Научная статья на тему 'Bringing cultural content and authentic materials to enhance problem-based learning in EFL classes'

Bringing cultural content and authentic materials to enhance problem-based learning in EFL classes Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Ключевые слова
PROBLEM BASED LEARNING( PBL) / AUTHENTIC / CROSS-CURRICULAR TEACHING / CULTURAL CONTENT / CONTEXTUALIZATION CUES

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Veneranda Hajrulla

In a class where elements and filters of Problem-Based Learning are used, students are engaged in language learning through organied and purposeful activities with authentic materials and collaborative learning models. Research has shown that this approach is effective in raising student’s motivation, enhancing their problem solving and critical thinking skills, and deepening their understanding of the subject contents. This paper aims to answer the questions of when and how authentic materials should be used in EL classrooms, and how cultural content may be included in the curriculum. To address these questions, the paper is organied in two parts. In the first part, the definition of authentic materials is given. Then advantages and disadvantages of the use of authentic materials are discussed. In the second part, the definition of culture is given and then, why and how cultural content should be used is discussed. The use of authentic materials in an EL classroom is what many teachers involved in foreign language teaching have discussed in recent years. We have heard persuasive voices insisting that the English presented in the classroom should be authentic, not produced for instructional purposes. enerally, what this means is materials which involve language naturally occurring as communication in native-speaker contexts of use, or rather those selected contexts where standard English is the norm: real newspaper reports, for example, real magaine articles, real advertisements, cooking recipes, horoscopes, etc. ost of the teachers throughout the world agree that authentic texts or materials are beneficial to the language learning process, especially when used within the PBL context, but what is less agreed is when authentic materials should be introduced and how they should be used in an EL classroom.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Bringing cultural content and authentic materials to enhance problem-based learning in EFL classes»

Лингвистика и перевод

ЛИНГВИСТИКА И ПЕРЕВОД

BRINGING CULTURAL CONTENT AND AUTHENTIC MATERIALS

TO ENHANCE PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING IN EFL CLASSES

Veneranda Hajrulla

(Vlore, Albania)

In a class where elements and filters of Problem-Based Learning are used, students are engaged in language learning through organized and purposeful activities with authentic materials and collaborative learning models. Research has shown that this approach is effective in raising student’s motivation, enhancing their problem solving and critical thinking skills, and deepening their understanding of the subject contents. This paper aims to answer the questions of when and how authentic materials should be used in EFL classrooms, and how cultural content may be included in the curriculum. To address these questions, the paper is organized in two parts. In the first part, the definition of authentic materials is given. Then advantages and disadvantages of the use of authentic materials are discussed. In the second part, the definition of culture is given and then, why and how cultural content should be used is discussed. The use of authentic materials in an EFL classroom is what many teachers involved in foreign language teaching have discussed in recent years. We have heard persuasive voices insisting that the English presented in the classroom should be authentic, not produced for instructional purposes. Generally, what this means is materials which involve language naturally occurring as communication in native-speaker contexts of use, or rather those selected contexts where standard English is the norm: real newspaper reports, for example, real magazine articles, real advertisements, cooking recipes, horoscopes, etc. Most of the teachers throughout the world agree that authentic texts or materials are beneficial to the language learning process, especially when used within the PBL context, but what is less agreed is when authentic materials should be introduced and how they should be used in an EFL classroom.

Keywords: problem - based learning( PBL), authentic, cross-curricular teaching, cultural content, contextualization cues.

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Introduction

The use of authentic materials in an EFL classroom is what many teachers involved in foreign language teaching have discussed in recent years. We have heard persuasive voices insisting that the English presented in the classroom should be authentic, not produced for instructional purposes. Generally, what this means is materials which involve language naturally occurring as communication in native-speaker contexts of use, or rather those selected contexts where standard English is the norm: real newspaper reports, for example, real magazine articles, real advertisements, cooking recipes, horoscopes, etc. Most of the teachers throughout the world agree that authentic texts or materials are beneficial to the language learning process, but what is less agreed is when authentic materials should be introduced and how they should be used in an EFL classroom.

1. Authentic Materials: Definition

The definitions of authentic materials are slightly different in literature. What is common in these definitions is ‘exposure to real language and its use in its own community’. Rogers (1988) defines it as ‘appropriate’ and ‘quality’ in terms of goals, objectives, learner needs and interest and ‘natural’ in terms of real life and meaningful communication [p. 467]. Harmer (1991), cited in Matsuta [n.d., para. 1] defines authentic texts as materials which are designed for native speakers; they are real text; designed not for language students, but for the speakers of the language. Jordan [1997, p. 113] refers to authentic texts as texts that are not written for language teaching purposes. Authentic materials is significant since it increases students’ motivation for learning, makes the learner be exposed to the ‘real’ language as discussed by Guariento & Morley [2001, p. 347]. The main advantages of using authentic materials are:

They provide exposure to real language.

They have a positive effect on learner motivation.

They provide authentic cultural information.

They support a more creative approach to teaching.

They relate more closely to learners ‘ needs. [Philips and Shettles-worth 1978; Clarke 1989; Peacock 1997, cited in Richards, 2001]:

Authentic materials enable learners to interact with the real language and content rather than the form. Learners feel that they are learning a target language as it is used outside the classroom. Considering this, it may not be wrong to say that at any level authentic materials should be

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used to complete the gap between the competency and performance of the language learners, which is a common problem among the foreign language speakers. Using authentic materials give them opportunities to different subjects and topics. In this way students feel motivated to learn and to speak in the target language. When a teacher introduces languageteaching materials, such as books or handouts, they must understand that these are viewed differently by students depending on their cultural views [Maley 1986:102-111]. By authentic materials we understand using films, songs, newspapers, brochures, magazines, photographs and other printed materials.

1.1. Disadvantages of Using Authentic Materials

Richards [2001, p. 253] points out that alongside with these advantages, authentic materials often contain difficult language, unneeded vocabulary items and complex language structures, which causes a burden for the teacher in lower-level classes. Martinez [2002] mentions that authentic materials may be too culturally biased and too many structures are mixed, causing lower levels have a hard time decoding the texts. There comes the question of when authentic materials should be introduced and used in a classroom; in other words, can we use authentic materials regardless of our students’ level?

1.2. Using Authentic Materials: At Which Level?

Guariento & Morley [2001] claim that at post-intermediate level, the use of authentic materials is available for use in classroom. This might be attributed to the fact that at this level, most students master a wide range of vocabulary in the target language and all of the structures. They also note that at lower levels, the use of authentic materials may cause students to feel de-motivated and frustrated since they lack many lexical items and structures used in the target language. Matsuata [n.d.] states that the use of authentic materials is a burden for the instructors teaching beginning students as they have to spend a lot of time to prepare for authentic materials regarding the ability level of the students. Do all these mean we are not able to use authentic materials in lower-level classes apart from post-intermediate and advanced levels? According to the findings of the survey carried out by Chavez [1998], learners enjoy dealing with authentic materials since they enable them to interact with the real language and its use. Also they do not consider authentic situations or materials innately difficult. However, learners state that they need

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pedagogical support especially in listening situations and when reading literary texts such as the provision of a full range of cues (auditory and visual including written language).

1.3. What Can be Done to Overcome Difficulties We Face?

We may conclude that learners feel better with authentic materials helping them involve in the ‘real’ language as long as we, as teachers, provide them with pedagogical support. In order to achieve this, we have a wide range of choices. Martinez [2002] suggests that teachers may use authentic materials for the learners to listen for the gist of the information presented and also he adds that by using authentic materials teachers will have the opportunity to encourage students to read for pleasure especially certain topics of their interest. Matsuta [n.d.] claims that using audiovisual materials aiding students’ comprehension is beneficial since it will prevent students especially beginning ones from being frustrated about authentic materials. Materials such as popular and traditional songs will help us to create a non-threatening environment. Guariento & Moley [2001] suggest that authentic materials should be used in accordance with students’ ability and adds that suitable tasks can be given to learners in which total understanding is not important. According to Jordan [1997], in the earlier stages, non-authentic materials can be used, but stresses that upon students’ dealing with materials from their own subject area, authentic materials should be introduced.

2. Cultural education & authentic materials.

There are several components that can help us incorporate culture into our classrooms. Apart from strategies, materials have their own importance. Selection of materials based on students’ linguistic level helps many different age groups to tackle various issues. Many students like discussions because they feel motivated. These discussions are cultural and educational. For classes where students and teachers come from the same culture, the situation is more difficult and they must rely on the teacher and his knowledge to understand the language and culture that this or that teacher is teaching to them. [Larsen.D.1986]. so in other words it means that when the English teacher teaches foreign languages to his students he teaches them not only knowledge but also culture. So a good teacher should not only be competent, but he/she also must be intelligent and communicative above all. Using authentic materials in this case plays

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a major role. Authentic materials should be adapted to fit language level and needs of the students.

2.1. Why Should We Use Cultural Content?

As all we know, knowing a language goes beyond the knowledge of grammatical rules, vocabulary items and pronunciation of these items. Successful language learning requires language users to know that culture underlying language in order to get the meaning across. Also, Tseng [2002] suggests that culture effects changes in individual perception and is vital for expanding an individual’s perspective of the world. According to Stuart and Nocon [1996], learning about the lived culture of actual target language speakers as well as about one’s own culture requires tools that assist language learners in negotiating meaning and understanding the communicative and cultural texts in which linguistic codes are used” [p. 432]. Also, Shanahan [1997, p. 168] states that cultural content provides exposure to living language that a foreign language student lacks. So, culture is not something consisting of facts to be learnt, but a helpful tool to make learners feel the need to speak and use the target language.

3. Cultural Content

Changes in linguistic and learning theory suggest that culture can be used as an important element in language classrooms, but many students say that they do not want to learn about the culture of the target language . This might be because of the fear of assimilation into what they perceived as something strange to them. Also, misrepresenting cultures by reinforcing popular stereotypes and constructing these cultures as monolithic, static ‘Others’, rather than as dynamic, fluid entities might result in failure in making cultural content an effective element in language learning and teaching [Guest, 2002]. I believe that cultural content is a key to effective teaching and learning a language provided that problems arising from introducing culture into EFL classroom are dealt with effectively and teaching strategies and learning materials are chosen appropriately.

How Can We Deal with Problems?

Today, English teachers have a lot of choices in terms of textbooks, and it is surprising that many of them rely on uninteresting textbooks that focus students’ attention on grammatical structures, and on practice in isolation. Also, the activities chosen are based on teacher-talk and stu-

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dent-listen routines as suggested by Cheung [2001]. These practices are unlikely to lead students to develop a genuine interest in learning English. Students lacking motivation to learn a language need variety and excitement. We should help them to notice that learning a language is not just learning its grammatical rules, vocabulary items and so on.

The reason for the use of cultural content in classroom is that it will foster learner motivation [McKay, 2000, p. 7]. She, like many other experts, believes that there should be a variety of culture in the materials and not only an overload of western culture in ELT classrooms. Besides, learning about a culture does not mean accepting that culture. If the role of the culture in the materials is just to create learner interest towards contents and thus towards language, that is highly desirable. But overuse of cultural material in the language classrooms will constitute problems not for students but also for the teachers and decrease the motivation. McKay identifies three types of cultural materials: target culture materials, learners’ own culture materials and international target culture materials. For her, the best one is international target language materials, which supposedly covers a variety of knowledge from different cultures all over the world using the target language [ McKay, pp. 9-10]. That will most probably increase the learners’ interest rather than imposing only one culture all the time and prevent learners from having the fear of assimilation into a specific culture, and help them respect other people’s cultures. Students’ own culture should be discussed together with target culture. In other words, home and target culture should be integrated. Robinson (as cited in Stuart and Nocon, [ 1996, p. 435] refers to this integration as ‘Color Purple’. According to Stuart and Nocon, this synthesis is created when one becomes aware of one’s own cultural lens (e.g. blue) through the recognition that a person from another culture has a different lens (e.g. red). Neither person can escape his or her own cultural lens, but each can choose to overlap lenses (e.g. purple) in order to understand better the other’s perspectives and arrive at shared meaning. While using cultural content in classrooms, teachers should keep in mind that English is an international language, and culture is an aid to motivate our students rather than something to be taught. The development of competences is interchanged with the development of cultural awareness. It’s up to the teacher to provide activities that enhance culture and communication abilities as well. Treating different issues from the simple to more complex ones is a great opportunity to talk, to interact, to exchange experience and experience something new. High levels of the Albanian language struc-

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tures help our students to understand the structure of foreign language; it depends on the way teachers teach and the methods used. Learning the language through Communication, offers the opportunity to speak.

3.1. How Can We Introduce Cultural Content in Our Classrooms?

There are a lot of activities we can use in our classrooms in order to create interest towards the target language by using cultural content. The key point is that we should create a relaxing environment where our students can discuss their own culture together with the target culture in meaningful and communicative tasks and activities. This will ensure that students are doing something with a purpose in their mind.

(Experience)

By teaching British Cultural Studies in our classes we treat British culture, but also Albanian culture allowing students to share opinions, discuss about different topics, making comparison, essays on the topics .The topics vary from customs and traditions, food, songs, anthems to architecture, writers and traditional weird contest. In this way, they develop critical thinking, increase knowledge and develop not only problem solving skills, but also speaking and writing skills in English, they exchange culture, and make distinctions. Apart from the text occasionally I (teachers ) bring English language journals containing issues related to the developed topics , books or paintings, films or photographs that are original, or authentic language tapes that talk about different issues on history, literature and architecture. Students are also free to bring additional materials concerning the topic by both Albanian and English resources.

When discussing different topics students do not merely confine themselves to English language and culture but they make comparisons between English and Albanian culture as well, in this way they appreciate culture more, feel motivated to speak ,discuss and interact with each other. In this way they develop linguistic skills, communicative and cultural competence as well. The choice of the text helps in this context a lot. As an example is the text of British Cultural Studies for English Students (Level B2): “A Miscenally of Britain, People, Places, History, Culture, Customs, Sport.” In doing activities concerning the topics of the textbook, student’s awareness is increased, their curiosity developed towards the target language, thus, helping them to make comparisons between cultures, in our case, Albanian and English one. In this way they estimate, define and understand the stereotypes. Moreover, teachers can

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also invite guest speakers, who will talk about their experiences making them appreciate culture of the foreign country. In this way, it becomes easier for teachers and students to identify “stereotypes” and before doing this making full understanding of the meaning of this word. Underlying significance of a particular term or word in the target language and culture. Speaking about different topics and trying to find similarities and differences is funny for them. Culture can be brought in the classroom by making comparisons between the target language and the native language. Let’s have a look of how the two cultures are treated together.

The text, used in British Cultural Studies is:

“A Miscenally of britain, People,Places,History,Culture,Customs,Sp ort.”

* Training task 1.( e.g. ) superstitions about good and bad luck in respective languages.

English Albanian

black cat( good luck) to see a black cat in Albanian brings( bad luck)

or other problem scenarios practiced:

- Highlight the differences of British architecture to Albanian ones.

- Highlight the differences and the importance of Tea to British classes.

- Highlight the differences of British patron saints to Albanian ones.

- Essays are a very good means of developing critical thinking, increase knowledge and develop skills of thinking and writing in English. As an example essay given to students:

“Cultural diversity of Britain and Albania. The importance and development through the centuries, portraitsation and preservation of “Culture”, (300 words)

3.2. * Training task 2. (Practice)

The Problem-Based Learning Process

In problem-based learning classrooms, the roles and responsibilities of both teachers and learners are different from those in more traditional types of school-based learning. Generally, in problem-based classrooms, the teacher acts as a coach for or facilitator of activities that students carry out themselves. The teacher does not simply present information or directly control the progression of work. Instead, the teacher provides students with

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appropriate problems to work on, assists them in identifying and accessing the materials and equipment necessary to solve the problems, gives necessary feedback and support during the problem-solving process, and evaluates students’ participation and products, with the goal of helping them develop their problem-solving as well as their language and literacy skills. This process generally includes four main steps, which are illustrated in this training task experience, (1) being introduced to the problem, (2) exploring what they do and do not know about the problem, (3) generating possible solutions to the problem, (4) considering the consequences of each solution and selecting the most viable solution.

Considerations for Teachers

The teacher’s role in problem-based learning moves from preteaching through assessing students’ performance throughout the project, and includes the following steps:

1. Pre teach

2. Introduce the Problem and the Language Needed to Work on It

3. Observe and Support

4. Follow Up and Assess Progress

Teachers might survey students for their ideas on problems or conflicts that they face, or have faced, in their daily lives or that they are aware of in their community. Below is a problem that students at the high-beginning or above levels might work on. Although it is teacher created, it mirrors the problems many adult learners face while learning English. Teachers should group students carefully to increase their language learning opportunities in a problem-based activity. In a multilevel class, problem-based learning provides an opportunity to have students of different proficiency levels work together. If possible, teachers should group students from different language backgrounds together to guarantee that students communicate in the target language. Teachers should make available a variety of resources to help students work on the given problem. When providing students with resources, teachers should make sure the students understand how to use them and how these resources may help in finding a solution to the problem. If asked, the teacher may provide linguistic or technical help to a group but should avoid directing the group’s efforts or in any way controlling their activities to solve the problem.

Stage one: (1) Meeting the problem: The problem scenario to be solved: define the contrasts and see the difference between /digital culture / and / network culture._When language learners were first asked

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to state what they knew about digital culture and network culture, they found it difficult to interpret. they mixed the cues together and at some point the discussion was “frozen”.

Stage two: (2) Facilitating the context by providing the necessary vocabulary : A short dialog on the tape containing the following words was provided to them:

(heavy CRT monitor, Smart phones such as the Blackberry, Google G1, and the I Phone, I Pod, and Mars rover are the same device, minor exceptions, the laptop, smart phone, cable TV set top box, game console, wireless router, distributing audio, video, Internet, voice, text chat etc...)

* The words in italics are all contextualization cues. helping to distinguish between the two types of culture.

Stage three: (3) Observe and support by generating possible solutions to the problem:

With the teacher’s help and through a Venn Diagram. all the contextualization cues were put to the proper circle. students understood that through the use of contextualization cues. speakers and hearers can convey to each other what their expectations are. with respect to the communication they are engaged in. It is suggested that teachers carefully consider why English language learners are experiencing difficulties in learning English. These students have different constructive processes from their first language learning experiences. So it is recommended to teachers. to accommodate teaching instruction effectively for English language learners and to interact with their colleagues for enhancing their cultural sensitivity.

Stage four: (4) Follow Up and Assess Progress:

Teachers need to provide language-appropriate opportunities for students to share the results of their work and follow-up language activities that build on that work. Depending on the proficiency levels of the students. sharing their results could include oral presentations or debates (with intermediate or advanced students). completing simple questionnaires about the process (with intermediate or high beginners). or creating posters that graphically display the steps taken in finding a solution to the problem (with beginners). Follow-up activities should be based on the teacher’s observations and notes taken during the problem-solving process. While students are working to solve the problem. teachers should try to observe whether students are experiencing difficulties with particular grammar points. pronunciation. vocabulary. reading strategies (e.g..

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skimming for information), or pragmatic structures (e.g., telephone greetings, requesting information, thanking). These difficulties should provide the starting points for supplemental, focused instruction and support. Finally, assessment should be carried out. Most standard EFL activities can be easily adapted for use in the culture classroom. Web resources are also useful. Activities should be chosen according to the language level of our students. This requires the language patterns being put into practice in real life situations. Since learning about a culture is not accepting it and the role of the culture in the materials is just to create learner interest towards the target language, there should be a variety of culture in the materials, not a specific one.

3.3. Sources and Techniques for Cultural Content

Today, with the help of technological developments, we have access to many sources easily and quickly. Almost all the printed materials are on the Internet in electronic forms and we can easily search anything anytime. As a result, we do not lack cultural content to use in our classrooms. Cullen and Sato [2000] suggest practical techniques and a wide range of sources for teaching culture in the EFL classroom using three different parameters, namely, information sources, activity-types and selling-points and also Kodotchigova [2002] discusses the role of role-play in teaching culture for classroom suggesting quick steps for classroom implementation. Jordan [1997, p. 105] lists sources of cultural information:

Newspapers: these are a good source of cultural information: local papers will give more of a flavour of everyday life in towns.

Video: a number of published ELT video tapes are a good visual source of cultural information. (Today, we have CD/DVD versions of these video tapes, which provide us with better quality.)

Talks/discussions: some topics may be suitable for giving information to students in a plenary session.

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Role play/dramatizations: these can be used to initiate discussion and introspection.

Culture quizzes/tests.

4. Practical Activities and strategies for teaching culture in EFL classes.

As I mentioned above in our classes’ students are allowed to search and to bring materials for different topics. Seminars are organized ingroup work, and projects are another way of reaching an effective teach-

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ing and learning. Group works are very good because they lead students in interaction. An interaction between students should be facilitated by using strategies such as learning in cooperation [Lindholm K. J.1990: 91105]. Interaction brings communication, which consequently brings exchange of ideas, thoughts and meanings. Some activities and techniques used and experienced with advanced levels of EFL students in Vlora University are:

Games Simulations Role Play Reading activities Listening activities Writing activities Discussion activities Project work Group work

Proverbs and phrase logical phrases

- Games are very good and can be applied to A1, A2 levels.

- Role Plays are very good because students can act out the problems of communication based on cultural differences (in our case Albanian and English one example the shake of head, the gesture leads up to mis-communication, or a pat on the shoulder. Comparing English gesture to Albanian ones they mean the contrary).

- Poster-sessions or longer projects. For some students, it can even lead to a long-term interest in the target-culture. Example; The role of women in society, comparing women in Albania and the role of women in Britain.

- Proverbs and idioms in the target language help students to focus on how they differ from or are similar to the native language.

- Video: a number of published ELT video tapes are a good visual source of cultural information. (Today, we have CD/DVD versions of these video tapes, which provide us with better quality.)

-Discussion activities are made in class by dividing students in groups.

Conclusion

Language and culture are incorporated into each other. Studying English leads students in understanding linguistic skills and developing cultural awareness. It is the role of the teacher to help students distinguish between stereotypes, beliefs, attitudes, and cultural norms. Understand-

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ing culture resolves the problem of communication. The development of competences is interchanged with the development of cultural awareness. It’s up to the teacher to provide activities that enhance culture and communication abilities as well.

Treating different themes help and give them a great opportunity to talk, to interact, to exchange experience and experience something new. A major place should be given to authentic materials to expose students to real language they help enhancing culture. Another important role is played by activities and different techniques to help students overcome the difficulties of enhancing culture. Comparing cultures does not mean changing their way of life and belief but helps them understand English language better. Culture is and should remain an integral part in the long process of foreign language learning. The teacher plays the main role but he/she must serve as adviser, students should feel free to bring materials, information for whatever they want. If we have exchange of ideas and thoughts everything will go smoothly and our teaching process will fulfill and will go beyond the needs of our students.

References

1. Straub, H. [1999]. Designing a Cross-Cultural Course. English Forum, vol. 37: 3, July-September, 1999.

2. Chavez, M. [1988]. Learner’s perspectives on authenticity. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 36[4], 277ff.

3. Cheung, C. [2001]. The use of popular culture as a stimulus to motivate secondary students’ English learning in Hong Kong. ELT Journal, 55[1], 55-61.

4. Cullen, B., & Sato, K. [2000]. Practical techniques for teaching culture in the EFL classroom. The Internet TESL Journal, 6[12]. Retrieved July 11, 2004. URL : http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Cullen-Cul-ture.html

5. Guariento, W. & Morley, J. [2001].Text and task authenticity in the EFL classroom. ELT Journal 55[4], 347-353.

6. Guest, M. [2002]. A critical ‘checkbook’ for culture teaching and learning. ELT Journal, 56[2], 154-161.

7. Kramsch, C.[ 2009]. Language and Culture .Oxford: Oxford University Press.

8. Kramsch, C. [1993]. Context and Culture in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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9. Larsen Freeman Diane [1986].Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford. Oxford University press.[131]

10. Richard, J.C. [2001]. Curriculum development in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

11. Maley A [1986] XANADU - ‘A miracle of rare device’: the teaching of English in China. In JM Valdes. Culture bound: bridging the cultural gap in language teaching.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversity. Press, p102-111.

12. Byram. M. [1989]. Cultural studies in foreign language education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

13. Jordan, R. R [1997]. English for Academic Purposes: A Guide and Resource for Teachers. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.

14. Kodotchigova, M. A. [2002]. Role play in teaching culture: Six quick steps for classroom implementation. The Internet TESL Journal, 8[7].

15. Retrieved July 11, 2004. URL : http://iteslj.org/Techniques/ Kodotchigova-RolePlay.html

16. Martinez, A. [2002]. Authentic materials: An overview. Karen’s Linguistic Issues.

Retrieved November 20, 2003 from http://www3.telus.net/linguisticsis-sues/authenticmaterials.html

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