Научная статья на тему 'Age morphology of immune structures of rabbit jejunum in the period of the early postnatal ontogenesis'

Age morphology of immune structures of rabbit jejunum in the period of the early postnatal ontogenesis Текст научной статьи по специальности «Биологические науки»

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European science review
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Jejunum / immune structures / age morphology

Аннотация научной статьи по биологическим наукам, автор научной работы — Oripov Firdavs

Based on general histological and histochemical methods of investigation we have studied the comparative morphology of immune structures of jejunum in young rabbits in the different periods of early postnatal ontogenesis. The study has determined presence of morphological and morphometric differences between them, although the general principles of their structure has been identical. The localization density of intra-tissue lymphocytes has demonstrated intensive increase until 20 days of postnatal ontogenesis.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Age morphology of immune structures of rabbit jejunum in the period of the early postnatal ontogenesis»

At the base of the villi in the submucosal basis, also there is a high density arrangement of interepithelial lymphocytes, unlike from parts of submucosal basis of crypts (figure 5). In rabbits of 20 days old, sharp increase in the amount of diffusely located lymphocytes has been observed. They are located in the lamina propria and in the submucosal basis of the jejunum. Intratissular lymphocytes was significantly more in the stroma of villi (12,3±0,16.), in contrast to the lamina propria of the region of crypts (7,06 ± 0,12).

The base of most of the villi because of the high density of intratissular lymphocytes consisting mainly of a large number of mature lymphocytes has dark basophilic coloration. These changes seem to be associated with a change in the rabbits' diet and participation villi in the digestion process.

In the epithelium of the mucous membrane of the jejunum rabbits of 20 days of age contain more intraepithelial lymphocytes. They are mainly found in the epithelium of the villi and are lo-

cated both above and on the level of mucosal epithelial nuclei. Intraepithelial lymphocytes mainly consist of mature lymphocytes with large basophilic colored nucleus of rounded shape. These data also indicate the active involvement of the villi epithelium than that of crypts in the digestion process of the food of a new character which differs in composition from the food of rabbits of 10 days old.

Conclusion. Studying the local immune apparatus jejunum of rabbits of 20 days of age of early postnatal ontogenesis, we can conclude that the immune structure of the jejunum of this age differ from previous ages, both in quantitative and qualitative terms, and they are more formed. This is apparently due to the transition of the rabbits of this age to the qualifiedly changed nature of the food (mixed feeding begins at this age). Thus, all structures of the neu-roimmuneendocrine regulatory apparatus ofjejunum of20 day-old rabbits are morphofunctionally formed.

References:

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2. Sverdlova A. V. Influence of prenatal ethanol chronic intoxication for the development of the rats' generation in the early periods of postnatal ontogenesis.//Fundamental investigations. - 2008. - No 1. - P. 148-150.

3. Smekalina O. S., Brukhin G. V. Morphofunctional characteristic of endocrine cells of mucous membrane of gastro-intestinal tract of generation of female rats with chronic experimental injures of the liver.//Bulletin of South-Ural State University. - 2010. - No 37. - P. 51-56.

4. Chumakov VYu., Pazuk P. V. Morphofunctional features of lymph flow of jejunum of dogs on the stages of postnatal ontogenesis.//Bul-letin of KrasSAU. - 2013. - No 6. - P. 105-107.

5. Yuldashev A.Yu., Rakhmatova N.Kh., Nishonov A. A., Nugmanova U. T., Yuldasheva Z. Z., Chinieva M. I. Space-timed organization of the proliferation processes and migration of lymphoid cells of lymph nodes of Peyer's gland of jejunum.//Journal of theoretical and clinical medicine. - 2015. - No 5. - P. 28-32.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20534/ESR-17-1.2-98-100

Oripov Firdavs, Samarkand State Medical Institute, PhD in medicine, department of histology, embryology and cytology E-mail: pbim.uz@gmail.com

Age morphology of immune structures of rabbit jejunum in the period of the early postnatal ontogenesis

Abstract: Based on general histological and histochemical methods of investigation we have studied the comparative morphology of immune structures of jejunum in young rabbits in the different periods of early postnatal ontogenesis. The study has determined presence of morphological and morphometric differences between them, although the general principles of their structure has been identical. The localization density of intra-tissue lymphocytes has demonstrated intensive increase until 20 days of postnatal ontogenesis.

Keywords: Jejunum, immune structures, age morphology.

Introduction. The functioning of the organs of digestive system after birth of the animals led to the some adaptation-morphologic changes of the immune structures, although the general appropriateness and principles of structural organizations were still without changes. In the realization of die immune reaction it is important to know the development lymphoid tissue in ontogenesis (Zavarin, 1985). There have some scientific works dedicated to the study of the immune structures of jejunum in the normal condition

(Novakovskaya, Archakova, and Gurin, 2004; Chava, 2004, 2008) and during the influence some factors (Azizova, Hasanov, and Tu-lemetov, 2004; Tuhtaev, Azizova, and Hasanov, 2004; Chava, 2006; and others). Although in die structure of the immune structures there have numerous parallelisms, perhaps in each class of vertebrates complication of this organization could be reached indepen-dendy (Gorishina and Chaga, 1990). Jejunum is the important part of the digestive tube where the final chemical processing of chime

Age morphology of immune structures of rabbit jejunum in the period of the early postnatal ontogenesis

and absorption of nutritious substances in the organisms occur. Perhaps the morphology of the structural reorganization of the immune structures of jejunum in mammals in the period of the early postnatal ontogenesis is a problem which has not studied yet. Determination of the structural features of morphology of the immune structures of jejunum in animals in the different periods of postnatal ontogenesis is the actual problem. Taking into account the above mentioned we studied morphology' of the local immune structures of the rabbits' jejunum in the different period of the early postnatal ontogenesis. Elucidation of this problem could have significant theoretical and applied importance in the basis of organ's immune status in these periods and in regulate of die- therapy in the different diseases of the jejunum.

Therefore, the study concerns age morphology of immune structures of rabbits' jejunum in the period of the early postnatal ontogenesis.

Materials and study methods. Materials for our investigations were the jejunum of the young rabbits of 1,10,20, and 30 days of age. Material was received just after slaughter of the animals under the etaminal- sodium narcosis. jejunum was gathered as roulette and in this shape it was fixated in 12% of neutral formalin. Histological processing of the materials and giving a wash of paraffin was performed according to generally accepted method. A series of paraffin cuts were painted by use of methods hematoxylin-eosin, Van-Gizon, Mellory and it was impregnirated by use of argentums nitrogen by Grimelius. During the use of the last method morphology oflymph nodes have the most clearly determined. Review and photocopies was performed by use of microscope Leica microsystems Wetzlar GmbH (Portugal).

The results of investigation. Immune structures of jejunum of the young rabbits are the most formulated. Basically, it is represented by the diffuse localized intra-tissue lymphocytes and its accumulation and formed nodes, and also by insignificant accumulation of these nodes which could rarely happen. The diffuse localized lymphocytes were settled submucosal basis and proper mucous plate. In the other layers they were determined in the composition of the connective tissue around blood vessels and in the composition of die stratum of connective tissue between the other tissue structures. The localization density of intratissue lymphocytes could have tendency to increase to the direction of lumen intestine. The most its density was noted around the crypts and in the composition of the intestine villas. Sometimes the separate lymphocytes we could determine in the composition epithelium of the mucous membrane. They usually hyper chromed and localized in the different distances from the basal membrane and sometimes in the nearest epithelium surface. In very seldom cases we could determine single lymphocytes and in die crypt lumen, around its epithelium. The single lymph nodules were localized mainly in the proper mucous plate. This part of the mucous membrane is stick out in the lumen of intestine. The outpouching form could be different depending on the form of lymph nodules, but most often it has domelike form. In all cases around protuberances it has deep grove surrounding outpouching which covered by intestine epithelium. The bottom of the grove could reach to the muscular plate. Sometimes from the bottom of the grove it was formed the crypts which can reach to the muscular plate. In rabbits of the 10 years old it was determined small accumulations of lymph nodules. These accumulations consisted' of a few lymph nodes. The most accumulations of die lymph-nodules by the size and by the amount it was determined in the wall of j ejunum near the ileum and the duodenum. Such accumulations in the wall of the middle part of the jejunum were rarely noted. In the location

of these accumulations it was absent the muscle plate of the mucous membrane and submucosal base of the intestine was combined with the proper mucous plate. Consequently the localization territory of these accumulations was captured the proper mucous plate and submucosal base of the jejunum. These accumulations consist of the near located nodules, between them it has a small distance littered with lymphocytes. Around every nodule it has an epithelial grove from the bottom from which it began intestinal crypts. The bottom of these crypts could reach muscular tunic of the intestine wall. It urns observed the cases when the crypts passed through the territory of die nodule. The amount of crypts around the nodules was different, and on the flatness cuts their cross-cuts surrounded the lymph nodule. The size and morphology of the lymph nodules was identical with the single localizing lymph nodules. They have good expressed germinative centers (20-30 days). We have determined special epithelial tubules which connected the intestine lumen -with single localizing lymph nodule or with the accumulations of them. In one case we could determine a longitudinal cut of this tubule for a significant distance. Epithelial channel differs from the cross-sectional cut of die intestine crypts by the relatively big diameter. The epithelium covering the channel differs from the crypts epithelium and fibers by the relatively lower height of epitheliocytes and the absence of goblet cells between them. The amount of epithelial tubules in the accumulations of lymph nodules was different. We have not determined the relationship between amount with accumulation size and the amount of nodules. Quite often near the single lymph nodule we could determine two epithelial tubules, sometimes among the big accumulations of nodules it w7as determined a single epithelial channel. Diameter of these epithelial tubules was also different and it was not depended on the conditions which was discussed the above. Tubule blindly begins from the" accumulation or from the single lymph nodule. In this place it is sharply enlarged and then it is narrowed like excretory ducts of glands and it is opened to the intestine cavity. We have determined that the character feature of the single localizing lymph nodules of the young rabbits' jejunum wall at 20 days of age was the presence of the deeper grove like epithelial bottom around the nodule. It is differentiated the lymph nodule which invaginated in the intestine cavity from the neighboring parts of the mucous membrane. The character feature of the lymph structures of the jejunum of 20 and 30 days of age is the appearing of the small accumulations of lymph nodules and epithelial tubules which ate connected these accumulations with the intestine cavity. Determination of the localization density of the diffuse localizing intra-tissue lymphocytes in the proper mucous plate of the jejunum in the ontogenesis have showed that in rabbits in the process of the early postnatal ontogenesis it has occurred the increase of the spreading density of the intra-tissue lymphocytes. In this case the most increase is occurred before 20 days. As you can see from the diagram before 20 days the increase of the localization density of the intra-tissue lymphocytes is significantly high from the moment of birth until 10 days in general in 32% in the contrast with newborns and until 20 days in general in 21% in the contrast with the rabbits at the 10 days of age. Beginning from the 20 days of age the increasing of localization density of the intra-tissue lymphocytes was less notable. This tendency was observed basically on the all structural components of the mucous membrane and submucous base of the rabbits' jejunum wall (fig. 1).

Titus, the immune structures of the jejunum wall in rabbits of the different period of the early postnatal ontogenesis were identical, they differed by the some morphological and morphometric parameters. In the latest periods it was determined the small accumulations

and deeper localized lymph nodules. They have special epithelial tubules connecting them with the jejunum lumen. In rabbits at the early periods ofpostnatal ontogenesis the immune structures of the jejunum was presented by the diffuse localized lymphocytes in the

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proper mucous plate and nodule like accumulations surrounding by the significantly deeper crypts. The localization density of the intra-tissue lymphocytes was intensively increased until 20 days of postnatal ontogenesis and then the increasing temp was less.

Figure 1. The spreading density of intra-tissue lymphocytes in the composition of the structural components of the rabbits' jejunum wall in the different ages.

Note: Row 1 - in the composition of submucosal membrane; Row 2 - in the composition of villas; Row 3 - in the composition of crypts. 1 - Newborns; 2 - Rabbits at the age of 10 days; 3 - Rabbits at the age of 20 days; 4 - Rabbits at the age of 30 days. Figures in the columns are the indexes

of the growing percentage in the comparison of the previous age.

References:

1. Azizova F., Hasanov B., Tulemetov S., 2004. «Morphological and morphometric features of the immune system of jejunum in the experimental salmonellesis in the carly postnatal ontogenesis», Problems of Biology and Medicine [Problemi biology i medicini], in Russian, - Vol. 38, - P. 14-16.

2. Chava S., «Morphofunctional characteristics of lymphoid structures in the wall of the small intestine», Morphology [Morfologija], in Russian, - 2004. - Vol. 126, - P. 91-93.

3. Chava S., «Some aspects of morphology of the aggregated glands of mouse in the experiment», Morphology (Morfologija], in Russian, - 2006. - Vol. 129, - P. 134-36.

4. Chava S., «Immune structures of the small intestines during the injection of the immunomodulator polyoxidone in the organism», «Some aspects of morphology of the aggregated glands of mouse in the experiment», Morphology [Morfologija], in Russian, - 2008. -Vol. 133, - P. 148-50.

5. Ivanova E. «Morphological investigation of the group of lymph nodules in the rats ofvistar line with the different behavioral activities in die acute stress intervention», Morphology, - 2000. - Vol. 135, - No.3, - P. 55-58.

6. Novakovskaya S., Archakova L., Gunn V., «Morphological bases of die relationships of the nerve, immune and endocrine systems in the small intestine», Morphology [Morfologija], in Russian, - 2004. - Vol. 126, - P. 91-96.

7. Tuhtaev K., Azizova F., Hasanov B., «Toxic intervention and structural-functional features of aggregated glands», Problems of Biology and Medicine [Problemi biologii i medicini], in Russian, - 2004. - Yol.38, - P. 107-108.

8. Zavarin A., - 1985. «The basis of the comparable histology», [Osnovi sravniteljnoy gistologii], in Russian, Leningrad.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20534/ESR-17-1.2-100-102

Pulatov Oybek Abdumutalovich, Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute, Researcher, the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Pediatric Dentistry

E-mail: dr.oybek@gmail.com

Morphology of neuroendocrineimmune system of jejunum in early postnatal ontogenesis

Abstract: In this study we compared research children's with developed educational preventative dental work prepared for use of fixed orthodontic appliances, aimed at improving the sanitary-hygienic knowledge of children, teachers and parents, to normalize the hygienic condition of the mouth and reduce the prevalence and the intensity of dental caries.

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