parts. 2015. Part 1. Chapter1. Soil resources pp.47-176., Chapter 2. Water resources-pp.177-290. (in Georgian).

13. Apkhazava I. Lakes of Georgia.1975. (In Russian).

14. The technical report of the department of irrigation systems management. 2002. 141pp. (in Georgian).

15. Iordanishvili I., Gavardashvili G., Iremash-vili I., Vartanov M., Iordanishvili K. 2018. Cadastre of water resources of Georgia. pp.260. (In Russian).

16. Jzordania Ir., Betaneli K., Gobechia G., Chi-javadze R., Makharadze K.2003. Water Resources in: Natural resources of Kvemo kartli and prospects of their utilization. pp.242-340. (in Georgian).

17. Jzordania Ir., Betaneli K., Gobechia G.,Chi-javadze R., Makharadze K. 2004. Water Resources in: Natural resources of Samtskhe-Javakheti and prospects of their utilization. pp.180-256. (in Georgian).

18. Jzordania Ir.,Gobechia G.,Makharadze K., Pirtskhalava R. 2009. Water Resources in: Natural resources of Shida Kartli and prospects of their utilization. pp.136-192. (in Georgian).

19. Jzordania Ir., Gobechia G., Makharadze K., Pirtskhalava R. 2010. Water Resources in: Natural resources of Mtskheta-Mtianeti and problems of their utilization. pp. 99-160. (in Georgian).

20. Jzordania Ir.. Gobechia G., Makharadze K., Pirtskhalava R. 2008. Water resources in: Natural resources of Kakheti and prospects of their utilization. pp. 144-210. ( in Georgian).

21. Geladze V., Bolashvili N., Machavariani N., Karalashvili T. 2016. Water resources of Kakheti. pp. 131. ( in Georgian).

22. Lomsadze Z., Makharadze K., Tsitskishvili M., Pirtskhalava R. 2015. Water Resources of Kakheti and Ecological Problems.. Annals of Agrarian Science 2015, 15(2), pp. 204-208.

КОНТЕЙНЕРНА ТЕХНОЛОГ1Я ВЕРМИКОМПОСТУВАННЯ В УМОВАХ ЖИТОМИРСЬКОГО

ПОЛ1ССЯ

Журавель С.В.

к. с.-г. наук Полiщук В.О. асистент, Лобунець Д.С., Поб1гайло Д.П., Мельник О.П., Федоляк Ю.С., Верховлюк Ю.С. магктри

Полiський нацюнальний утверситет, Украша

CONTAINER TECHNOLOGY OF VERMICOMPOSITING IN THE CONDITIONS OF ZHYTOMYR

POLISSYA

Zhuravel S.

Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Polishchuk V.

Assistant Lobunets D., Pobigailo D., Melnik O., Fedolyak Yu., Verkhovlyuk Yu. Master'sdegree Polissya National University, Ukraine

АНОТАЦ1Я

На сьогодшшнш час технологш виробництва вермикомпосту в Укрш'ш вже достатньо ввдпрацьована, однак в залежносп ввд ктматичних умов та складу компосту може дещо B^pi3HHracH. KpiM того, важливе значення мае i вид вермибiотичноï маси, зокрема в данш статгi розглянуто такi промисловi види черв'якiв як: Дендробена або черв'як Свропейський, Калiфорнiйський та Старатель, кожний з них в залежносп вiд своï'х бюлопчних особливостей та способу живлення може ефективно штучно культивуватися в проми-слових масштабах.

В статгi викладенi технологiчнi аспекти процесу розмноження, зокрема впливу на даний процес тем-ператури, вологосп субстрату та його кислотнiсть, процеси росту та розвитку черв'яка, агрохiмiчний склад компосту та якiснi показники готового бюгумусу, наведена економiчна ефектившсть запропонованоï' тех-нологiï вирощування даних видiв черв'якiв контейнерним способом. Опрацьована технологiя дае змогу найбiльш ефективно контролювати чисельнiсть черв'якiв, перiод розвитку яець (кокошв), кiлькiсть виро-бленого ними бюгумусу та може ефективно використовуватись, як для промислового розведення вермiбiоти так i в селекцшнш роботг

ABSTRACT

To date, the technology of vermicompost production in Ukraine is well developed, but depending on climatic conditions and compost composition may differ slightly. In addition, the type of vermibiotic mass is important, in particular, this article discusses such industrial species of worms as: Dendrobena or European worm, California and Staratel, each of which, depending on its biological characteristics and diet can be effectively artificial to cultivate on an industrial scale.

The article describes the technological aspects of the reproduction process, in particular the impact on this process of temperature, substrate humidity and acidity, growth and development of the worm, agrochemical composition of compost and quality of finished compost way. The developed technology allows the most effective control of the number of worms, the period of development of eggs (cocoons), the amount of biohumus produced by them and can be effectively used both for industrial breeding of vermibiota and in breeding.

Ключовi слова: черв'яки Дендробена, Калiфорнiйський, Старатель, вермикомпост, вермибюта, бюгумус, оргашчна технология.

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