Научная статья на тему 'Breeding value and productivity in sows of the Large White breed'

Breeding value and productivity in sows of the Large White breed Текст научной статьи по специальности «Животноводство и молочное дело»

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Ключевые слова
replacement pig / own productivity / sow / reproductive qualities / breeding value / index / variability / correlation / economic efficiency

Аннотация научной статьи по животноводству и молочному делу, автор научной работы — V. Khalak, B. Gutyj, O. Stadnytska, I. Shuvar, V. Balkovskyi

The article presents the results of research on the indicators of own productivity of replacement pigs and reproductive qualities of sows of different breeding value and determines the economic efficiency of research results. The study was conducted in agricultural formations of Dnipropetrovsk and Sumy regions, the livestock laboratory of the Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, and the livestock and feed production laboratory of the Institute of Agriculture North-East of NAAS. The evaluation of replacement pigs on indicators of own productivity and sows on signs of reproductive qualities was carried out taking into account the following parameters: age of achievement of live weight of 100 kg, days; fat thickness at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae, mm; the thickness of the fat at the midpoint of the back between the withers and buttocks, mm; thickness of lard on the sacrum, mm; torso length, cm; fertility, goal; nest weight at the time of weaning at the age of 28 days, kg, safety, %. The BLUP index (maternal line) was calculated according to the general model of a single animal (P.A. Vashchenko, 2019), the reproductive quality index (RQI) – according to the method of I.P. Sheiko and others. (2006), the index of alignment (homogeneity) of the sow's nest by live weight of piglets at the time of their birth (IVG0) – according to the method of V.I. Khalak (2012), biometric processing of research results according to the methods of G.F. Lakin (1990). It is established that replacement pigs of the Large White breed based on their productivity (age of reaching live weight 100 kg, days, fat thickness at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae, mm) belong to the elite class. The number of sows, which by fertility, milk yield, and nest weight at the time of weaning at the age of 60 days (estimated) belong to the elite class is 71.73, 41.30, and 37.68%, respectively. A significant difference between replacement pigs of different breeding value (M+, M-) was established by the age of reaching a live weight of 100 kg (12 days, td = 4.58, P<0.001), the thickness of the fat at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae (2.4 mm, td = 6.67, P<0.001), the thickness of the fat at the midpoint of the back between the withers and buttocks (1.1 mm, td = 3.14, P<0.01), the thickness of the fat on the buttocks (2.1 mm, td = 6.77, P<0.001) and body length 1.9 cm (td = 4.14, P<0.001). Sows of group I (BLUP index is 109.78-128.75 points) outperformed peers of group III (BLUP index is 53.61-89.91 points) in the fertility by 27.13% (td = 10.60, P<0.001 ), milk yield 27.86% (td = 10.86, P<0.001), the number of piglets at the time of weaning at the age of 28 days 27.27% (td = 12.00, P<0.001), nest weight at the time of weaning at the age of 28 days 21.37% (td = 10.57, P<0.001) and the index of reproductive qualities (RQI) 24.52% (td = 11.50, P<0.001). According to the IVG0 index, the difference between the groups M− and M+ is 28.15% (td = 9.82, P<0.001), which indicates greater homogeneity of sows of class M−. According to the BLUP index for pigs of the Large White breed of the controlled herd, the criterion for selecting highly productive animals is the indicators 109.78-128.75, according to the index of reproductive qualities (RQI) 101.43-161.72 points. The pairwise correlation coefficient between the absolute indicators of reproductive qualities of sows, the BLUP index (maternal line), the index "alignment (homogeneity) of the sow's nest by live weight of piglets at birth," and the index of reproductive qualities ranges from +0.648 to +0.984. M+ class sows provide additional products at the level of +13.08%, and its cost is +332.08 UAH/head.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Breeding value and productivity in sows of the Large White breed»

Ukrainian Journal of Ecology

Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 2021, 11(1), 319-324, doi: 10.15421/2021_48

ORIGINAL ARTICLE UDC 636.4.082.43

Breeding value and productivity in sows of the Large White

breed

V. Khalak1*, B. Gutyj2*, O. Stadnytska3, I. Shuvar4, V. Balkovskyi4, H. Korpita4,

A. Shuvar3, O. Bordun5

1State Institution Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, Dnipro, Ukraine 2Stepan Gzhytskyi National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies Lviv, Ukraine 3Institute of Agriculture of the Carpathian region, Obroshino, Ukraine 4Lviv National Agrarian University, Dubliany, Ukraine 5Institute of Agriculture of Northern East of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine,

Sumy, Ukraine

Corresponding author E-mail: v16kh91@gmail.com, bvh@ukr.net Received: 09.01.2021. Accepted 14.02.2021

The article presents the results of research on the indicators of own productivity of replacement pigs and reproductive qualities of sows of different breeding value and determines the economic efficiency of research results. The study was conducted in agricultural formations of Dnipropetrovsk and Sumy regions, the livestock laboratory of the Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, and the livestock and feed production laboratory of the Institute of Agriculture North-East of NAAS. The evaluation of replacement pigs on indicators of own productivity and sows on signs of reproductive qualities was carried out taking into account the following parameters: age of achievement of live weight of 100 kg, days; fat thickness at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae, mm; the thickness of the fat at the midpoint of the back between the withers and buttocks, mm; thickness of lard on the sacrum, mm; torso length, cm; fertility, goal; nest weight at the time of weaning at the age of 28 days, kg, safety, %. The BLUP index (maternal line) was calculated according to the general model of a single animal (P.A. Vashchenko, 2019), the reproductive quality index (RQI) - according to the method of I.P. Sheiko and others. (2006), the index of alignment (homogeneity) of the sow's nest by live weight of piglets at the time of their birth (IVG0) - according to the method of V.I. Khalak (2012), biometric processing of research results - according to the methods of G.F. Lakin (1990). It is established that replacement pigs of the Large White breed based on their productivity (age of reaching live weight 100 kg, days, fat thickness at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae, mm) belong to the elite class. The number of sows, which by fertility, milk yield, and nest weight at the time of weaning at the age of 60 days (estimated) belong to the elite class is 71.73, 41.30, and 37.68%, respectively. A significant difference between replacement pigs of different breeding value (M+, M-) was established by the age of reaching a live weight of 100 kg (12 days, td = 4.58, P<0.001), the thickness of the fat at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae (2.4 mm, td = 6.67, P<0.001), the thickness of the fat at the midpoint of the back between the withers and buttocks (1.1 mm, td = 3.14, P<0.01), the thickness of the fat on the buttocks (2.1 mm, td = 6.77, P<0.001) and body length - 1.9 cm (td = 4.14, P<0.001). Sows of group I (BLUP index is 109.78-128.75 points) outperformed peers of group III (BLUP index is 53.61-89.91 points) in the fertility by 27.13% (td = 10.60, P<0.001 ), milk yield - 27.86% (td = 10.86, P<0.001), the number of piglets at the time of weaning at the age of 28 days - 27.27% (td = 12.00, P<0.001), nest weight at the time of weaning at the age of 28 days - 21.37% (td = 10.57, P<0.001) and the index of reproductive qualities (RQI) - 24.52% (td = 11.50, P<0.001). According to the IVG0 index, the difference between the groups M- and M+ is 28.15% (td = 9.82, P<0.001), which indicates greater homogeneity of sows of class M-. According to the BLUP index for pigs of the Large White breed of the controlled herd, the criterion for selecting highly productive animals is the indicators 109.78-128.75, according to the index of reproductive qualities (RQI) - 101.43-161.72 points. The pairwise correlation coefficient between the absolute indicators of reproductive qualities of sows, the BLUP index (maternal line), the index "alignment (homogeneity) of the sow's nest by live weight of piglets at birth," and the index of reproductive qualities ranges from +0.648 to +0.984. M+ class sows provide additional products at the level of +13.08%, and its cost is +332.08 UAH/head. Keywords: replacement pig, own productivity, sow, reproductive qualities, breeding value, index, variability, correlation, economic efficiency.

Introduction

Both individual sources of information and their combinations are used to assess the breeding value of pigs (Schiavo et al., 2015; Kramarenko, 2017; Martyshuk et al., 2019; 2020; Khalak et al., 2020; Khalak & Gutyj, 2020). Thus, according to the requirements of the Instruction on grading pigs (2003), take into account the absolute indicators of their productivity of

replacement young (live weight 100 kg, fat thickness at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae, mm), reproductive qualities of sows and breeding boars (multiplicity, goal, milk yield, kg, the weight of nest and offspring at the time of weaning, kg), fattening and meat qualities of their offspring (age of reaching live weight 100 kg, feed consumption per 1 kg of grain, feed units, fat thickness at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae, mm, length of the chilled carcass, cm).

Based on these absolute productivity indicators, several indices have been developed and implemented, which are practical tools for evaluating and selecting highly productive animals (Bazhov & Komlatskiy, 1989; Bekenev, 2007; Getya, 2009, Tserenyuk et al., 2012). The topical issue is the use in the selection work of genotyping data on DNA markers and the BLUP model (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction - the best linear unbiased prediction) (Tserenyuk et al., 2010; Kovalenko, 2011; Khalak, 2015; Voloshchuk & Khalak, 2015; Girya et al., 2018).

The work aims to investigate the indicators of own productivity of replacement pigs and reproductive qualities of sows of different breeding value and determine the economic efficiency of research results. We identified the following tasks:

- to evaluate replacement pigs based on their productivity, sows - on indicators of reproductive qualities;

- based on the calculation of the BLUP index to determine the breeding value of pigs in the controlled herd;

- calculate the level of correlations between traits and economic efficiency of the use of pigs of different breeding values.

Materials and Methods

The study was conducted in agricultural formations of Dnipropetrovsk and Sumy regions, the livestock laboratory of the Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS and the livestock and feed production laboratory of the Institute of Agriculture of the NorthEast of NAAS. The study's object was replacement pigs and sows of the Large White breed (n = 138). The work was performed according to the research program of NAAS №30 "Pig breeding".

The BLUP index (maternal line) was calculated at the Main Breeding Center for Pig Breeding (Institute of Pig Breeding and AIP NAAS of Ukraine) according to the general model of a single animal (Vashchenko, 2010).

A comprehensive evaluation of sows reproductive qualities was performed according to the following mathematical models:

x — X

2,5 — ( — _ - )

X , (1)

where: IVG0 - index of alignment of the sow's nest by live weight of piglets at the time of their birth, score, n - fertility, goal; 2.5

- the maximum live weight of one piglet at birth, kg; Xmax - the live weight of piglets in the nest with the maximum value, kg; xmin

- the live weight of piglets in the nest with a minimum value, kg; x - the average live weight of piglets in the nest at birth (sow fertility), kg (Khalak, 2012);

IRQ = (1.1 X X1) + (0.3 X X2) + (3.3 X X3) + (0.67 x X4) , (2)

where: IRQ - index of reproductive qualities of the sow, score; X1 - fertility, goal; X2 - the weight of piglets at 21 days of age (milk yield), kg; X3 - the number of piglets at the time of weaning, ch.; X4 - a mass of the nit at the time of weaning, kg (Shejko et al., 2008).

The economic research efficiency was evaluated by Methodology (1983).

The strength of the correlations between traits was performed on the Cheddock scale (Sidorova et al., 2003) (Table 1).

Table 1. Cheddock scale for grading the strength of the correlation_

The value of the correlation coefficient Correlation strength 0.1 -0.3 Weak 0.3-0.5 Moderate 0.5-0.7 Noticeable 0.7-0.9 High _0.9-0.99_Very high_

The results were processed by the method of variation statistics (Lakin, 1990).

Results and Discussion

Studies have shown that the age of reaching a live weight of 100 kg is 175.8 ± 0.88 days (Cv = 5.90%), the thickness of the fat at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae - 22.9 ± 0.13 mm, (Cv = 6,80%), the thickness of the fat at the midpoint of the back between the withers and buttocks - 17.2 ± 0.12 mm (Cv = 8.76%), the thickness of the fat on the buttocks - 20.3 ± 0.10 mm, (Cv = 6,23%), body length - 116.7 ± 0.16 mm (Cv = 1.62%), fertility of sows - 11.1 ± 0.14 piglets per farrowing (Cv = 15.82%), high fertility - 1.41 ± 0.009 kg (Cv = 7.94%), the index of uniformity (homogeneity) of the sow's nest by live weight of piglets at the time of their birth

- 5.23 ± 0.85 points (Cv = 17.16%), milk yield - 51.9 ± 0.81 kg (Cv = 18.44%), the number of piglets at weaning - 9.4 ± 0.13 goals (Cv = 16.57%), nest weight at weaning at the age of 28 days, kg - 74.4 ± 0.85 kg (Cv = 13.43%), safety - 84.9 ± 0.49%.

The index of reproductive qualities of the sow (IRQ) is equal to 108.77 ± 1.375 points (Cv = 14.86%), the index of breeding value (index BLUP, maternal line) - 99.82 ± 1.246 points (Cv = 14.67%).

We found that the difference between replacement pigs of different breeding value (M+, M-) at the age of reaching a live weight of 100 kg is 12 days (td = 4.58, P<0.001), the thickness of the fat at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae - 2.4 mm (td = 6.67,

n

321 Breeding value and productivity of sows

P<0.001), the thickness of the fat at the middle point of the back between the withers and buttocks - 1,1 mm (td = 3.14, P<0.01), the thickness of the fat on the buttocks - 2.1 mm (td = 6.77, P<0.001), body length - 1.9 cm (td = 4.14, P<0.001). Studies of signs of own productivity of replacement pigs and indicators of reproductive qualities of sows of the Large White breed of different breeding value are given in Table 2.

Table 2. Indicators of signs of own productivity of replacement pigs and indicators of reproductive qualities of sows of the Large White breed of various pedigree value_

Distribution class by index "BLUP" (mother line), X ± (0.67 x a)

M+ M0 M-

Indicators, units of Biometrie index gradation

measurement Indicators 109.78-128.75 1 90.35-109.51 Group II 53.61-89.91 III

Age of reaching live weight n 30 73 35

100 kg, days Ö ± 189.0 ± 2.21 181.9 ± 1.18 177.0 ± 1.42

a± sG 12.11 ± 15.645 10.16 ± 0.841 8.41 ± 1.005

Cv ± S a ,% 6.40 ± 0.826 5.58 ± 0.461 4.75 ± 0.568

The thickness of the fat at the Ö ± S- 24.8 ± 0.27 23.1 ± 0.18 22.4 ± 0.25

level of 6-7 thoracic a± S G 1.47 ± 0.189 1,57 ± 0.129 1.62 ± 0.193

vertebrae, mm

Cv ± Sa ,% 5.92 ± 0.683 6.79 ± 0.562 7.23 ± 0.873

The thickness of the fat at the Ö ± S — 18.1 ± 0.27 17.3 ± 0.18 17.0 ± 0.23

midpoint of the back X

between the withers and a± Sa 1.50 ± 0.193 1.56 ± 0.129 1.38 ± 0.165

buttocks, mm

Cv ± Sa ,% 8.28 ± 1.069 9.01 ± 0.745 8.11 ± 0.970

The thickness of the fat on Ö ± S — 21.2 ± 0.22 20.3 ± 0.14 19.1 ± 0.23

the buttocks, mm a ± S g 1.22 ± 0.157 1.27 ± 0.105 1.31 ± 0.156

Cv ± Sa ,% 5.75 ± 0.742 6.25 ± 0.517 6.82 ± 0.815

Body length, cm Ö ± S — X 117.8 ± 0.33 116.5 ± 0.22 115.9 ± 0.32

a± Sa 1.83 ± 0.236 1.91 ± 0.158 1.92 ± 0.229

Cv ± S a , % 1.55 ± 0.200 1.63 ± 0.134 1.65 ± 0.197

Multiplicity, heads Ö ± S — X 12.9 ± 0.21 11.1 ± 0.13 9.4 ± 0.26

a± S g 1.20 ± 0.155 1.14 ± 0.094 1.57 ± 0.187

Cv ± Sa % 9.29 ± 1.281 10.26 ± 0.849 16.76 ± 2.004

IVG0, points X ± SX 6.11 ± 0.112 5.26 ± 0.075 4.39 ± 0.135

a ± S0 0.61 ± 0.078 0.64 ± 0.052 0.80 ± 0.095

Cv ± Sa ,% 10.10 ± 1.304 12.18 ± 1.008 18.27 ± 2.185

Milk yield, kg X ± S — X 62.8 ± 1.46 50.5 ± 0.96 45.3 ± 0.69

a ± So 8.03 ± 1.037 8.24 ± 0.682 4.09 ± 0.489

Cv ± Sa ,% 12.78 ± 1.651 16.31 ± 1.350 9.04 ± 1.081

Number of piglets at the time X ± S— 11.0 ± 0.19 9.4 ± 0.15 8.0 ± 0.17

of weaning, heads

a ± So 1.00 ± 0.129 1.30 ± 0.107 1.05 ± 0.125

Cv ± Sa ,% 9.84 ± 1.271 13.80 ± 1.142 13.10 ± 1.566

The weight of the nest at the X ± S- 85.6 ± 1.54 73.3 ± 1.00 67.3 ± 0.79

time of weaning at the age of

a ± S0 8.46 ± 1.093 8.55 ± 0.707 4.68 ± 0.559

28 days, kg

Cv ± Sa ,% 9.88 ± 1.276 11.67 ± 0.966 6.96 ± 0.832

Preservation of piglets 85.27 84.68 85.10

X

before weaning, %

Lim 101.43-161.72 87.46-147.56 84.46-113.86

X ± S — 126.7 ± 2.27 107.7 ± 1.56 95.63 ± 1.48

IRQ, Score

a± So 12.44 ± 1.607 13.36 ± 1.105 8.78 ± 1.050

Cv ± Sa ,% 9.82 ± 1.268 12.41 ± 0.027 9.19 ± 1.099

The analysis of the reproductive qualities of sows show that the animals of group I outnumbered their peers of group III in terms of fertility by 3.5 piglets per farrowing (td = 10.60, P<0.001), milk yield - 17.5 kg (td = 10.86, P<0.001), the number of piglets

at weaning at the age of 28-35 days - 3.0 goals (td = 12.00, P<0.001), the weight of the nest at weaning at the age of 28 days -18.3 kg (td = 10.57, P<0.001) and the index of reproductive qualities (IRQ) - 31.07 points (td = 11.50, P<0.001). According to the IVG0 index, the difference between the groups M- and M+ is equal to 1.72 points (td = 9.82, P<0.001), which indicates greater homogeneity of sows of class M-.

The calculation of the coefficients of pairwise correlation between the characteristics of reproductive qualities and evaluation indices in sows of the Large White breed is shown in Table 3.

Table 3. The pairwise correlation coefficient between the characteristics of reproductive qualities and evaluation indices in pigs of Large White breed

Feature Biometric indicators Correlation

X y r ± Sr tr strength

1 0.710 ± 0.0422*** 16.81 High

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2 0.648 ± 0.0492*** 13.12 Noticeable

3 0.667 ± 0.0471*** 14.11 Noticeable

Index BLUP (maternal line), points 4 5 6 0.657 ± 0.0471*** 13.58 Noticeable

0.665 ± 0.0474*** 14.02 Noticeable

7 0.685 ± 0.0452*** 15.16 Noticeable

1 0.947 ± 0.0088*** 107.80 Very high

2 0.751 ± 0.0371*** 20.23 High

Index "uniformity (homogeneity) of the sow's nest by live weight of piglets at birth", points 3 4 5 6 7 0.872 ± 0.0204*** 0.764 ± 0.0354*** 0.665 ± 0.0474*** 42.75 21.56 14.02 High High Noticeable

0.900 ± 0.0162*** 55,64 High

1 0.899 ± 0.0163*** 55,06 High

2 0.978 ± 0.0037*** 264,00 Very high

3 0.975 ± 0.0042*** 231,36 Very high

Index of reproductive qualities (IRQ), points 4 0.984 ± 0.0086*** 109,93 Very high

5 0.685 ± 0.0452*** 15,16 Noticeable

6 7 0.842 ± 0.0248*** 33,98 High

The pairwise correlation coefficient between the absolute indicators of reproductive qualities of sows, the BLUP index (maternal line), the index "alignment (homogeneity) of the sow's nest by live weight of piglets at birth," and the index of reproductive qualities ranges from +0.648 to +0.984. Significant relationships were established between the following pairs of traits: BLUP index (maternal line) x fertility (r = +0.710), BLUP index (maternal line) x milk yield (r = +0.648), BLUP index (maternal line) x number of piglets per weaning time (r = +0.667); BLUP index (maternal line) x nest weight at the time of weaning at the age of 28 days (r = +0.657), BLUP index (maternal line) x index of alignment (homogeneity) of the sow's nest by live weight of piglets at the time of birth (r = +0.665); index of alignment (homogeneity) of the sow's nest by live weight of piglets at birth x multiplicity (r = +0.947); index of alignment (homogeneity) of the sow's nest by live weight of piglets at the time of birth x nest weight at the time of weaning at the age of 28 days (r = +0.764), reproductive quality index (IRQ) x fertility (r = +0.899), reproductive index qualities (IRQ) x milk yield (r = +0.978), index of reproductive qualities (IRQ) x number of piglets at the time of weaning (r = +0.975), index of reproductive qualities (IRQ) x weight of the nest at the time of weaning at the age of 28 days (r = +0.984), index of reproductive qualities (IRQ) x index of alignment (homogeneity) of the sow's nest by live weight of piglets at birth (r = +0.842).

Table 4. Economic efficiency of using sows of different breeding value, evaluated by the BLUP method (maternal line)

Class distribution .

^ The weight of the nest at the according to the

n time of weaning at the age

BLUP index — — "b- products,% products, UAH / head *

(maternal line)

time of weaning at the age of 28 days, kg

Addition of additional

Cost of additional

General sample M-

M0 M+

138 35 73 30

74.4 ± 0.82 67.3 ± 0.79 73.3 ± 1.00 85.6 ± 1.54

-9.54 -1.47 +13.08

-242.21 -37.32 +332.08

Note: * - the average sale price of young pigs at processing enterprises is 45.5 UAH/kg

323

Breeding value and productivity of sows

Calculations of economic efficiency of research results show that the maximum increase in additional products was obtained from sows of class M+ +13.08%, and its cost is +332.08 UAH/head.

Conclusions

Studies show that the Large White breed replacement pigs belong to the elite class due to productivity (age of live weight 100 kg, days, fat thickness at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae, mm). The number of sows, which by fertility, milk yield, and nest weight at the time of weaning at the age of 60 days (estimated) belong to the elite class is 71.73, 41.30, and 37.68%. A significant difference between replacement pigs of different breeding value (M+, M-) was established by the age of reaching a live weight of 100 kg (12 days, td = 4.58, P<0.001), the thickness of the fat at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae (2.4 mm, td = 6.67, P<0.001), the thickness of the fat at the midpoint of the back between the withers and buttocks (1.1 mm, td = 3.14, P<0.01), the thickness of the fat on the buttocks (2.1 mm, td = 6.77, P<0.001) and body length - 1.9 cm (td = 4.14, P<0.001). Sows of group I (BLUP index is 109.78-128.75 points) outperformed peers of group III (BLUP index is 53.61-89.91 points) in the fertility by 27.13% (td = 10.60, P<0.001), milk yield - 27.86% (td = 10.86, P<0.001), the number of piglets at the time of weaning at the age of 28-35 days - 27.27% (td = 12.00, P<0.001), nest weight at the time of weaning at the age of 28 days - 21.37% (td = 10.57, P<0.001) and the index of reproductive qualities (CPI) - 24.52% (td = 11.50, P<0.001). According to the IVG0 index, the difference between the groups M- and M+ is 28.15% (td = 9.82, P <0.001), which indicates greater homogeneity of sows of class

M-.

According to the BLUP index for pigs of the Large White breed of the controlled herd, the criteria for selecting highly productive animals are within 109.78-128.75, according to the index of reproductive qualities (IRQ) 101.43-161.72 points. The coefficient of pair correlation between the absolute indicators of reproductive qualities of sows, the index BLUP (maternal line), the index "alignment (homogeneity) of the sow's nest by live weight of piglets at birth," and the index of reproductive qualities ranges from +0.68 to +. The use of sows of class M+ provides additional products at the level of +13.08%, and its cost is +332.08 UAH/head.

Acknowledgments

The work was performed according to the research program of NAAS No 30, "Innovative technologies of breeding, industrial and organic production of pig products ("Pig production").

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Citation:

Khalak, V., Gutyj, B., Stadnytska, O., Shuvar, I., Balkovskyi, V., Korpita, H., Shuvar, A., Bordun, O. (2021). Breeding value and productivity of sows of the Large White breed. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 77 (1), 319-324. I (CI)E^^MI This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0. License

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