Научная статья на тему 'An analysis on the attitudes and the factors that influence the development of Osing tourism Village, Banyuwangi, east Java'

An analysis on the attitudes and the factors that influence the development of Osing tourism Village, Banyuwangi, east Java Текст научной статьи по специальности «Социальная и экономическая география»

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Ключевые слова
ATTITUDES / TOURISM VILLAGE / DEVELOPMENT

Аннотация научной статьи по социальной и экономической географии, автор научной работы — Komari Achmad Nur

The research questions are 1) is there any difference between the two villages in regards to the development of the tourism village? 2) What factors influence the attitudes of the two local communities towards the development of the tourism village?. The purpose of this research is to investigate the differences of the attitudes of the people in the two villages towards the development of the tourism village. Furthermore, this study is aimed at identifying the factors that influence the attitudes of the people in the two villages towards the development of the tourism village. The subjects of this study were 50 people in each village, who were selected using purposive sampling technique. This sampling technique was chosen since it could help to accurately select 50 subjects that could represent all social strata in the two villages. This was important as the samples in this study contributed to the valuable evaluation by the researchers. The attitude identification towards the seven factors was done by first questionnaire that was distributed to 100 respondents in the two villages. Meanwhile, the second questionnaire was used to collect the data on the factors that influenced it. The questionnaires were given to 100 respondents in the two developing villages. The second questionnaire was given one month later after the first questionnaire. The results of the study are: (1) There are different attitudes of the society in the two villages towards the development of the tourism village; (2) The factors that influence the attitudes of the society in the two surrounding villages towards the development of the tourism village include: a) The beautiful nature; b) People’s activities; c) Customs and traditions; d) Traditional arts; e) Personal experiences; f) Information; and g) Cultures.

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Текст научной работы на тему «An analysis on the attitudes and the factors that influence the development of Osing tourism Village, Banyuwangi, east Java»

DOI https://doi.org/10.18551/rjoas.2017-04.21

AN ANALYSIS ON THE ATTITUDES AND THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF OSING TOURISM VILLAGE, BANYUWANGI, EAST JAVA

Komari Achmad Nur

Faculty of Economics, 17 Agustus 1945 Banyuwangi University, Indonesia E-mail: komariuntag58@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The research questions are 1) is there any difference between the two villages in regards to the development of the tourism village? 2) What factors influence the attitudes of the two local communities towards the development of the tourism village?. The purpose of this research is to investigate the differences of the attitudes of the people in the two villages towards the development of the tourism village. Furthermore, this study is aimed at identifying the factors that influence the attitudes of the people in the two villages towards the development of the tourism village. The subjects of this study were 50 people in each village, who were selected using purposive sampling technique. This sampling technique was chosen since it could help to accurately select 50 subjects that could represent all social strata in the two villages. This was important as the samples in this study contributed to the valuable evaluation by the researchers. The attitude identification towards the seven factors was done by first questionnaire that was distributed to 100 respondents in the two villages. Meanwhile, the second questionnaire was used to collect the data on the factors that influenced it. The questionnaires were given to 100 respondents in the two developing villages. The second questionnaire was given one month later after the first questionnaire. The results of the study are: (1) There are different attitudes of the society in the two villages towards the development of the tourism village; (2) The factors that influence the attitudes of the society in the two surrounding villages towards the development of the tourism village include: a) The beautiful nature; b) People's activities; c) Customs and traditions; d) Traditional arts; e) Personal experiences; f) Information; and g) Cultures.

KEY WORDS

Attitudes, tourism village, development.

The General Secretariat of The People's Consultative Assembly of The Republic of Indonesia (also known as MPR RI) (2012) states that "Bhinneka Tuggal Ika" (Unity in Diversity) that we know as the motto of the Unitary State of Republic of Indonesia (also known as NKRI) is an aspiration of the founding fathers. It is as if these fragmented words written by Mpu Tantular had been one unity that is inseparable from the republic. This happens because "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" motto has been one of the four pillars in the life of the nation and particular country. Suparlan (2001a, 2001b) affirms that the emphasis on the face of a diverse society, or Bhinneka Tunggal Ika in Indonesia, is based on the ethnicity that refers to the groups or ethnics with their respective cultures. The groups of ethnics are united and governed administratively by the Indonesian national system based on Pancasila (the Indonesian Philosophy/Principles) and UUD 1945 (the Indonesian Constitution). J.S. Furnivall (in Garna, 1996) states that a diverse society is the society that consists of various groups of races or ethnicities existing under one government. The diversity of ethnicities, cultures, races, religions, and genders becomes the attraction for the foreign tourists to visit Indonesia. Not only do we have the beautiful nature but also the beauty of the diverse people of Indonesia in relation to the attempts to develop the tourism in regards to cultural tourisms. According to Priasukmana and Mulyadin (2001), Tourism Village is an area of village that offers the overall atmosphere reflecting the originality of a countryside such as the socioeconomic and sociocultural life, customs, daily life, spatial architectures and structures that are distinctive and unique to the village, unique and interesting economic activities, as well as the potentials to be developed into various components of tourism such as attraction,

accommodation, food and beverage, souvenirs, and other touristic needs. The development of tourism village in Banyuwangi is motivated by the support of the government through the Decree of Head Office Number: 556/4752/108.21/1995 and by the potentials of the village to be a tourism village. For instance, Kemiren Village has the authentic atmosphere of Osing village with its culturally distinctive arts such as Barong, Seblang and Gandrung Dances, as well as a specific dialect called "Osing Language".

The development of tourism village in Banyuwangi is also based on the statistical data from Department of Tourism of Banyuwangi Regency, which shows that the tourism visits to Banyuwangi both domestic and international have increased from year to year. The data reveal that the number of foreign tourists that visited Banyuwangi in the fiscal year of 2005/2006 was 9,162 people and in the fiscal year of 2006/2007 has increased to 11,169 people. Similarly, in the fiscal year of 2005/2006, the number of domestic tourists that visited Banyuwangi was 77,892 people and in the fiscal year of 2006/2007 has increased to 81,743 people. The development of tourism destinations in Banyuwangi is also supported by the development of the facilities such as hotels and restaurants as well as the increase in the services given to the customers, which have become better.

Budi Susanto (in Spillane, 1994) affirms about four basic attributes of the establishment of a tourism village, which are: beautiful nature including rural spatial structure; rules of conducts in the forms of customs; the patterns of behaviors in the forms of the daily activities of the people; the results of the behaviors in the forms of buildings, arts, and traditional games.

Even though sociologically the existence of Indonesian society has already been an attraction for tourism, especially for the richness of its customs, there is still a challenge, which is the people's attitude that is not yet developed to provide good service to the tourists and this demands more attention. To study the attitude of the society (consumers) in the development of tourism village requires marketing concepts as an important sub-system in its implementation namely the concepts of product, sale, marketing, and social marketing (Kotler, 2000).

In the marketing concept, it is stated that the key to achieving the goals is determining the needs and the demands of the target market as well as giving the expected satisfaction more effectively and efficiently than the competitors. There are four main things in marketing concept, which are: Market Focus, Customer Orientation, Coordinated Marketing, and Profitability. These four things are attempted to be in harmony in the implementation.

In this matter, Kemiren Village is selected as the establishment of rural tourism in Banyuwangi since it is located not too far from the center of Banyuwangi (± 7 km from the center in the westbound, which is close to the slopes of Mount Ijen and has the characteristics of Osing cultures, which are not found in other villages, such as Jejer Gandrung Dance and Seblang Dance). This is very possible as the location of Banyuwangi serves as the gate of Java island in the east end, which is passed by the tourists, both foreign and domestic, who come and go to the Island of Gods, which is known as Bali island. Hence, based on those backgrounds, the researcher felt the need to conduct a study on the "Analysis on the Attitudes and the Factors that Influence the Development of Osing Tourism Village in Banyuwangi Regency, East Java".

The research questions that will be the objects of this study on Osing Tourism Village can be formulated as follows:

1. Is there any difference between the people's attitudes in the two related villages towards the tourism village?

2. What factors influence the people's attitudes in the two related villages towards the tourism village?

Meanwhile, the hypotheses used in this study are:

1. There is a difference between the people's attitudes in the two related villages towards the tourism village.

2. There are several factors that influence the people's attitudes in the two related villages towards the tourism village.

Limitation of this study was determined so that it did not stray too far and stayed on the target. This means that the implementation of this study was expected to be in accordance with the objectives and the benefits of this study. This study was limited based on the location of the research in the region of Banyuwangi Regency, East Java. Meanwhile, the objects of the study included:

1. The people of Kemiren Village, which is a "tourism village" located in Glagag Subdistrict, Banyuwangi, around 7 km from from the center of Banyuwangi City.

2. The people of Mangir Village in Rogojampi Subdistrict, Banyuwangi, around 17 km from the center of Banyuwangi City, as the society outside the "tourism village".

LITERATURE REVIEW

The Definitions of Attitude. Discussions on attitudes are interesting to be investigated as by knowing the attitudes of someone or a group, we can predict the behaviors that will emerge. Attitudes have a huge influence on someone because attitudes can determine the ways someone behaves and deals with certain objects (Mar'at, 1984). Generally, in reviewing attitudes, experts give different definitions; however, essentially those definitions have the same or almost the same meanings. The differences usually lie on the used terms.

According to Gerungan (2004), discussions on attitudes always lead to a certain objective or object, which is the willingness to react to something. Attitude is a view or accompanied with the tendency to behave in accordance with the attitudes towards the particular object. Meanwhile, the objects of the attitudes can be in the forms of objects, people, institutions, and values or behaviors. Another definition of attitude is the readiness of a person for a particular action.

Attitudes can be either positive or negative (Purwanto, 1998). 1) An action tendency of positive attitudes is approaching, loving, and expecting a certain object. 2) A negative attitude tends to stay away from, avoid, hate, and dislike a certain object. The embodiment of positive or negative attitudes is affected by a system of values prevailing in the society. In other words, attitudes can be influenced by cultural values. This means that someone's standpoints or feelings are determined by the society's general view held by certain communities in valuing an object such as "Osing Tourism Village" in Banyuwangi. Another definition reveals that someone's attitude is always related to the behavior that leads human to value the merits of an object, whether it is good or bad. This is surely shown by the attitudes towards that particular object (Crow and Crow, 1973). Some knowledge on something will also cause someone to have a positive attitude that will influence his intention in accepting something related to that thing (Ancok, 1987).

Speaking of evaluative responses that arise when an individual is faced by a stimulus that requires the emergence of individual reactions (Azwar, 1988), this indicates a sense that the form of responses that is expressed as an attitude is based on an evaluative process within the individual. The evaluation results in a conclusion about the values towards the stimuli either good or bad, positive or negative, pleasant or unpleasant, liking it or not which is then crystalized as a reaction potential towards the object or the attitudes. Meanwhile, there are factors that determine the forms of individual's responses towards the received stimulus between the nature of stimulus, the individual's background, and motivation.

Based on the definitions above, we can conclude several things about attitude as follows:

• Attitude is a view, a feeling that goes with the tendency to act in accordance with the attitude.

• Attitude has a certain object, which can be in the forms of: a person, a thing, a situation, an incident, a value/system or behavior.

• In attitude, there is a positive or negative assessment, a pleasant or unpleasant feeling, good or bad, liking or not liking the object of the attitude.

• Someone's experience will cause a certain assessment or attitude towards a particular object.

The Structures of Attitude. Viewed from the structure, attitude is an organizing process of cognition, affection, and behavioral tendencies that support each other (Eiser, 1987). The definition of the three components are as follows:

• Cognitive Component (Cognition). Cognitive component is what is believed by the subject choosing the attitude. This component includes the extent to which the individual recognizes the object. This recognition then forms a certain belief within the individual towards the object. For example, an individual behaves towards the achievement when using the services of "Osing Tourism Village" in Banyuwangi Regency.

• Affective Component (Affect). Affective component is a component of feelings in regards to emotional aspects. This affective component is further described as a component that shows the relation between emotions and an object. The characteristics of this component are evaluative. This characteristic can determine the direction of the component towards other attitudes. Thus, after an individual recognizes the object, he will have a certain feeling whether liking/accepting it or disliking/rejecting the object of the attitude.

• Behavioral Component (Behavior). Behavioral component is the aspect of certain behavioral tendency in accordance with the attitude of the subject. The embodiment of this component can be verbal, which is what is spoken or said or nonverbal, which is expressed or done by the individual towards the object.

The Characteristics of Attitude. Attitudes are evaluative responses. This means that in responding to something, an individual goes through an evaluative process within himself so that the responses can be good or bad, positive or negative, pleasant or unpleasant, and accepting or rejecting.

According to Gerungan (2004), attitude is:

• Attitude is not innate, but formed or learned throughout the development of an individual in his relation with the objects around him. This characteristic distinguishes attitudes from the characteristics of biogenesis such as: hungry, thirsty, the need to rest, and other innate driving forces for human activities.

• Attitudes can change, and thus they can be learned.

• Attitude does not stand on its own, but always brings a certain reaction towards an object.

• Attitude has aspects of motivation and feelings. This is what distinguishes attitudes from skills.

According to Eiser (1987), attitude should also have:

• Object; it should be an abstract concept such as consumerism, physical such as a motorcycle, attitudinal such as buying a product or an item such as someone or a group of people.

• Direction, i.e. someone likes or dislikes, agrees or disagrees on an object.

• Degree/Level, i.e. the extent to which someone likes or dislikes a certain object.

• Intensity, i.e. a degree of certainty or belief that can be expressed towards someone; or how someone's power is towards his belief.

The Functions of Attitude. Understanding the functions of attitude means understanding how that attitude influences an individual. Daiel Katz (in Assael, 1987) states that there are four functions of attitude, which include:

1. The Utility Function. This function of attitude directs someone to the fulfillment of the need that he wants; for instance, by considering the aspect of the beautiful nature in the important criteria, people use "Osing Tourism Village" in Banyuwangi Regency. Thus, the attitude of the people will lead to choosing travel in Osing Tourism Village in Banyuwangi Regency, which is believed to be able to meet their needs of the beautiful nature in traveling. On the other hand, the people's attitudes will tend to avoid Osing Tourism Village as a tourism object if it is believed to be unable to meet the criteria of their needs.

2. The Value-Expressive Function. This function shows the attitude of expressing oneself and value systems, such as the concept of someone in utilizing "Osing Tourism Village" in Banyuwangi Regency. This will reflect on the characteristics of someone who is successful in accordance with his choice.

3. The Ego-Defensive Function. This function indicates the attitude of protecting ego from anxiety, internal conflicts (conflicts within a person/individual). The example is a conflict between individual's experiences and the object of attitude that should be addressed.

4. The Organization-of-Knowledge Function. This function of attitude can help someone in organizing or filtering the information that he receives each day in accordance with the expected standards. The people will filter all information/messages and then ignore the irrelevant information.

The Formation of Attitude. Attitude is the result of someone's learning process that is not innate. The formation of attitude occurs throughout someone's life through his interactions with the objects outside himself such as groups, institutions, and cultures. Attitude is formed from the social interactions that are experienced by an individual. The social interactions that occur are an interplay between one individual and another.

The Model of Attitude according to Fiesbhein:

It is a form of attitude towards an object that is based on the belief (perception and knowledge) about the object? Belief is the change obtained from information process, which comes from direct observations on the objects and communication that is received from other sources. Thus, this model suggests that attitude towards a certain object, for example "Tourism Village", is based on the belief in the attributes of the related object with weighted evaluation on those attributes.

Systematically, attitude can be explained as in Figure 1.

Source: Loudon and Bitta, 1993.

Figure 1 - Framework of Attitude

Definitions. Definitions used in the writing of this research proposal in order to facilitate their understanding are as follows:

• People's attitude and behavior is a predisposition that can be studied about their consistency in liking or disliking the existence of "Tourism Village".

• Salient belief of the people is cognition related to one's expectation in utilizing tourism village that tends to result in effects including the consequences of efforts, cost, characteristics, and other attributes.

• Evaluation due to people's salient belief is one's evaluation on the attributes of the belief that he has in utilizing the tourism village.

• Osing Tourism Village is a rural area that offers a whole atmosphere that reflects the authenticity of a countryside, in terms of socioeconomic life, cultures, customs, architectures, and rural spatial structures as well as the uniqueness of the people.

The Forms of Attributes. The forms of attributes that can be used to develop tourism village consist of four basic attributes (Budi Susanto in Spillane, 1994.), which are:

• Beautiful Nature, i.e. including rural spatial structures.

• Rules of Conducts, i.e. in the forms of customs.

• Patterns of Behaviors, i.e. the daily activities of the people.

• Results of Behavior, i.e. including buildings, arts, and traditional games.

METHODS OF RESEARCH

Data Collection Methods. This study required two kinds of data, which are:

• Primary Data. According to Hasan (2002), primary data is data obtained or directly collected in the field by people who do the research or the related ones needing it. Primary data is obtained from the informants, i.e. individuals or persons such as the results of interview conducted by the researcher. This primary data includes the records of the results of interview, the results of field observation, and data about the correspondents.

• Secondary Data. According to Hasan (2002), secondary data is data obtained from literature review. This data can be in the forms of journals, literatures, and magazines related to this study. Literature data is obtained from theoretical basis data used to support the concepts in a study. Besides, the data is also obtained from the reports of related agencies.

Sampling Methods. A research requires a number of people for observations. Ideally, it comprises everyone or the whole members of a population. However, it is technically impossible to study every foreign member in the population because there many people or members so a sampling is needed. In this study, the researcher took 100 people as the correspondents. Meanwhile, the sampling method used is purposive sampling. Purposive sampling technique is usually used in qualitative research, i.e. it was determined by first selecting the units (for example individuals, groups of individuals, or institutions) based on the specific goals related to the answers of the research questions. Purposive sampling method is a sampling technique that involves the selection of certain units/problems (based on specific purposes) (Teddlie and Yu, 2007).

Meanwhile, the subjects or respondents selected in this study were the ones who have agreed with the establishment of tourism village and the ones who disagree with the establishment of tourism village in Kemiren Village, Glagah Subdistrict, Banyuwangi.

Data Analysis Methods. Determining the methods or the tools of analysis is the initial step that should be decided first before the analysis is done. The use of methods suitable for the subject matter and supported by the correct calculation will result in a proper conclusion. In analyzing this issue, four kinds of analysis tools will be used.

Item Analysis (also known as ANABUT) (Arikunto, 2006). The information obtained through questionnaires must be valid and reliable. Thus, before data are analyzed further, they need to be reviewed.

Validity Test (Validity). Validity is a measure of how closely a questionnaire takes measurement. The validity of the data collection instruments needs to be tested. In this study, the items of the questionnaires of each factor include: Belief, and Evaluation.

The technique used in this data analysis is product moment, which is by correlating each item to each respective factor with the total score. If the correlation value is positive and significant with a certain p-value, then the item is considered valid. The formula of product moment:

r = N.gxy)-(Ix-Iy)

Fxy N. 2 x2 - (£x)2 }{N. 2 y2 - (!y)2 }

Notes:

r„„ = Correlation coefficient between the item and the total;

xy '

Xy = The product of the value of an item and the total;

Y = The total score;

X = The item score;

Meanwhile, to avoid overestimate, the results of the correlation by product moment must be corrected using Part Whole formula as follows:

N. (rtp) - (SDy) - (SDX)

rbt _-2-

V(SDy) (SDX)2 - (rtp)(SDx)(SDy)

Notes:

rbt = Correlation coefficient after correction rtp = Correlation coefficient before correction SDy = Table Score Standard Deviation SDX = Item Standard Deviation

Reliability Test (Reliability). Reliability in principle shows the extent to which the measurement can provide results that are relatively not different if another measurement is applied again to the same subject, i.e. about constancy, steadiness, and stability in the changing states within the period of first observation, second, and so forth.

The technique used is the technique of analysis of variance with internal consistency approach developed by Hoyt. The formula is as follows:

_ Mke rtt _ Mks

Notes:

rtt = Reability Coefficient of Measurement Tools;

Mke = Mean squared error (mean squareof interactions between the subject and items); Mks = Mean square between subjects.

To accelerate the calculations of validity and reliability, SPSS Program was used. Fishbein Attitude Model (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1980). This attitude model is a form of attitude towards an object based on the belief (perception and knowledge) about that object. Belief is a change obtained from information process, resulting from direct observation on the object and communication received from other sources. The form of mathematical formulation of this model is as follows:

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n

Ab _ ^biei i=i

Notes :

Ab = People's attitude towards the tourism village;

bj = Power of important belief (Probability), subjective held by people towards Tourism Village; e; = Evaluation on the effects of I;

n = The number of important-belief of the people in regards to Tourism Village.

Chi-Square Test. It is a statistical technique that allows the researcher to assess the probability to obtain real differences (observation) with the frequency expected in certain category as a result of sampling error. Chi-Square can be used to make estimation as well as the completion of hypothesis (Hadi, 1988 ) Formula:

2 (fo-fh)2

Notes :

x2 = Chi-Square Value;

f0 = Frequency obtained from the observed samples;

fh = Frequency expected from the samples as the reflection expected in the population.

Contingency Coefficient (C). To determine the relationship of the greatest degree in the formation of people's attitude towards Tourism Village, statistical key of Contingency (C) will be used with the following formula:

Notes:

C = Contingency Coefficient; x2 = Chi-Square Coefficient; N = Number of Samples.

x2

C = VN + x2

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

The differences of people's attitudes in the two tourism villages. People's attitudes from the result of hypothesis can be verified, i.e. there are differences between the people's attitudes in the two tourism villages after the data of each respondent is known, which can be shown with the results of frequency data that indicates that the scores ranging between 26 -30 are obtained from 18 respondents in Kemiren Village and 13 respondents in Mangir Village. Similarly, the frequency scores of 31 - 35 were obtained from 13 respondents in Kemiren Village and 12 respondents in Mangir Village. The frequency scores of 36 - 40 were obtained from 13 respondents in Kemiren Village and 2 respondents in Mangir Village. Hence, the people's attitudes that are strongest towards the development of Cultural Tourism Village in Banyuwangi were found in the people of Kemiren Village.

Factors in the Development of Cultural Tourism Village. The factors considered in the development of cultural tourism village are such as: Beautiful Nature, People's Activities, Customs, Traditional Arts, Personal Experiences, Information and Cultures. The result of Chi-square calculation shows that the calculated x2 is 7.838, DF=6 Prob.=0.2502 with alpha (a) = 0.05. X2 table shows 12.592, which means that F-table > Calculated F. Thus, the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted and rejects null hypothesis (Ho). This hypothesis can help to prove that those factors can influence the people around the two villages on the development of Cultural Tourism Village (Osing) in Banyuwangi.

Analysis of the degree of relationship between the people's attitudes and the factors that influence people. Similarly, the relationship of the greatest degree between the people's attitudes in the two villages and the factors that influence people on the development of cultural tourism village in Banyuwangi can be verified by using Contingency Statistical Test (C), the results of which are: the greatest degree is 0.01833 or 1.8 %. This indicates that the correlation between attitude and the factors that affect the development of Cultural Tourism Village/Osing has the greatest degree as much as 1.83%.

Tourism Village that has the strongest correlation between the people's attitudes and the factors that affect the development of Cultural Tourism Village. The results of this study on the two villages between Mangir and Kemiren and the surrounding area shows that the strongest correlation between the attitudes and the factors affecting the development of Cultural Tourism Village/Osing is found in Kemiren Village. This appears on the differences of the attitudes of each respondent, seen from the frequency of the scores on attitudes towards the affecting factors such as: Beautiful Nature, People's Activities, customs, traditional arts, personal experiences, information as well as cultures. Kemiren Village is, in fact, the most desired for the development of Osing cultural tourism village in Banyuwangi Regency. This is further because Kemiren Village is associated with Mount Ijen Tourism, which allows it to be Natural Tourism Objects such as due to the Blue Fire, Sulfur, as well as jazz music performance in the night of full moon.

CONCLUSION

This study has discussed the analysis on the attitudes of the people in the two villages towards the development of the tourism village itself. Based on the findings in section 4, it can be concluded that the things that influence the attitudes of the people in the two villages towards the development of the tourism village are: Beautiful Nature, People's Activities, Customs, Traditional Arts, Personal Experiences, Information and Cultures.

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