Научная статья на тему 'Archetypal approach to the study of conflict between the leader and the team'

Archetypal approach to the study of conflict between the leader and the team Текст научной статьи по специальности «Психология»

CC BY
45
8
Поделиться
Область наук
Ключевые слова
archetype / leadership / leader / modern problems of leadership / leadership conflict

Аннотация научной статьи по психологии, автор научной работы — Evdokimova Elizaveta Ivanivna

The article highlighted the problem of conflicts and analyzed in terms of traditional images of the collective unconscious that appear between the leader and the team during their interaction. Today the topic is very interesting, because the phenomenon of leadership as a component of public administration and social life takes development. Archetypal approach to this issue makes it possible to find a new way to solve it. During research the Sachs Lions’ design method “Unfinished sentence” was used. So on the basis of empirical data author reveals the basic archetypes’ conflict of the leader and his team.

АРХЕТИПИЧЕСКИЙ ПОДХОД К ИЗУЧЕНИЮ КОНФЛИКТА МЕЖДУ ЛИДЕРОМ И КОМАНДОЙ

В статье освещена и проанализирована проблема конфликтов с точки зрения традиционных образов коллективного бессознательного, которые появляются между лидером и командой во время их взаимодействия. На сегодняшний день эта тема очень интересна, поскольку феномен лидерства, как компонент общественного управления и социальной жизни, развивается. Архетипический подход к этому вопросу позволяет найти новый способ ее решения. Во время работы было проведено исследование при помощи проективной методики Сакса Леви “Незаконченные предложения”. Таким образом, на основании эмпирических данных автор определяет основные архетипы конфликта лидера и его команды.

Не можете найти то что вам нужно? Попробуйте наш сервис подбора литературы.

Текст научной работы на тему «Archetypal approach to the study of conflict between the leader and the team»

UDC: 316.472.3+159.9.07.

Evdokimova Elizaveta Ivanivna,

third year student of the faculty of humanities and social technologies, National Technical University "Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute", Ukraine, 61002, Kharkiv, Str. Kirpicheva, 2, tel.: (098) 265 24 96, e-mail: evdokimova.l@ukr.net

ORCID: 0000-0002-8152-0328

Евдокимова Елизавета 1ватвна,

студентка факультету сощально-гуматтарних технологш, Нацюнальний техтчний утверситет "Харквський по-лтехтчний iнститут", Украгна, 61002, Харкiв, вул. Кирпичова, 2, тел.: (098) 265 24 96, e-mail: evdokimova.l@ukr.net

ORCID: 0000-0002-8152-0328

Евдокимова Елизавета Ивановна,

студентка факультета социально-гуманитарных технологий, Национальный технический университет "Харьковский политехнический институт", Украина, 61002, Харьков, ул. Кирпичева, 2, тел.: (098) 26524 96, e-mail: evdokimova.l@ukr.net

ORCID: 0000-0002-8152-0328

ARCHETYPAL APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF CONFLiCT BETWEEN THE LEADER AND THE TEAM

Abstract. The article highlighted the problem of conflicts and analyzed in terms of traditional images of the collective unconscious that appear between the leader and the team during their interaction. Today the topic is very interesting, because the phenomenon of leadership as a component of public administration and social life takes development. Archetypal approach to this issue makes it possible to find a new way to solve it. During research the Sachs Lions' design method "Unfinished sentence" was used. So on the basis of empirical data author reveals the basic archetypes' conflict of the leader and his team.

Keywords: archetype, leadership, leader, modern problems of leadership, leadership conflict.

АРХЕТИП1ЧНИЙ П1ДХ1Д ДО ВИВЧЕННЯ КОНФЛ1КТУ М1Ж Л1ДЕРОМ ТА КОМАНДОЮ

Анотащя. У статт висв^лено та проаналiзовано проблему конфлшпв з точки зору традицшних o6pa3iB колективного несвщомого, яю з'являються

мiж лщером та командою пiд час !х взаемоди. На сьогоднi ця тема дуже щ-кава, адже феномен лвдерства, як компонент сусшльного управлiння та сощ-ального життя, набувае розвитку. Архетипiчний пiдхiд до цього питання дае змогу знайти новий споаб його вирiшення. Шд час роботи було проведено дослщження за проектувальною методикою Сакса Левi "Незакшчеш речен-ня". Таким чином, на пiдставi емпiричних даних автор виявляе основш архе-типи конфлшту лiдера та його команди.

Не можете найти то что вам нужно? Попробуйте наш сервис подбора литературы.

Ключовi слова: архетип, лiдерство, лiдер, сучасш проблеми лiдерства, кон-флiкт лщерства.

АРХЕТИПИЧЕСКИЙ ПОДХОД К ИЗУЧЕНИЮ КОНФЛИКТА МЕЖДУ ЛИДЕРОМ И КОМАНДОЙ

Аннотация. В статье освещена и проанализирована проблема конфликтов с точки зрения традиционных образов коллективного бессознательного, которые появляются между лидером и командой во время их взаимодействия. На сегодняшний день эта тема очень интересна, поскольку феномен лидерства, как компонент общественного управления и социальной жизни, развивается. Архетипический подход к этому вопросу позволяет найти новый способ ее решения. Во время работы было проведено исследование при помощи проективной методики Сакса Леви "Незаконченные предложения". Таким образом, на основании эмпирических данных автор определяет основные архетипы конфликта лидера и его команды.

Ключевые слова: архетип, лидерство, лидер, современные проблемы лидерства, конфликт лидерства.

Target setting. Leadership is always a cooperation with a certain group, it is a unique phenomenon of public life, primarily serves to achieve goals. In any society it is inevitable, interacting with all areas of social life.

Everywhere where gathers together two or more persons, appears question of the appearance of leaders. During the formation of the team, some participants has a greater role than others, other — listen to their words with respect, that is they get a strong position in the group. That is the separation of the band on. the leaders and followers. The identity of the leader and his interaction with subordinates determines

the fate of the task and productivity. But every manager sooner or later met with some problems of cooperation.

Archetypes are the foundations of human existence, outlining the place of man in space, time and history. Usage the archetypal study of leadership is an opportunity to find a new way to solve the problem in the ethical dimension in national and global. What exactly archetypes conflicts occur between the leader and the team? That is the question we will try to find the answer in this paper.

Analysis of recent research and publications. Despite the fact that the issue of leadership was explored by

various scientists for a long time, a certain consensus on this concept, the method of its study does not exists.

This issue was considered in various fields of science such as psychology, sociology, political science, education and others.

This issue was considered in various fields of science such as psychology, sociology, political science, education and others. Among the studies of modern scientists can identify the work of B. Bass [26], R. Boyatsys [3], A. Ro-manovsky [22], E. Shane [24], A. Po-nomarev [20], etc.

In the works of contemporary Ukrainian scientist O. G. Romanovsky contains detailed analysis of the formation of the personality of the leader. Problems resonant leadership aimed at self-improvement and building productive relationships with people through active consciousness, optimism and empathy explore R. Boyatsys and E. Mackey. E. H. Shane examines the relationship between leadership and organizational culture. A. S. Ponomarev in his work studying the phenomenon of leadership in the area of social values.

Subject archetype of leadership hardly processed. The article analyzes the archetypes A. Lesik national model of public administration, their role, identifying key strengths and weaknesses [16]. Vladimir Vilizhinskyy conducted comparative analysis the examples of modern Ukrainian Soviet-imperial and Polish-gentry managerial cultures explored archetypes management of national traditions and their impact on local government reform in Ukraine [7]. S. Galich reviewed and analyzed the process of the youth as the

subject of the public in terms of archetypes [8].

Не можете найти то что вам нужно? Попробуйте наш сервис подбора литературы.

The archetypal phenomenon was explored The Ukrainian researchers is to provide: A. Krym [15], A. Afonin [1], L. Baziv [2], N. Kovtun [13], Y. Me-dynska [17] and A. Kohut [13].

Yemelyanov U. described subgroups leaders conflicts and gave a definition of the functions of the leader, in which he appears judge and peacemaker [11]. The theme of corporate conflicts office "hazing" in the work showed U. Fu-kolova. US scientists Kenneth Thomas and Ralph Kilmen described and systematized signs of different behaviors conflict in organizations with the data offered in teaching managers to use schematic grid so-called model Thomas — Kilmenna that demonstrates the dependence of behavioral strategies in conflict of interests of the parties of the conflict labor [23]. Also on the topic of leader and the the team conflict work such scientists: E. Rehnet [21], A. Er-shov [10], Y. Vinogradov, I. Kozin [6] and others.

The purpose of the article is consideration of the the basic archetypes conflict between the leader and the team.

The statement of basic materials. In the early twentieth century, K. G. Jung [25] in his research uses the term "archetype" to refer to the original models contained in the collective unconscious. Archetype is conceived as the original spirit of the image. According to Jung, the unconscious there is a group of permanent items that are binding set of images of the unconscious, the source common to all people the basic motifs and images of primitive memories. Now archetypal analysis is the methodological principles study of

the functioning of identical images in different cultures. Yes, Norton Fry developed his own theory of literary archetypes. Yelezar Meletynskyy defines archetypes as codes that allow decoding texts [18].

Of course archetypes are interesting not only as unconscious mental structure, but also as a cultural phenomenon. The archetypes of the collective unconscious is primarily a mental structures, prototypes. Eventually, according to the site, environmental conditions, time — they are symbols and images, picking forms of creativity. There are two dimensions of existence of archetypes, the first — it is artistic presentation and translation into the todays language. The second — a memory that is the basis of social and historical course of life. Performing the function of social memory, archetypes contain the knowledge and experience of the people "Archetype is unique because it appears not only in the context of a wise man of the past, but also helps build benchmarks of modern" [14, p. 23].

At various times various archetypes that meet the demands of the modern understanding of people is faced. Research, update operation archetypal images, scripts — serve as a kind descriptions of the individual nation, nations, families or groups. All depends on what is ordered archetypes will eventually form in which they re-open in people's minds.

From the standpoint of archetypal analysis can consider the notion of leadership, which is the core group needs. Defining characteristics of a team and its individual features are displayed in a kind of embodiment of a cultural archetypes.

In this latter days there is a question of leadership as the main part of public administrative activity. This issue has a special place in the social structure because of its importance and influence on society. This is where the mass of scientific papers, concepts, methods and theories was accumulated. But the theme of conflict between the leader and the team almost never considered.

Today there are several interpretations of leadership, the main act as follows:

• the process of organizing a group decision;

• the ability to influence individuals and groups of people to force them to work for a particular purpose;

• historically — formed cultural needs of people in the organization process activities;

• in personal interaction, whose objective is to achieve a certain goal by certain communication skills and be seen in a certain situation [22].

Most are three kinds of archetypal style of leadership: authoritarian, liberal and democratic. In authoritarian style leader personally approves all decisions, giving orders, making instructions, there is a hierarchical division between the team and management. Democratic style includes collective decision-making, highly active team informed all the participants about the problems and merits of the work. Each participant interaction voluntarily assumes responsibility for solving the problem and understands its importance in achieving a common goal. They are not just executing foreign decisions, and have their own values and interests, discover their own initiative. And while liberal management style,

Не можете найти то что вам нужно? Попробуйте наш сервис подбора литературы.

characterized by low activity leader, the problems discussed formally transferred responsibilities solving the problems the team also characterized the avoidance of responsibility [19].

Leader as a social manager occurs in all social organizations, functioning in the system of goals, constraints, processes, requirements, rules and interests of the working activity. Its role is to ensure the normal life of the team.

A. S. Ponomarev said that since human nature is controversial because of its biological, sociality and materiality of thinking, the conflict between the individual and social being is obvious. Personality conflicts with common goals, aspirations and desires. This conflict first, which is a manager's work to overcome what he needs normal coexistence and cooperation with the team that coordination mechanisms aimed at individual and social interests. These mechanisms may make the system of legal norms and rules, traditions and customs, a set of moral standards and requirements. In this paper, the process takes an important place of spiritual and cultural sphere. Carriers of these mechanisms also appear generally recognized leaders, their authority is able to provide the appropriate values in life. Although leaders do not always take this social role [20].

Conflict — a term widely used in psychology, sociology, philosophy, Conflict and everyday consciousness. In psychology often refers Modified conflicts, clashes opposing interests, goals, attitudes, opinions, views or the subjects of interaction opponents [12].

According to the typology of conflicts — differentiated criteria for subject interaction — internally allo-

cate personal, interpersonal, between groups in the time criterion conflicts are divided into short-term and protracted, but without specific reference to the precise timing. The nature of the conflict is sharp and lifeless; in the form of manifestation — apparent and latent. Given the prevalence and importance of feature emit a number of conflicts on the grounds of "subject and scope": the family, the military, industrial, school, ethnic, religious and others.

Given the consequences (for individuals, groups and/or its members) sometimes emit destructive, constructive and stabilizing types. Destructive shake and destroy the established structure and function, individual and group norms, values devalue exacerbate conflict problem situation. Constructive conflicts are rebuilding, renewal structure, acquisition of new functions, establishing new relationships, promote life personality or functioning of the organization. Stabilizing also lead to positive results, but not through innovation and by eliminating deviations and consolidate existing [9].

Leadership — one of the areas of social areas and associated with many problems and contradictions that cause conflicts. Management team includes planning, motivation, organization and other processes, which in turn reduced to provide focused, coordinated activities of the team. And during this difficult work the interests of individual members of the group do not always coincide, are opposed, which can cause conflict.

There are several manifestations of conflicts in management, and they are cause of disruption in the leadership activities. Disorganization is manifested

in various forms of struggle between governing entities that keep various principles of administrative relations. In the course of this controversy, the fight turns into a conflict that can occur in the form of disagreement, tension and confrontation.

Disagreement is a rejection of the proposed templates or coordinated collective behavior, failure to some extent their duties. Disagreement as a form of conflict between the leader and the team involves intentional violation of the agreed actions related to the performance of the functions of life of the group.

A more severe form of leadership conflict stands tension that affects the foundation adopted management system and provides a sharp increase in conscious malfunction of the various members of the team.

Profound form of conflict is confrontation, which in turn is characterized by wild competition based on career plans of certain members of the team and unwanted tools and methods to counteract: the organization of group protests harassment "dissidents", the release of the group. This form of conflict, which can meet the leader, leads to division and liquidation of the existing system activity [12].

Leaders conflicts with the team working there during the interaction and communication between people during clashes goals, interests, attitudes and opinions, attitudes of two or more persons. At the heart of the conflict is a situation that involves or contradictory positions of the parties on any drive (opposite goals or means to achieve them) or divergence of interests, opponents' desires, etc.

Our work was conducted, which was attended by 40 reporters and students of the third course of Psychology (15 boys and 25 girls). For data, we used the method Sachs Lions' "unfinished sentence", during which was discovered such conflicts archetypes and team leader:

Не можете найти то что вам нужно? Попробуйте наш сервис подбора литературы.

• Leadership style;

• Introversion or extroversion;

• Gender features of leaders and team members;

• External and internal locus of control;

• Responsibility;

• Hierarchy;

• Conflict of several leaders.

The first emphasis archetypal conflict is the locus of control. All respondents found it in 27 participants, including 10 boys and 17 girls. Locus of control as the archetypal cause of the conflict

№ conflicts archetype Boys Girls Average

amt % amt % amt %

1 Locus of control 10 37,03 17 62,96 27 67,5

2 Gender 13 52 12 48 25 62,5

3 Leadership style 9 39,13 14 60,86 23 57,5

4 Responsibility 10 55,55 8 44,44 18 45

5 Hierarchy 11 68,75 5 31,25 16 40

Не можете найти то что вам нужно? Попробуйте наш сервис подбора литературы.

6 Introversion or extroversion 2 15,38 11 84,61 13 32,5

7 Conflict of several leaders 4 57,14 3 42,85 7 17,5

and the team leader, understood that there is a transfer of responsibilities and achievements of the team's leader and vice versa. There are two types of locus of control: external and internal. The external locus of control is a locus where responsibility typical attributes to external forces, environment, luck or fate. In case of internal locus, responsibility attributed to own actions and efforts [4].

Gender features the team leader and the second frequency indication type archetypal conflict in this study. Describes 25 correspondents (13 boys and 12 girls). Most women reported that to work in a team with their gender, and running as a woman. The boys also comply that do not want to run the women on the team overall homogeneity was found tolerant attitude.

According to Table 1, the archetypal conflict style of leadership marked 23 respondents, including 9 boys and 14 girls. The style of leadership is a very important part of leadership and very difficult, because precisely identify appropriate leadership style is not always easy.

Responsibility as a cause of conflict between the leader and the team has been detected in 18 people, 10 boys and 8 girls. Responsibility often becomes an attribute of fear, because usually people do not want to bear the brunt of the problem is too severe, and even more solitary solve them.

Archetypal hierarchy found in 16 respondents, 11 boys and 5 girls. Under hierarchy refers to segregation of duties based on hierarchical roles of team general availability of the hierarchy, the hierarchy information sharing, work shall obtain a suitable role or responsibili-

ties which have difficulty in humans. In the process of quantitative growth, increasing the number of features and specification of group goals hierarchy develops the degree of influence among members. On the upper level of the hierarchy appears paramount leader, leaders are in the middle of the second and third levels and lower levels are followers [11].

Extroversion or introversion describes 13 people, 2 boys and 11 girls. Basically, introversion and extroversion as archetypal conflict occurs in a component in the direction of a team or individually, without making teamwork as assistant leader.

Last archetypal problem of our study, it is a conflict of several leaders in one team. This criterion was found very rarely, it describes only 9 study participants, 4 boys and 3 girls. This archetype appears in the presence of two or more team leaders.

Conclusions. We identify seven types of archetypes leader and team conflict, including locus of control, which affects the transfer of responsibility for the mistakes and achievements found in 67,5 % of the sample. Another component of gender differences appear. In what role gender plays a leader and the homogeneity of the team. This archetype is mentioned in 62,5 %. The third archetype (leadership style) and it occurs in 57,5 % of respondents. Participants do not want to take over responsibility because they are afraid of possible consequences, the fifth archetype and he described 45 % of correspondents. Hierarchy is found in 40 % of the sample. Before last archetype is introversion and extroversion, which has a frequency of 32,5 % of re-

spondents. And seven archetype of conflict between the leader and the team is the presence of two or more leaders in one group of 17,5 %.

The obtained data describing the most widespread archetypes conflict between the leader and the team. The list above these archetypes gives rise to a more thorough study of the problem of larger sample.

references -

1. Афотн Е. А. Людська щентичшсть та особливост ii впливу на полггику й державне управлшня / Е. А. Афо-нш // Концептуальнi засади взае-моди полiтики й управлiння: навч. поаб. / за заг. ред. В. А. Ребкала,

Не можете найти то что вам нужно? Попробуйте наш сервис подбора литературы.

B. А. Шахова. — К. : НАДУ, 2010. —

C.265-289.

2. Базiв Л. М. Амбiвалентнiсть архетипу матерi в украшськш модернш лiтературi (на матерiалi творчостi Леи Укра'нки, М. Коцюбинського, В. Винниченка та О. Кобилянсько''): автореф. дис. ... канд. фшол. наук : Л. М. Базiв ; Ки'в. ун-т iM. Б. Д. Грш-ченка. — Ки'в, 2013. — 18 с.

3. Бояцис Р. Резонансное лидерство: самосовершенствование и построение плодотворных отношений с людьми на основе активного сознания, оптимизма и эмпатии / Р. Бо-яцис, Е. Макки; пер. с англ. — М.: Альпина Бизнес Букс, 2007. — 300 с. — (Серия "Классика Harvard Business Review").

4. Варш М. Й. Психолога: навч. по-аб. для студ. вищ. навч. закл. — К.: Центр учбово'' л-ри, 2007. — 288 с.

5. Величко В. В. Економша шдприем-ства: конспект лекцш / В. В. Величко. — Харюв : ХНАМГ, 2004. — 114 с.

6. Виноградова Е. В. Отношения сотрудничества и конфликта в пред-

ставлениях российских работников / Е. В. Виноградова, И. М. Козина // Социс. — 2011. — № 9. -С. 30-41.

7. Вилижинский В. Архетип национальной традиции управления как аутентичная основа реформирования местного самоуправления в Украине / В. Вилижинский // Ар-хетипика и государственное управление: рационализация и нормативные практики. - 2014. - С. 23-33.

8. Галич С. Место молодежи как субъекта государственного управления / С. Галич // Архетипика и государственное управление: рационализация и нормативные практики. — 2014. — С. 34-38.

9. Гераста Л. М. Конфлштолопя: шд-руч. для студ. вищ. навч. закл. / Л. М. Герасша, М. I. Панов, Н. П. Ori-пова та ш. — Харюв : Право, 2002.

10. Ершов А. А. Личность и коллектив: (Межличностные конфликты в коллективе, их разрешение) / А. А. Ершов. — Л.: Знание, 1976. — 40 с.

11. бмельянов Ю. Н. Керiвництво ко-лективом як проблема сощально'' психологи. — М., 1971 — 346 с.

12. Зтченко В. П. Великий психоло-пчний словник / В. П. Зшченко, Б. Г. Мещеряков. — К., 2002.

13. Ковтун Н. М. Архетип культурного героя в украшськш духовнш тра-дици: кторико-фшософський контекст: автореф. дис. ... канд. фшол. наук: 09.00.05 / Н. М. Ковтун ; Ки'в. нац. ун-т iм. Т. Шевченка. — Ки'в, 2008. — 20 с.

Не можете найти то что вам нужно? Попробуйте наш сервис подбора литературы.

14. Когут О. В. Архетипш сюжети й об-рази в сучаснш украшськш драматурги (1997-2007 рр.) : монографiя / О. В. Когут ; Нац. ун-т вод. госп-ва та природокористування. — Рiвне : НУВГП, 2010. — 440 с.

15. Кримський С. Архетипи укра'нсько'' культури / С. Кримський // Вкн. НАН Укра'ни. — № 7-8. — С. 74-87.

16. Лесик О. Арехетипи та 1хня роль у розвитку вггчизняно! моделi державного управлшня / О. Лесик // Архетишка i державне управлшня: виклики та ризики сусшльно'1 тран-сформацп. — 2016. — С. 39-48.

17. Мединська Ю. Я. Фемшш архетипи украшського етносу / Ю. Я. Мединська. — Терношль : ТНЕУ, 2006. -202 с.

18. Мщенко М. М. Украшсью нащо-нальнi архетипи: вщ колективного несвiдомого до усвщомлено'1 нащо-нально'1 iдентичностi (до актуаль-ност методологи архетипiчного аналiзу) / М. М. Мщенко // Вкн. Харювського нац. ун-ту iм. В. Н. Ка-разiна. Серiя: Фiлософiя. Фшософ-ськi перипетп. — 2014. — № 1130, Вип. 51. — С. 90-94.

19. Орбан-Лембрик Л. Е. Сощальна пси-холопя: поабник / Л. Е. Орбан-Лем-брик. — К. : Академвидав, 2005. — 446 с. — (Серiя "Альма-матер").

20. Пономарьов О. С. Феномен лщерства у просторi соцiальних цiнностей / О. С. Пономарьов // Теорiя i практика управлiння сощальними системами. — 2015. — № 3. — С. 93-101.

21. Регнет Э. Конфликты в организациях. Формы, функции и способы преодоления / Э. Регнет. — Харьков, 2005. — 297 с.

22. Романовський О. Г. Особисткть су-часного керiвника в аспект теорп духовного / О. Г. Романовський, Н. В. Середа // Теорiя i практика управлшня сощальними системами. — 2013. — № 3. — С. 20-27.

23. Шевчук С. П. Навчальний поаб-ник / С. П. Шевчук, В. А. Скороходов, В. М. Жуковська, О. С. Шевчук, I. М. Худякова. — К. : Вид. дiм "Професюнал" ; Центр учбово! л-ри, 2010. — 184 с.

24. Шейн Э. X. Организационная культура и лидерство / Э. X. Шейн; пер. с англ.; под ред. В. А. Спивака. -СПб. : Питер, 2002. — 336 с. — (Серия "Теория и практика менеджмента").

25. Юнг К. Г. Архетип и символ / К. Г. Юнг. — М. : Ренессанс, 1991. — 304 с.

26. Bass B. M. Transformational leadership [Text] / B. M. Bass, R. E. Riggio. — 2nd. еd. — Mahwah ; NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2006. — 282 p.